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O N T H E 

Hiftory and Evidences 





■ ■ y TV 

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O N T H E 

Hiftory and Evidences 



O F, 



Revifed and Corretfted by the Author. 

Blame »^ hefore ihou hafi examined the Truth \ 
underfiand firjt, and then rebuke. 

EccLus. xi. 7. 

Printed for R. Dodsley at Ta/Z/s Head in Pall-mall. 


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■■'■si ■ • _ 1 ■ 



HE following Obfervations 
took their Rife from a 
Pamphlet entitled, The 
RefurreEiion ^ Jesus con- 
fidered^ in Anfwer to the Trial of the 
JVitnejfes. By a Moral Philofopher, 
The Author of which, in order to over- 
turn the Teftimony of the EvangeHfts, 
hath attempted tofhe^v that theycontra- 
did: each other in the Accounts they have 
given of this Fad. To this Pamphlet 
there came out two very learned and 
ingenious Anfwers; which I read with 
A 3 great 


great Satisfadlion, as I found in them 
folid Confiatations of many Objedions 
againft Chriftianity ftarted in the firft. 
But I muft confcfs, (though with the 
utmoft Rcfped to the Knowledge and 
Abilities of the Authors of the twO' 
laft-mentioncd Pamphlets) that I waJH 
not fo fully fatisfied with their Manner 
of clearing the Sacred Writers from 
the Contradidlions charged upon them. 
This fet me upon reading and exa- 
mining witli Attention die Scriptu 
themfelves ; and with no other Bi 
than what arofe from the Aftoni 
ment I was under at finding Write: 
iwho for above thefe fLxteen hundri 
'Years have been reputed holy and i 
fpired, charged with fuch a Cont 
^cty in their Accounts, as ill agrei 
iwith cither of thofe Epithets, Of thi 
^Truth of this Charge therefore, I ac- 
j^ A know- 

^ledge I had great Difficulty to 
■iverfuade niyfelf. And indeed it was 
fkot long before I difcovered, as I ima- 
gined, the Vanity and Weaknefs of 
l«ch an Imputation ; which howeveri 
1 Cannot ftile altogether groundlefs, 
fined it ^has'*^ Appearance of being 
founded in the Words of the Gofpel ; 
though in reality^ that Foundation lies 
no deeper than the Outfide and Surface 
<rf the Words : Neither will I call it 
maikious, fince having upon farther 
B^nquiry found it to be of a very an- 
cient Date, I know not the firfl Au- 
thors of it, and confequently can form 
no Judgment of their Intentions. What 
I have to oflFer in Defence of the Evan* 
gclifts, is built in like manner upon 
the facred Text ; whofe true Meaning 
(which upon this Occalion I fearched 
for in vain in the Notes of manv emi- 



nent Commentators) I have endeavour^ 
cd to inveftigate and prove, by com- 
paring their feveral Accounts with each 
other, and noting the Agreement and 
Difagreement of the Circumftances. A 
Method that hath led me unavoidably 
into Critical Obfervations ; for the 
Length and Drynef& of which I fliould 
however think myfelf obliged to make 
fome Excufe, did I write only for 
Amufement, or expedb to be read by 
thofcj who feek in Books for nothing 
more folid than Entertainment. 

But altho' the clearing the Sacrel 
Writers from the Imputation of coi 
tradiding each other, was the princi 
pal, and indeed the fole Objetfl I had 
at firft in View ; yet having, in the 
Purfuit of this Objed, perceived thfc 
l/ight breaking in upon me ftill more 
'^" and 



id more the farther I advanced, and 
fcovering to me almoft at every Step 
)me new Circumftances, which tend- 
to illuftrate and confirm the Tefti- 
lony given by thofe infpired Hiftori- 
IS to the Refurredion oijefus Chrijl^ 
was induced, by thefe Difcoveries, to 
go very far beyond my firft Defign, 
into a Confideration of the Evidences 
of this great and important Article, 
not thofe only recorded in> the facred 
■P^ritings, but others ariflng from fub- 
fequent Events and Fadis 5 of which 
we have, by feveral Ways, many clear 
and imqueflionable Proofs* • The Me- 
thod in which I have proceeded in this 
Confideration, is as follows : I have 
, begun with laying down the Order ^ in 
which the feveral Incidents related by 
the Evangelifts^ appear to have hap- 
pened \ and in the next Place, I have 



made fbnic Obfervations upon the mc-^ 
thod and Manner, in which the Proofs 
of this aftoniihing Event were laid be- 
fore the Apoftles, who were appointed 
to bear Witnefs of it to all the World. 
And to thefe I have, in the third Place, 
added an exad: and rigorous Examina- 
tion of the Proofs themfelves ; from all 
which I have endeavoured to fhew, 
that the Refurre^ion of Chrifi was 
moft fairly and fully proved to the 
Apoftles and Difciples, thofe firft Con^ 
verts and Preachers of Chriftianity. 

> But as the Refurre^lion's havini 
been fully proved to theApoftles, tho' 
abfolutely neceilary, yet is not of itfelf 
/ufEcient to authorize at this Time, 
and eftablilli the Faith of a Chriftian, 
I imagined that what J had alread 
written, would be in^erfed at le 

INTRO DUCrii)N': xi 

not altogether ufekrs, toilefs I added 

>me Arguments and Rcafons I had to 

Per to induce us, who live at the Di- 

ftance of feventeen himdted Years froni 

le Date of that miraculous Event, to 

lievc that Chriji is rifen from the 

)ead. Thefe Reafons therefcn-e I have 

>ught proper to fubjoin under two 

Heads, viz. the Teftimony of the 

chofen Witneffes of the Refurre«9ioil 
I recorded in the Scriptures, and the 

Ejd/lence of the Chriftian Religion, h 

■ F ROM this Account of the Rife, 
Progrefs and Defign of the following 
Obfervations, the Reader will perceive 
that they were firft begun with the 
fingle View of obtaining Satisfedioii 
for myfelf upon fome Difficulties in the 
Evangelical Hiftory of the Refurredi-^ 
^^i and that they arc now publifhed 
♦ « with 


■ with the Hopes of their being as ufc- 
ful to others, as they have been to me. 
This is the chief, if not the fole End 
that a Lay-man can reafonably propofe 
to himfelf in pubHfhing any thing up- 
on a Subjed of this Nature : For I am 
not ignorant how little Reputation is 
to be gained by writing on the Side o^ 
Ghriftianity, which by many People^ 
is regarded as a fuperllitious Fable, noty 
Worth the Thoughts of a wife Man ;'- 
and conlidered by more as a meer Po- 
litical Scheme, calculated to ferve the 
Power and Intereft of the Clergy only;' 
How abfolutely groundlefs both thef^' 
Opinions are, will eafily appear to any 
one, who will take the Pains to exa-" 
mine fairly and impartially the Proofs 
and DoBrtnes of the Chriftian Religi- 
on ; Proofs eftabliihed upon Fa&s\ the 
fureft Foundations of Evidence ; and 



hEirines derived by hifpiration^ from 
le great Author of Reafon, and Fa- 
*rof all. Mankind. Whoever hath 
either negleded, or doth refufe to make 
this Examination, can have no Right 
pafs his Judgment upon Chrillianity, 
idfhould methijiks for the fame Rea- 
m be fomewhat cautious of cenfuring 
iofe, who acknowledge it to be of 
iivine Inftitution ; efpecially as he will 
find in the Lift of Chriftians, the great 
and venerable Names oiEacon^ Milton^ 
Boyle^ Locke and Newton \ Names to 

Ehofe Authority every thing fhould 
bmit but Truth, to whom they then*^ 
Ives thought it pot beneath theix fu- 
perior Talents to fubmit, though Ihe. 
mii^d them to believe in C4rj/?-o.iiifi 

If But ft may p|)flibJj:Mdcmande(J;^, 
.being aluay-many I prefume t<$'i 


intermeddle in a Province commonl] 
thought to belong pecuHarly to the 
Clergy ? To which I anfwer, that he- 
fides the Motives above fuggefted, this 
very Prejudice was a powerful Induce- 
ment to me to publilh the follo\ving 
Obfervations, and to prefix vay Name 
to them. The Clergy, I am fenfible, 
are both ready and able to maintain 
the Caufe of Chriftianity, as their many 
excellent Writings in Defence of it fuf-^ 
ficicntly dcmonftrate ; but as the Ge-- 
nendity of Mankind is more governed 
by Prejudice thanReafon, the Writings 
of the Clergy are i^ot fo imiverfally 
rc^d^ or fo candidly received as they 
deferve, becaufe they are fuppofed to 
proceed, not from Con^ience and Con- 
vidirion, but from interefied Views ani 
the common Caufe of th^ir Profeflion ;^| 
A SuppoCtion evi4eiitly as partial and 




Ljurious as that would be, which 

lliould impute the gallant Behaviour of 

our Officers to the mean Confiderations 

i theii Pajfy and the Hopes of Pre- 

ent, exclufive of all the nobler 

otives of Gentlemen, "viz. the Senfe 

Honour, and ihc Love of their 

lU^try. But tiiQ Clcjgy, I dare lajr^ 

ho, if tiere be any thing befides Prc- 

dice in th^ above-mentionjed Impu- 

tj^Uon upon ihem, have alone the Right 

to make this Demand, will readily ex-^ 

cufe my appearing in the Caufe of 

Chriftianity* And the Laity, I hope 

Hich of them at leaft as are Chriftian^ 

Riot in Name and ProfefTion only, will 

join with me in declaring againft the 

vain Prejudices of Unbelievers, that thS 

Chriftian Religion is of the utmoft Im-' 

portance to all Orders and Degrees of 

^en; and that the grcateft Service 




that the moft zealous Patriot can do 
his Country, is to promote the Faith, 
and thereby encourage the Pradice of 
the truly divine Virtues recommends 
by Chrifl and his Apoftles, 

For my own part, if any fincere 
Inquirer after Truth, any one honcft 
Man fhall receive the Icaft Benefit from 
the following Obfervations, I fhall 
think I have neither written nor lived 
in vain. 



Jefus loved, and faith unto them, 7hey have fakeff 
amay the Lord out of the^epulchrt, and we know 
not where thg have hud him, Peter therefore went 
forth, and that other t>ifciple, and came to the 
Sfpulchrt. So they ran both together, and the other 
Difcipk did out-run Peter, and came firft to the 
Sepulchre 'y and heflooping down, <?«</ looking in, 
faw the Unen Clothes lyir^, yet went he not in, 
'Thencometh Simon 'Ptxci folldwing him, and went 
into the Sepulchre^ andfeeth the Linen Clothes lie, 
end the Napkin that was about his Head, not lying 
with the Linen Clothes^ but wrapped together in a 
Tiactby itfelf. Then went in alfd thai otbiT Dif- 
cjple, which eamefirfi to the Sepulchre, and he faw 
and believed j for as yet they knew not the Scripture 
that be muft rife again from the Dead : Then the 
Vifcipies went away again linto their own Homes. 
But Mary Jiood without at the Sepulchre weeping ^ 
and as fhe wept, fite fiooped down, and looked 
into the Sepulchre, andfeeth two Angels in tVhite^ 
fittings the one at the Head, and the other at the 
Feet, where the Body of Jefus bad lain \ and they 
fay unto ber^ H^oman, why weepefi thou f She 
faith ttiHo them, Becaufe they have taken away tJiy 
Lord, and I. know not where they have laid him. 
And when fhe had thus faid, fie turned berfelf 


^dty and fiTO} ]c(u$ Jianding, and knew not thst 

[f/ "juas Jefus. }t^\i% faith unto her, TVoman^ why 

Uveepeji thou ? If'lmn feekefi thou ? She fuppoftng 

\i>im to he the Gardener^ faith unto him^ Sir, if 

\thou haft borne him hencpf tell me n'here then 

jbaft laid hintf and I will take him away. Jefus 

faith unto her^ Mary ! She turned herfelf, and 

[faith unto him, Rabboni I which is to fay, Alafier, 

j Jefus faith unto her. Touch me not^ for / am not 

fet afcended unto my Father : But go to my Bri- 

' thren^ and fay unto them, I afcend unto my Fa- 

' ther and your Father, and to my God and your 

Cod. Mary Magdalene came and told the Dif- 

eiples that fhe hadfeett the Lord, and that be bad 

\fpoken tbefe Things unto her. 

From this Paffagc of the Gofpcl of St, 
Jobni it is evident* ift, That Mar^ Magdalene 
[had not feen any Vifion of Angels, before flic 
to Ptter ; and confequenrly, that fhe was 
not of the Number of thofe Women, who 
went into the Sepulchre, and were there told 
by an Angel that Jefus was rifen ; Fot had flie, 
before (he went to Peter, feen any Angels, ihfc 
would certainly have added fo extraordinary a 
Circumftance to her Account ; and had flie 
B 2 been, 


been informed by an Angel l\\2ityefus was rifeif^ 
file could not have perfifted in lamenting ac 
not bcin^ able to find the Body \ nor have in* 
quired of him, whom flie took to be the Gar- 
dener» where he had put it, that fhe might 
cake it away« It is alfo farther obfervable, that 
when, after her Return to the Sepulchre with 
Peter and Jobu^ and their Departure from 
thence, fhe faw a Vifiort of Angels, flie was' 
Handing mtbout, at the Sepulchre, weeping } 
thatftoopiftg down, and looking (not go- 
ing) into the Sepulchre, ihe faw two Angels in 
White, fitting, the one at the Head, the other 
at the Feet, vjbere the Body of Jefus bad lain, 
who faid no more, to her than. Woman, why 
weepeft tbou f To which fhe anfwered. Be-- 
caufe they have . tahn away my Lord, and I 
know not iiheri.tb^ have laid him* From a}l 
which Circpmflances it appears, 2dly, That 
neither after her Return to the Sepulchre with 
Peter and John, was ihe with thofe Women 
who went. into the ^ Sepulchre, 6ff.;.that fhe 
had not heard any thing oiCbriJi's being rifen 
from the I?ead ; and that therefore thofe Wo» 
men, who w?rc told by an Angel that he was 
rifen, were not at the Sepulchre when fhe re- 

[ 5 1 

twraed thither with "PtW and John, And in- 
deed from the whole Tenor of the above-cited 
Paflage of St. J<?i&»*sGofpel, throughout which 
no mention is made of any other Woman 
befides Mary Magdalene^ it is more than pro- 
bable ihe was alone, when Ihe faw the Angels, 
and when Onifi appeared to her immediately 
after. That ihe was alone when Cbrifi appear- 
ed to her, is-pliainly implied in what St. Mark 
•fays, who tells us exprefly, that Chrifi appear- 
ed y?r^ X.0 Mary Magdalene, which, had (he been 
accompamed by the other Women, could not 
have been fpoken of her with any Propriety of- 
Speech. In the 3d Place, it is plain from the . 
above Relation, that the Angels were not al- 
ways vifible, but appeared and difappeared as 
they thought proper ; for John and Teter go- 
ing into the Sepulchre faw no Angels ; but 
Mary^ after their Departure, looking in, faw 
two, one fitting at the Head, and the other at 
the Feet, where the Body oHjejks had lain. 

§. 2. LUKE, Chap. xxiv. 13. 

. *^HE fame Day two of tbem [the Difciples] 

^^enS to a village calledRmmBMS^ which was from 

B 3 Jcrufalem' 

• phap. xvi. ver. 9. 


Jcrufalcm about tbreefcore Furlou^s^ and the^ 
ialked together of all tbefe 'Things that bad haft- 
fened, Jjtd it came to fafs that while they com- 
ptuned fogetber, and reafonedy Jefus bimfflf drevff 
pear, and went with them 5 hf their Eyes wer$ 
ffolden that they Jhould not know him. And be /aid 
unto tbmy What manner of Communications are 
tbefcy that ye have one to another, as ye walk and 
are fad? And one of them, whofe Name was Clep- 
pas, anfweriftgy faid upon him. Art thou only a 
Stranger in Jeruialem, and baft not known the 
"Things which are come topafs there in thefeDoys ? 
And he faid unto thetn. What Things ? And they 
faid unto him. Concerning Jc(us <?/Nazareth, which 
was a Prophet mighty in Deed and IFord before 
Cod, and all the People ; and how the Chief Priefit 
and our Rulers delivered him to be condemned to 
De^thy and have erucijied him. But we trufied thai 
4t had been He which Jhould have redeemed Ifrael : 
And befide all this, to-day is the third Bayfince. 
thefe Tbingt were done. Tea, and certain Women 
alfo of our Company made us afibnifhed, which 
were early at the Sepukhre-, and when they found 
not Us Body, they came, faying, that they had alfoi^ 
fien a Vifion of Angels^ which faid that he was 
aliv^: And (eriain of tkene v^bifb were with us^ 


^tfiKt to the Sepukbre^ and found it evenfo as tb^ 
iTomett bad /aid -, but bim tbiy faw not. 

The latter Part of this PajQage, which coo- 
^ns an Abridgment of a Report made by 
Tome Women to the Apoftles before thcfe two 
PiibipJes bad left Jeru/alem, fuggefts the fol- 
lowing ObTer^ations : ift» The Angels ieea by 
4thele WomQ} at d^e Sepulthre told them chat 
ygfits was alive, whence it follows, that thi) 
Report was not made by Mary Magdalene ^ for 
che Angels, which ihe faw, faid no fuch thing 
to her. 2dly« As there is ap Notice taken -of 
.any Appearance of our Saviour to thcfe Wo- 
men, k is al£9 evident> that this Report coiM 
not have been made by the other Maty and Sa^ 
iom, to whom, as they were going to tell the 
Difcipies the Me0age «kf the Angel which 
«hey hadfoen at the Sepulchre, Jefjis appeared, 
as I fball prefently fliew kom St Mattbew. 
3dly, There were therefore feveral Reports 
made at difcrent Times to the Apoftles, and 
by diJBFerent Women. At different Times ; for 
thctwoDifciples, who, before they left 7<t«- 
falem^ had heard the Report now under Confi- 
^ration, V had noi heard thofe of Mary Magda* 
B 4 lene^ 


letu, of the other Mary znd.Sahm^.-'-By diffe- 
rent Women •, for it having been juft now 
proved, th^t this Report could not belong to 
cither of the lafl:-mentioned Women, it niuft 
have been made by fome other -, and no other 
being named by any of the Evangelifts but 
yoanruii it came in all Likelihood from her, and 
thofe that attended her. 4thly, Some of the 
Difcipies, upon hearing this Ke]pft,vfetu P> the 
Sepulchre, and found it evenfo as the Women bad 
faid\ i. e. in the moft obvious Senfe of thelc 
Words. They faw the Body was gone, and 
they faw fome Angels. But I fhall not infift 
upon this Interpretation, but only obferye, that 
if Beter be fuppofed to have been one of thofe 
Difcipies, who* upon this Information of the 
Women, went ;o the Sepulchre, this muft haye 
been the fecond Time of his going diither. 
That Pe$er went a fecond Time to the Sepul- 
chre I Ihall (hew more at large, when I come 
to confider the former Part of this Chapter 
of St. Ijtkef 

These feveralConcIuHonfi being admitted, I 

think it will be no difficult Matter to defend the 

Evangelifts againft the Imputation of contra- 

. - difting 

dicing each other, in the Accounts they 
have given of what happened on the Day 
of the Refurreftion. For unlefs Authors, 
who relate difierent and independent Parts of 
the fame Hiftory, may, for that Reafon, be' 
faid to coiitradid each other, the Evange- 
lifts, I will be bold to fay, ftand as clear of 
that Charge, at leaft in that Part of their Writ* 
jngs which we are now examining, as any of. 
the moft accurate Hiftorians either ancient or 
modern i as I fhall now endeavour to prove, 
by conlidering and comparing the feveral Re- 
lations of this Day's Events in the Gofpels of 
St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St., 
yobn. That written by St. John I have al- 
ready produced, fo that there will be no Oc- 
cafign for iqferting it again in this Place -, thofe 
of St. Matthew and St. Mark I fiiall produce 
and examine together, for Reafons which will 
be evident hereafter, . ; ; -. 

§. 3. MATTH. Chap, xxviii. 
• iiV the End of the Sabbaib, as it began to 
dawn tmptards the firfi Day ef the JVeek, eantA 
Mary Magd^Jene, and the otker Mary, to fet 
^ke Sifjilcbre : And behold, there was a great 


[ 10] 

Earthquake ; ftr tbi Angel ef the ttri dafitnd- 
edfrom Heaven^ and came and relied haek $be 
Stenefrent the Dear, and fat upo» it : His Cwth 
tename was UkeUgbietmg, and bis Raiment 
white as Snow % and for fear of him the Keepers 
didfbake, and haame as dead Men, Md the Angel 
emfwered and fold unio the Women : Fear not ye i 
for 1 knew that ye feek Jefus, which was cruet-' 
fied: He is net here *, for he is rifen, as be fold i. 
come fee the Place where the Lard lay : Andga 
quickly and tiU his Difciples thai he is rifenfrem 
the Dead s and beheld^ he geetb before you inta 
Galilee» there fh all ye fee him: le, I have told 
yeu. And they departed fuickfy from the Sepul- 
ebre with Fear and great Jty^ and did run to 
bring bis Difciples Word. And as they went to tell 
bit Difciples, behold^ Jefus met them, f^Pfing, All 
Mlf And they came and held him by the Feet, and 
werfiapped him. Then fold Jefus unta them^ Ba 
not afraid : Go teU my Brethren that they ge inta 
Galilee, and there Jball they fee me. Now when 
thejf were going, behold, fame of the Watch came 
ieita the Oty, and fisemd unto the Chief Triefie 
ait the iTbings that were done. And when they 
*etr» affemblid with the Elders, and had taken 


Connfelt ibty gwe large Money unto the Soldiers^ 
/(tying, - Say ye, bis Difdples came by Nighty 
andftok him away while weflept. And if this 
eome to the Governor's Ears, we will perfuade 
him, and fecure you. So they took the Money^ 
and did as they were taught : And this Saying is 
commonly reported among the Jews until this 
Day, ^tben the eleven Difciples went away into 
Galilee, into a Mountain where Jefus had ap- 
feinied them. And when they faw him, they 
foorjbipped him : But fome doubted. , 

MARK, Chap. xvi. 
A'NH when the SaMtath was pafi, Mary 
Magdalene, and Mary the Mother of James, 
0)1^ Salome, had bought fweet Spices^ that they 
might come and anoint him ; and very early in th$ 
Momit^, the jlrft l3ay of the Week, they came 
unto the Sepulchre at the RiJng of the Sun. And 
they faid among themfehes. Who fhall roll ut 
away the Stone from the Door of the Sepulchre f 
And when they locked, they faw that the Stone 
was- rolled away, for it was very great. And 
entering into the Sepulchre, they faw a young Mate 
^tting ontbe right Side, eloathed in a long white 
Qarmenti and they were affrighted. And he faith 

2 unto 

[ 12 1 

unto them. Be not affrighted: Te ffek Jefus of 
Nazareth, vobicb was crucified : He is rifen, he 
is not here -• Behold the Place where they laid 
him. But go your Way^ tell his Difciples ■ and 
Peter, that he goeth before you into Galilee j 
there fhall ye fee him, as hefaid unto you. And 
they went out quickfy and fled from the Sepulchre j 
for they trembled and were amazed', neither faid 
they any thing to any Man \ for they were afraid^ 
Now when Jefus was rifen, early in thefirfi J^ 
of the fFeeky he appeared firft to Mary M^da- 
lene, but of whom be had caji feven Devils. And 
Jhe went and told them that bad been with bim^ 
as they mourned and wept. And they^ when they 
beard that he was aiive, and bad been feen of 
her, believed not. After that he appeared in 
another Form unto two of tbem^ as they walked 
end went into the Country. And they went and 
told it unto the Rejidue ; neither believed, they 
them. Afterward he appeared unto the Eleven^ 
as they fat at Meat, and upbraided them vHtb . 
Unbelief, and Hardnefs of Heart, becaufe they 
believed not them which had feen bim after bji 
wasrifeu, . . 


I s H A L L range the Obfervations I intend 
to make upon the feveral Particulars contain- 
ed in thefe two PaCfages, under thr^e Hea^s* 
id. Of fuch Circumftances as are related by 
one of thefe Evangelifts, but omitted by t^e 
other. The 2d, Of fuch as they both agree 
in. And the 3d, Of fuch as feem to clafh and 
difagree with each other. . ift. The feveral 
Particulars of the Earthquake, the Defcent of 
the Angel from Heaven, his rolling away the 
Stone from the Door of the Sepulchre, and 
fitting upon it, and the Terror of the Soldiers 
who guarded the Sepulchre, are related only 
by St. Matthew: As are likewife the Appear- 
ances of our Saviour to the Women, and to 
the Eleven Difciples in Galilee^ and the Flight 
of the Guards into the City, and all that pafied 
between them and the Chief Priefts upon that 
Occafion. On the other hand, St. Mark a- 
lone makes mention of the Women's having 
bought Spices, that they might come and 
anoint the Body of our Saviour j — of Salofm^^ 
.being one of thofc Women •, — of their entering 
into the Sepulchre, and feeing ther^ a young 
Man fitting on the right Side, cloathed in a 


t u J 

Jong white Garment ;— of the Appca/OTce of 
Cbrijtto Mary Magdalemi-^to the two Bifd- 
plcs who were going into the Country j — and 
laftly, to the Elcvtn as they fat at Meat. As 
not one of all thcfe Circumftances can be pror- 
td to contradiA or even diftgiw with any Far-* 
ticular^ which either of thefe Evangelifts iia* 
thought fit to mention, no Argument j^nft 
the Reality or Ctedibility of them can be drawn 
from their not haviiig been taken Notice of by 
both; imlefs it Can be made appear, that * 
Faft related by ofte Hiftoriant or 6ne Eld* 
dcnce, muft therefore be faife, becatilb k is 
pafled over in Silence by another. St: Mat- 
thew wrote his Gofpel firft, within a few 
Years after the Afcehfion of our Lord \ tK*' 
Gofpel St. Mark, who wrote his fomc fc# 
Yeart after, is faid to have* abridged i thtf^ 
this, I think, is- faid With irery little PropHfei' 
ly. Fof how can that Bdok be ftiled aA 
Abridgment, which contains many Particulanr 
not mentioned in the origitlal Author? That 
Saint Aforjt relates many Gifcumftancei not 
tJdteh noticeof bySt M<»/-&«fc', will eafily ap- 
ftear to any one,* who ihaH cake the Pains ttf 
cbfopait theni togtthcr rand of this, to go^' 
• -■* n» 

[ 15 ] 

10 farther, we have a plain Inftance In the 
Ltwo Paffages before us. 

St. Matthew wrote his Gofpel at the Re- 
peft of the Jewijh Converts, who having 
lived in that Country where the Scene of this 
great Hillory was laid, were doubtlefs ac- 
(juainted with many Particulars, which, for 
that Reafon, it was not nccelTary to mention. 
fThis will account for the Concifenefs, and 
^eming Defedivenefs of his Narrations in 
'many Places, as well as for his omitting fome 
-ircumftanccs which the other Evangellfts 
'thought proper to relate. St- Mark composed 
his for Chriflians of other Nations, who not 
^having the fame Opportunities of being in- 
formed, as their Brethren of JuLta^ ftood in 
fjced of fome Notes and Comments to enable 
them the better to underftand the Extraft,* 
rhich St. Mark chofe to give them out of the 
lofpel written by St. Matthew^ It was therc- 
>re neceflary for St. Mark to infcrt many Far- 
fciculars, which the Purpofe of St. Matthew in 
rriting his Gofpel did not lead him to take 
notice of. Allowingthefe Evangelifts to have 
had thefe two diftind "Views, let us fee how 



t i6 1 

tHey liave piirfued them in the Pafikges hcnr 
under Confidcration. . ' r 

. That the Difciples of Jejus came by Ni^ht 
and ftoleaway the Body while the Guards flepti 
was commprily reported among the Jewsy even 
fo long after the Afceftfion of our Lord as 
-when St. M(fttbew wrctte his Gofpc!, as him- 
fcif ♦ tells usi To furnifh the yewijb Converts 
with an Anfwet to this abfurd Story,- fo" irt^ 
duflrioufiy ptopagated among thcit unbeliev- 
ing Brethren, and fupported by t;he Authority 
of the Chief. Priefts and Elders, this Evange* 
lift relates at large the Hiftory of the guarding 
tlie Sepulchre, ^c, the Earthquake, the Det ' 
icent of the Angel, his Rolling away the 
Stone, and the Fright of the Soldiers at his 
Appearance, who fiook and became as dead 
Men, — ^And indeed, by comparing this Rela* 
tion with the Report given out by the Soldiers^ 
it -will eafily appear on which Side the Truth 
lay. For as there is nothing in the miracu- 
lous Refurredion of our Lord,, fo repugnant 
to Reafon and Probability, as that the Difciples 
ihould be able to roll away the Stone whicb 
^ clofed 

• jChaf x.\Tiii. ver, i \ 


C 17 ] 

lofed up the Mouth of the Sepulchre, and car- 
ofF the Body of Jefus^ unperceiv'd by the 
)ldiers, who were fee there on purpofe to 
lard againft fuch an Attempt ; fo it is alio 
ridcnt, that the Particulars of the Soldiers Rc- 
jort were founded upon the Circuni«l.inces of 
is Hift(yry. In thisKeportthree Things are af- 
frtcd, Z'iz. That'thcDitciples'ftole the Body — 
jat they dole it in the Night, — and that they 
tolcit while the Guards were aQeep. That Jefus 
cameoutofthe Sepulchre bcforetheRifing of the 
Sun» St. Matthew informs us, who fays that the 
Earthquake, iJc. happened at the Time when 
Alary Magdakm and the other Maty let out in 
order to take a View of the Sepulchre, which 
was juft as the Day began to break. This Fait 
was undoubtedly too notorious for the Chief 
Pricfts to venture at falfifying it, and was be- 
fides favourable to the two .other Articles,: 
This therefore they adniitted -, and taking cKc 
lilint kom what the Soldiers told them of their 
iving been caft into a Swoon or Trance f^ff(?w- 
ittg like dead Men) at the Appearance of the An - 
;el, and confequently not having feen our Savi- 
our come out of the Sepulchre, they forged the 
r-maining Parts of this Story, that his Dif- 
ctpies .camp and Jdole him away while they 
.: C llept. 

[ i8 ] 
flept. They took the Hint, I fay, of framing- 
thcfe two laft-metitioncd Articles from thatCir- 
cumftance related by St. Mdtibewy of the Keep' 
ersJJjaking and becoming like dead Men upon the 
Sight of the Angel 5 for throughout this whole 
Hiftory there was no other befides this, upon 
which they could prevaricate and difpute. The 
Stone was rolled away from the Sepulchre, 
and the Body was gone } this the Chief Pricfb 
were to account for, without allowing that 
Jefiu was rifen from the Dead. The Difbiples, 
they faid, ftole it away. What ! while the 
Guards were there ? Yes, the Guards were 
afleep. With this Anfwer they knew full well 
many would be fatisfied, without inquiring any 
farther into the Matter : but they could not 
expeft that every body would be fo content- 
ed i efpecially as they had Reafon to appre- 
hend, that although the Soldiers, who had 
taken their Money, might be faithful to them, 
keep their Secret, and atteft the Story they 
had framed for them, yet the Truth might 
come out, by means of thofe whom they 
had not bribed j for St. Matthew fays, f , that 
fome of the Watch went into the City, and 
Jhewed unto the Chief Priefts all the Things 
that were done. Some therefore remained be- 
•j- Chap. zxvUi. ver. 11. hind^ 

Jhind, who probably had no Share of the Md- 
-ney which the Chief Priefts gave to the Sol- 
diers : or if they had, in all likelihood it came 
too late-, they had already divulged ^he Truth, 
as well from an Eagernefs, which all Men natu- 
irally have, to tell a wonderful Story, as fronfi 
a Defire of juftifying themfelves for having 
quitted their Poft. The Chief Pricftg there- 
fore were to guard againft this Event ahb ^ in 
jorder to which nothing could be more cffeduaf, 
ihan to counter- work. the Evidence of one Part 
of the Soldiers, by putting into the Mouths 
-of others of them a Story, which, without 
diredly contradidting the Fads, might yet 
tend to overthrow the only Conclufion which 
the Difciples oijefus would endeavour to draw 
from them« and whiqh they were io much 
-concerned to difcredit-j wk. That Jefus was 
dfen from the Dead, For if the Difciples and 
Partizans of Jefus^ informed by one |*art of 
<he Soldiers of the fevcral Circumflances related 
in SuMaitheWt ftiould urge thefe miraculous 
Events as fo many Proofs ef the Refurredion 
of their Mafter^ the unbelieving Jm^J were, 
by the Teftiniiony of fhofe fuberned Witneffes* 
intruded to anfwer, that the Earthquake and 
C 2 the 

[ 20 ] 

die Angel were Illufions of Dreams j that 

the Soldiers had honcftly confcfs'd they were 
afleep, though fome of them, to fkrcen them- 
fclves from the Shame or PuniOinient fuch a 
Breach of Difcipline deferved, pretended they 
were frightened into a Swoon or Trance by an 
extraordinary Appearance, which they never 
faw, or fdw only in a Dream i— — that while 
they flept, the Difciples came and ftole the 
Body ; for none of the Soldicrsj not even 
thofe who faw the moft, pretend to have fecn 
Jefm come out of the Sepulchre j — they are all 
equally ignorant by what Means the Body 

was removed j when they awaked it was 

miffing 5 and it was much more likdy 

that the Difciples fliould have ftolen it away, 
than that an Impoflor fhould rife from the 
Dead. I fliall not go about to confute this 
Story i to unprejudiced and thinking People 
it carries it's own Confutation with it ; But I 
mull cbferve, that it is founded entirely upon 
the Circumftaiwe of the Soldiers not having 
fecn Je}Ui come out of the^pftlchre j a Cir- 
cumftancc, that even thofe, who told the roai 
Truth, could not contradict, tho* they account- 
ed for it in a different Manner^ by faying they 



C 21 ] 

jhtcned into a Swoon or Trance at the 
Sight of a terrible Apparition, that came and 
rolled away the Stone, and fat upon it. But 
this Fa«5t the Chief Priefts thought it not pru- 
dent to allow, as favouring too much the O- 
pinion of Cbriji*& being rifen from the Dead ; 
neither did they thing proper to rejed it en- 

Ltirely, becaufe they intended to turn it to their 
)wn Advantage -, and thereforei denying every 
ling that was miraculous, they conllnied this 
Swoon or Trance into a Sleep» and with « 
large Sum of Money and Promifes of Impu- 
nity, hired the Soldiers to confefs a Crime, 
and, by taking Shame to themfelves, to cover 
them from Confufion. And fo far, it muft be 
ficknowledged, they gained their Point : For, 
intil fome farther Proofs of the Refurrc^lion 
>f Jefus fhould be produced, of which at that 
'ime they had heard nothing more, this Story 
?ould undoubtedly have fervcd to putzlc the 
'aufc, and hold People in Sufpenfe. Argu- 
ment and Reafoli indeed were wholly on the 
>ther Side, but Prejudice and Authority wefe 
€Nk theirs j and they were not ignorant to 
which the Bulk of Mankind were moft dif- 
pofcd to fubmit. 

C 7 BtfT 

t« J 

. ffyr as no other than prefumptive Argu* 
HQcnts in favour of the Refurredion could be 
drawo from what happened to the Soldiers at the 
Sepulchre^ even tho' the Chief Pricfts had per- 
flitted them to tell the Truth *, St. MattbeWf. 
in his NaTration,. proaeeds to fecond and con- 
Erm.thoie Argumentr by- pofitive Evidence^ 
producing Witneifes . who had fcen and con- 
yerfed. with J*fus Chtiftr after he was rifen from 
^ePead : Of thefe, .as.may be gathered from^ 
ti»e other Gofpels, l^ie Number was very con- 
i|der^ie.j ^d very numerous were the In- 
ftances Q(Cirifl*3 appearing after his Refur- 
Bcftion :. Yet from the latter has St. Mattbewf 
feJetfted -only liwoj^ upon- each of which I beg, 
leave to make a few Remarks^ The firft Ap~ 
pearance of CbriJfJs. to the Women, whiclw 
happened*as they w«ot Co tell the Difciples tht^ 
Meflage Af the Aogd that had. j^apeared \&. 
them in the Sepulchre. 1 have already proved,: 
in my ObferVations^ upon St. Jobut that, Maty^ 
MagJaimma^noLone of thofe Women', and- 
yet the. Words ,ofSt,. Ma£tbewy by tlie cortM 
moo Rule of Gonflaruftion, feemf to import 
the contrary. For,, in the fir£t Place the Pn- 
' Kigraph . 


I 23 1 

ragraph (and the Angd anfwered and/aid to th^ 
Women) is, in our Tranflacion, conneded with 
the preceding by ^he Copulative And. 2dl7, 
As in the foregoing Fait of this Chapter no 
Mention is made of any other Women than 
i^^ Mc^daline and the other Maryy and no 
Hint given of any other Angel than that de* 
fcribed as defcending from Heaven, 6?^. the 
Words in this Paragraph (the Angela and the 
Wemen) mi^ft be taken to relate to them. 
To which I anfwer, ift, That this Paragraph 
}s not to be fo connedted with the preceding, 
as if nothing had intervened ; fince yre fhall 
Bud upon a clcifer Examination of ir, and 
comparing it with its Parallel in St. MarXiy that 
.between the Keepers becoming like dead Men, 
and. the Angels ipe^king to the Women, S»- 
hme had JQined.thfl two M^rids. in their Way 
to the SepulchrRj that, before they arrived 
there the Keepers "were fled, and the Angel 
was removed from, off the Stone,, and was 
ieatcd within the S^ulchre -, for which Rea- 
fon the Particle tTi,. inftead of being rendered 
by the Copulative j^wJ, Ihould rather be ex- 
prcffcd by the Disjunftivc J5«/, or Now, as 
«lenoti£ig an Internnption in the .Narration, 
\ C 4 and 


and the Beginning of a new Paragraph, sdlyi 
I* allow the Angel here fpok^n of to be the 
fame with that mentioned in the foregoing 
Vcrfcs, and the other Mary to be one of thofc 
Womervto whom this Angc! in the Sepulchre, 
and afterwards Chrijl himfelf appeared, and 
therefore admit the Words, the Angel and the 
JVometPint\{\^ Verfe relate to them- But this 
will not remove the Difficulty, and it will be 
faid, that either Mary Magdalene was with the 
other Alary in the Sepulchre, or there is an In- 
accuracy in the Expreflion j for the Words, 
IVomen, and fear not ye^ being plural, Imply 
there were more than one. I grant it, and Sa 
Mark informs us that Salome was there. — But 
tiien» inllead of one Inaccuracy to be charg'd 
upon- St Matthnv^ here arc two ; Mary Mag- 
dalenet who was not ptefent when the other 
Maty faw the Angel,, is, by the natural Con- 
ftruftion of his Words, fatd lo be there i and 
Salome, who was prefent, he takei no Notice of 
at alJ. — I allow it, and let thole wlio arc givcii. 
to objedl, make the moll of it : Biit let it v;*c 
the fame Time be remembered, ■'that the grcat- 
cll Part of the Evangelical Writers were illite-- 
r*OB Men, not filled ia the Ruks of Eiu^: 
-^t^r^ cjucncc^ 

1^5 1 

lerite, or Grammatical Niceties, againdt tfi<? 
^aws of which it is eafy to point out many 
Writings of moft of them. The 
; I purpofed to make fome Re- 
marks upon, affords another Inftance of the 
fame Kind i it is as follows : Then the Eleven 
')ifciples tvent aiaay into Galilee, into a I^Ifiun- 
Uin^ 'where Jefus had^. appointed tbetfty and 
then they faw him, they worjhiped him i ifut 
me doubted. Here the Words, fome doubted^ 
>y the firid Rules of Grammar, muft be un- 
lerftood of fome of the Eleven Difciplcs, who 
Immediately before are faid, when they faw 
^efus, to have worjhiped him ; which Hirely 
not very confident with their doiibting i nei- 
ler is it very probable that a Writer, however 
^literate, (hould mean to contradid himfelf 
the Compafs of three Words. Another In- 
:rpretation therefore, tho* it be not fo ftrift- 
agrecable to the Grammar Rules, is to be 
)ught after, fincc it is a lefe Crime to offend 
jainft Grammar than againft common Scnfe. 
7m€ doubted^ mwft mean fome bef:de$ the 
leven, who were prefent upon that Occafion, 
doubted. And indeed had St. Matthew^ in ihff 
fprmcr Part of this Narration, taken notice that 



ethers beiidet the Ekven were thefe, there 
would have been no Di^culty in underiland- 
uig» even according to the ftrideft Laws of 
the Syntax, to whom ^fome dwbted did be- 
long % 01 S'ff and ot Is fet in Oppofition to each 
ether, and fignifying fome and otbers, tbefe and 
tbofe^ are frequently to be met with in Greek 
Authors of the greateft Authority ; and no 
Reafon can be given, why, according to this 
Manner of fpeakiogj the h Jikiv<S>axa fia^meu 
'g:pwn%vynff»v aarr(f*^ct i's i^l^k-ffetv^ fliould inteiprete^ nam or tbm^ the. Eleven Dif-! 
ciples'— worlbiped him, but others doubted $ 
but that fome Words,- to which the fecgnd oi 
i^ (others) rcfer> are wanting. 

But thefc.JDtefefts, how grievous Ibever 
they may feem to Grammairians, or Cavillers, 
ilill more fcrupulous and moi^e pun^ilioui 
fhan , Qr^mmaciana themfelves,: will by no 
Ineans inspeachJthe Yeracity of this' Evange^ 
lift in the Opinion, of thofe; who in mBkkt^<A 
Jj£tdgtQent.of iii9fWntings, are willing «ecake 
into the AeaoXxM the Purppfe -he kud in com* 
pUingc hiS'G^el. He wrote, as I obfervod 
' • bcforei 

before, {ft the Requ^ of the Jtwipi ConTcrtS) 
who* as $(. Cbryfofiom iaibrQis us, ^ came t» 
1dm and befoughc him to kave in Writingr 
what they had heard from him by Word of 
Mouth. His View ia writing the Gofpti^ 
therefore ta the Jews^ was to lepeat what he 
had before preached to them ; ia doing of 
which it was aotjataU incumbent Upon him 
to relate everj;; miniiteCtrcumftahce» which he 
could not but know they wckt weil acquaint-^ 
cd withy and which the Mention of the prin> 
eipal Fad: could not fail to recall to their 
Memorks. Thus in thetwaPailageis above 
cited (to confine myfe^ to- them) it was not 
neceilary for him, wridng to the Je^i^ as ic 
was for St. Mark wiio- wrote for the Egyptian 
Converts f, to explain tlwJ Bi|finefs that carri- 
ed Mary Magiakm and the other Mw^ to the 
Sepuldire.- ' ic was <3()iibtllei^ knowil -aihong 
the ^-a^ that they • had t)0)aght Spiices, *nd 
went to>th6'-S^u}chre{n> order to embalm the 
'iki^Y'^^ 7^f*^ Neitfeer' was it worth whil^ 
^ the 'iake of a littk Grammatidal E^^t^sV 
to iihtefrupt thcr Courfc. of his Narratiob, to 
^quaSnt them ihsiVSdkme joined the cwo Ma- 

[ a8 ] 

tits as they were going to the Sepulchre, and 
went with them thither % and that Mary Mag- 
dalene upon feting the Stone rolled away, ran 
immediately to inform Peier and John of itj 
efpecially as he did not think proper to take 
notice of Chri/t's having appeared to her : And 
he fecms to me to have mentioned Chriji*s ap- 
pearing to the other Womcnj only becaufe it 
was connefted with the principal Faft, the 
Story of his appearing in Galiki to the Eleven 
Difciples and others. The Difciples going to 
meet their Mafter on a Mountain In Galilee, 
where he had appointed them, muft needs 
have made a great Noife among the Jews j efpe- 
cially as it did not fall out till above a Week 
at leafl: after the Rcfurredion ; during which 
Time he had appeared thrice to his Difciples, 
f not including his AppMrance to Peter^ to 
the two Difciples, and the Women. A nd as 
above twenty People were WitneiTes to one or 
other of thefe Appearances, the Fame of them ^ 
was in all Probability diffufed not only througli^ 
Jerufakfn, but throughout all Judea. It is no- 
wonder therefore, that upon this folemn Oc- 
cafion, which had been notified fo long be- 
t See John, Chap. xxii. vcr j;^, 

jrCy not only by an Angel at the Sepulclire^ 

id by Chriji himfelf on the Day of his Refur- 
tion, but foretold by him even before his 
Death i it is no wonder, I fay, that upon fo 

)lemn an Occafion a great Multitude bclides 

le Eleven, ihould be got together. St Paul 
mentions an Appearance of Cbrifi to abovp 
ive hundred Brethren at once, which cannot, 

nth fo good Reafon, be underftood of any 
Kher but this in Galilee. And tho* out of fo 

rge an AfTembly fome doubted, as St. Mat- 
thew fays, yet that very Exception implies, 

lat the grcateft Number believed •, and even 

lofe who doubted, muft have agreed in fomc 
Common Points with thofe who believed. They, 
well as the Eleven, faw Je/a s but not hav- 

ig had the fame fcnfible Evidences of the 

kCality of his Body, doubted whether it was 
limfelf or his Apparition which they beheld ; 

rhifc the latter, who needed no farther Con- 
riftion, when they faw him, fell down am! 

rorfhiped. Here then was a Faft, which 
bould not in all its Circumftances but be very 

jotorious to the JexvSy and was therefore high- 
ly proper to be mentioned by St, TdiiUbr^- 


f I Cor. chap. xv. 6. 

i: 30 ] 

Here was a Cloud of Witneffes, * the great* 
eft Part of whoip - were alive, when Sl Patd 
wrote his JBpiftlc; to the Corinthians f , uid 
thcrefoi^ were certainly living when St. Mgt-r 
tbew jrompofcd his Gofpel ; and many of 
them probably were (rfthe Number of thofc 
Converts, fot wl^m he wrotf* Upon any of 
thefe Suppofitions, aad^efpecially the laft, it 
is eafy to account for the concife Mariner, in 
which he has related this impottaiM: Event. Ic 
either was, or might eafily be known with all 
its Circumftanccs by thofe». to whom he ad> 
drelTed his Gofpel. The little attendant Cir- 

V cumfirances therefore it was as needless for him 

to mention, as it was proper to take notice of 
the Event itfelf. The Gofpel of Cbrtji and 
the Faith of Ckrijiiam are both vain, if Cbri^ 
be not ri(en from the Pead. It was therefore 
abfolutely neceflary for fhe Apoftlcs and 

y Preachers of the Gofpel to prove the Refur- 

redion ; this- tlicy did as well by their own 
Teftimony,. as by that of others, who had 


• Ibid. 

•f- St. Pants I ft Epift. to the Corintbieens was Wfittca 
A. D. 57. See Mr. Lock, ad locum. The Gofpel ac- 
cording o St, Matthew, about thjC Year 53. 

fcen Jefus after he was rifeit. Thus ♦ Sti 
Paul relates feveral Appearances of Cirifi to 
Cephas and others, and clofes all with Ivs owQ 
Evidence 5 adding, and laft of all be was feen 
«/ me alfo. The Evangelifls in like manner 
produce many Inftances of the like Nature. 
St. Mittbew fpeaks of two, St. Mark of three, 
St. LstMe of as^many, and St. Jsbn of four } 
OLcii of them felefting fuch as beft fpiced 
with the Purpofe they had in View when thtf 
wrote their Goipels. It is evident at leaft that 
St. Matthew did fo. For in what better Man* 
ncr could he prove to the Jewf the Refurrec- 
tion of Chrift, than by referring them to the 
Teftimony of fome Hundreds of their own 
Countrymen, who had all feen him after his 
Death, and were fo well cotnvincedof the Re- 
ality of his Refurre^tion, that they believed 
and embraced his Doftrine f This furely was 
fufHcient to convince thofe, who required a 
Number of Witneffes ; and was, among the 
Jews at leaft, the beft Anfwer to thofe, who 
on the Credit of a few Roman Soldiersi pret 
•tended that the Difciples had ftolen the Body. 
Upon this Faft therefore he feems to reft hii 

• Caufe, 
• 1 Cor. »'. 5—8. 

t 30 

Caiife, and with it clofcs his Gofpcl, adding 
t>n]y the Commifllon given by Cbriji to the 
Apoftks, and confequently to himfdf as one 
of them, to go and teach alt NationSy and his 
Promife of being with them al-uSays even unit 
the End of the ^ycrld. 

Thu^s, upon the Soppofition tliat St. Mat-' 
them wrote his Gofpel for the Jewijh Converts, 
which St. Chryfojiom pofitively aflerts, I have 
endeavoured to account for fome Dcfedls and 
Oniiffions obfervable in his Writings, as alfo 
for his having given us the Hiflory of the 
Guarding the Sepulchre, i^c. and of Chriji\ 
Hppearii^ to the Eleven Difcipjes in Gdilee^ 
of which -the other Evangelifts make no men- 
tion, I ilaall iiow-make^ few Remarks upoa 
the Particulars ^-elated ^y St. Marky and of 
which no Notice is taken by St. Matthew \ but 
that I may not wander too far from my Pur- 
{lofe, I (hall coafine thepi to £uQh ooly, as be- 
ionging to the EaAs lelatcid by the Utte;-, afld 
having been mentioned oiUy by the former, 
h^ve induced fome People to charge thefe two 
^yangelifts with contradiAing one another. 
'JTbc ^ircuniilances then tSiat I now inteod t(i 


f 33 ] 
tJOiifider, jtfc, ift> That of the Women's 
i>mMtg iKHtgbt SpkeSi that they might come and 
nnoint the Body of Jcfus -, idly, That of Sa* 
iome's beiitg one of thofc Women ; and 3dly, 
That of their entering into the Sepulchre, and 
feeing a ymjig Man fitting on the right Side cloth- 
ed in a long white Garment, and their being 
offrighteL I have already obfcrved, that St. 
Mark wrote his Gofpel for the Ufe of the 
Egyptian Cbrtftians ; fi>me fay the Roman, but 
whether Roman or Egyptian is not material to 
the prefent Queftion. It is certain they were 
CentUes, aiid Strangers to the Jewifi) Cuftoms 
and Religion^ as may be inferred from feve- 
ral little explanatoiy Notes dropt up and 
down in his Gofpel. In order therefore to 
give thefe Strangers a perfed IntJelligence of 
the FaA, he thought proper tb rdate, it was 
neceflary for him to begin his Account with 
that Circumftance of the Women's having 
ionght Spices, to anoint the Body of Jefus, that 
they might underftand what Bufinefs carried 
them fo early to the Sepulchre^ and fee, by 
the Preparations made by thofe Womdn for 
the embalming the Body of Jefus., and the 
little Credit given by the Apoftles to the Re- 
D ports 


ports of thofe, whohad feen ourlLord'onrftt* 
Day of the Rcfurreftion (which he mentionr: 
afterwards) that his Rifing from the Dead,- 
was an Event not in the lealt expected by any 
erf" therty and not= believed by the Apoftles cvca 
after fu£h Evidence, as Jefus upbraided them 
for not aiTciiting to ■, from all which it was-, 
natural for them to conclude, that this Fun- 
damental Article of their Faith was neither re- 
ceived nor preached but upon the fulleft Con- 
vidtion of its Truth. — Bot of this laft Point 
I ihall fpeak more largely/ hereafter. For his 
mentioning Sdomt^ (which was the fecond 
Thing propofed to. be confidered) no other 
Reafon-. can be given,, and no better I believe 
will be required, than that' flie was there : 
And as to the third Circumftance, viz. that of 
dieir entering into the Sepulchre., and feeing an 
Ange\ there fitting on the right Side, &c. I. 
ihall fhew under the fecond Head, which I 
come now to confider, that tho* St. Mark- 
, has been more particular in his Relation of. 
it, yet the principal Points are implied in the. 
Account given by St. Matthew. 

^ 4- 

C '35 ] 

IE 2d Head contains the Circum- 
ttances in which thcfe two Evangelifts agree : 
And they are thcfe : i ft. The Women^s going 
to the Sepulchre early in the Morning on the 
firft Day of the Week : 2dly, Their being told 
by an Angel that Chriji was rifen^ &*r. I have 
ftothing to add to the Remarks I have already 
made upon the firft ; but upon the fecond I 
muft obferve, that the feveral Particulars pu^ 
into the Mouth of this Angel at the Sepulchre 
by thefc two Evangelifts, are precifely the 
fame, except the Addition of Peter's Name^ 
inferted by St* Mari, doubttefs for feme 
particular Reafon, which it is no Wonder we 
Ihould not be able to difcovcr at this great 
Diftance of Time. This fingle Variation will 
nor, I prefume, be thought fufficicnt to over- 
turn the Conclufion I would draw from the 
exafl Agreement of all the other Particulars, 
that the Fa6l related by thefe two facred Wri- 
ters is the fame ; cfpecially if it be confidered, 
that the Circumftance of the Angel's being 
within the Sepulchre, cxpreQy mentioned by 

is fo far from being contradided 
Da by 

U6 1 

by St. Matiifew, as fome have imaginecly that 
h is plainly implied by thefe Words, He is 

not here, Ome {S'wttf which might more 

properly be tranflated eonu hither) fee the 
JFlser, where the Jjord lay : As is alfo that 
other Circumftance of the Women's entering 
into the Sepalchre, by the Greek Term IgeX- 
Bvffm, which ihooki have been rendered thejf 
^e»t euti inftead of« they departedt as it is 
ill the parallel Pafiagi6 in St. Mark. To which 
kt me farther add» that tiK Defcrtption of the 
Angel's Cloathing, which was a long titbits 
Garment* according to St. Markf correfpond^ 
with the only J^articulMr relating to it taken 
notice of by St. Matthew, which was, it» 
WhiteiKfs : /2tf RaimeiU was white at Snow* 
In the latter indeed this Angel is alfo painted 
with a Cetmtenanci Uke JJghtfdtigy and theHjep- 
ers are faid to hare trtmbledf &^. for fiear of 
him. The Purpofe of this Angel's defcend- 
ing from Heaven, feems to have been not 
only to roll away the Stone from the Mouth 
of the Sepulchre* th^ the Women who were 
on thrir Way thither might have free En- 
trance into it, but alio to fright away the 
Scddiers, who were fet to guard it i and who, 
2 ' had 

[ 37 1 
id they continued there, wd«ld certainly not 
javc permitted the Difciples of J?fui to have 
made the neccflary Inquiries for their Convidi- 
on, could it be fuppofcd that either they, or the 
'^omea would have attempted to enter into 
Sepulchre, while it was furrouiided by a 
loman Guafd. For this End it is not unrea- 
sonable to fuppofc he might Jiot only raile an 
irthquakc, hut alTume a Countenance of 
Terror, and aftv it was accompliibed put 
^■Dn the milder Appearance of a young Man^ Ift 
Hevvhich Form the Womc», as St. Mark fays, 

iw him Jifiing within the Sepulchre^ tn the 

right fide. This Suppofition, I fay, is nd- 

.^ler unreafouaWe oor prefumptuous. For, 

lltho' to argue fiiom the Event to the Defign 

V Intention may, in jvd^ing of human Af- 

lifs, be deceitful or precarious, yet in the 

iftions of God, the fupreme Difpofer of aH 

ivents, it is molt certain and conclufive. 

"hu5 in the prefent Cafe, the fudden Appear- 

;e of an Angel from Heaven, attended by 

Earthquake, * his removing by his fingle 

Jtrengdi a Stone, which (according to Beza*s 

D g Copy 

• Sec IfhiJloH on the Rcfuircflion, ^f. according ta 

' C 38] ^ 
Copy of St lMk/& Gofpel) twenty Men could 
hardly roll, his taking lus Station upon it, 
gnd from thence, with: a Countenance like 
Lightning, blazing and flafhing amid the 
Parknefs of the Night, were Circumftanccs fo 
full qf Terror and Am^ement, that they could 
, jiot fail of producing,, evoi in the Hearts, of 
^oman Soldiers, the . Conftemation . mention- 
icd by the Evangelift, and driving them from 
•: a PpjR:; which a Divinity (for fo according 
,,to their Way of thinking and fpeaking they 
muftih^ve ftiied the Angel) had now ukcn 
Poir^ffipn of. A Caufe fo fitted to produce 
fuch an Effedl, is an Argument of its being 
intended to. produce it % and the Intention be- 
ing anfwcrcd . by the Event, is a fufBcient 
Reafon fpr varying afterwards the Manner of 
proceeding. Accordingly the Angel, after 
he had removed the Stone, and frighted away 
the Keepers from the Sepulchre, quitted his 
Station on the Outfide, put off his Terrors, 
fjnd cnterhig' into the Sd|>ulchrc, fat there in 
the Form 6f a young Man^ to acquaint the 
Women that Jefus of Nazareth^ whom they 
fought in the Grave, was rifen from the Dead. 
Jhat the An^c} was, not feen by the Women 


I 39 1 
*iilfing on the Stone without the Sepukhre, 
'is evident not only from the Silenee of ail the 
•Evangclifts, with regard to fuch an Appear- 
:ance, but aifo from what has already iseen 
©bfervcd concerning Mary Magdalene^ who, 
■tho* Ihe faw the Stone rolled away from the 
Sepulchre, yet faw no Angel, as I (hewed 
above. Befides, had the Angel remained fit- 
ting on the Stone without the Sepulchre, 
with all his Terrors about him, he would in 
all Probability, by frightening away the Wo- 
men and Difciples, as well as the Soldiers, 
have prevented thofe Vifits to the Sepulchre, 
which he <:ame von purpofe to 'facilitate. It 
■was neceffkry therefore either that he fhould 
not appear at all to the Women, or that he 
ihould appear within the Sepulchre •, and in a 
Form, which altho' more than human, might 
■however not be fo terrible, as to deprive them 
of their Scnfcs, and render them incapable of 
■hearing, certainly of remembering that Mef- 
iage, which. he commanded them to deliver to 
the Difciples. From all which Confiderations 
4t may fairly be concluded, that the Appear- 
,ance of the Angel without the Sepulchre, -men- 
itiaaed by St. Matthew , was -to tfcc Keep ors 
P 4 only i 

[ 40 ] 
only I and that when he was feea by the Vi^ 
men, he was within the Sepulchre, as St. Mir| 
expredy ikys, and as the Words ^ve-ctted 
from St. Matthew ftrongly imply; fo tiiac 
thefc two Evangelifts agree in relating notonlf 
the Words fpoken by the Angel, but the prinr 
cipal, and as it were charadteriftical Circumv 
ftances of the Faft, which from this Agrecr 
ment I would infer to be one and the fame^ 
The like Agreement b alfo to be foyind i^ 
their Account of the Terror of the Women iip- 
on feeing the Angel, their fpcedy Flight from 
the Sepulchre, and the Difordqr ^d Confu? 
Aon whipb fo extraordinary an Event occafir 
oned in their Minds \ a confufed and troubled 
Mixture of Terror, Aftonilhment sfod Joy \ 
which, according to St. Mark^ was fo great 
as to prevent their teiling what had happened, 
to thofc they met upon the Way : So muft 
we underftand mtber faid they any tlnng ttt 
afty man. For it is not to be imagined that 
they never opened their lips ^ut it. Their 
Silence doubilcfe ended with the Caufe of it, 
viz. their Terror and Amazement, and thefe 
in all Probability vani&ed upon their feeing 
Chrift hiififelf, who, as St. Matthew hath in- 


[41 ) 

foFined us, met thezn, as. tbty were pung m 
feS the Dija^^ the Mefiagc of the AngeU 
aocofted them with aa M bail, aqd bade 
ihcm difmife their Fears. But of this more 

f. 5. 1 coMi^ now under the 3d Head to con* 
lider thofr Bartkulars, in which thcfe two Evan- 
^eJffts lire thought taclsSk and difagree with 
fxk oclicr. But fo many of thefe have beea 
iUready o^itoiined, and, as I hope, reconcil- 
ed, uiidcr the two preceding Divifions, that 
Inhere renaias to be di£cufled in this but one 
/ingle pQmt, vifwg from the feeming diffe* 
tent Ai£Y»untt of the Time yfhen the Womca 
came ta. tht S^ulchre. St. Ma$thew fays, 
^hax^dmy Mttgdakne and the other .^Wi»7 came 
40 fie the Sepidcbre, as it began to dawn-, St. 
Mark, Tbey came unto tbe Sepakbre at the rijing 
gf tbe Stttt. To wiiich I muft add St, Jobn^ 
who fpeaktog of the fame Perfons, and the 
fame Faft, lays, they came wben it was ye$ 
^ark. The trxttrloti ht affsj^ of the latter, and 
the Til hrtpuffxtiffvi of &. Mattbew, that figni- 
fying it being yet dark, and this, the Day be- 
pnning ;|o dawn, will, I believe, without 


C 40 
my DifHcuky be allowed to denote the lame 
^oint of Time, via:, the Ending of the Night, 
and the Beginning of the Day s : the oa\f 
Queftion therefoR is, how this can be feauu 
ciled with the Time mentioned by St. A£«nl:, 
namely, the Rifing of the Sun, But this Quef- 
tion, -how perplexing foever it may appear at 
firft fight, ts eafily refolded, only by fuppo- 
ling that St. Matthew, and with him St. Jobih 
ipeaks of the Women's fetring out, and St. , 
Mark of thek An-ival at the Sepulchre. And 
indeed the Order of St. A^//i>AO*s Natration 
tequires that his Wcvds ihould be uaderftood 
to Hgnify the Time of their fettang outs 
o^erwife, all that isolated of the Earthqu^e, 
<he Defcent of the Angel, •^. taaSt be 
thrown into a Parenthefis, which very much 
diHurbs the Series of the Story, and intro- 
duces much greater HarfhnciTes into the Con- 
il;ru^ion, than any avoided hy it. Nay, for 
my own Part, I^onfefs I can fee noHarfhnefs 
in the Inteipretation now contended for. The 
^rwyfc Word rixAs in St. Matthew, might ac 
-well have been t«inflated went as^tfffir^, thie 
Verb ^^9fjieti fignifying both to go and to 
Mm, and confequently being capable of e^- 


ther 5enfp» according :as theiColLCexe Ihall kt 
quire. That, in: St. Matthew, as I faid tse- 
fore, requires ys to take the Word ^Afla in 
the former, for the Sake of Order, and for 
-another Reafon, which I ihall now, explain. 
The principal Faft, upon the Account, of 
which the whole Story of the Women's going 
to the Sepulchre fcems to have been rela^ 
fd, is the Refurre^^ion of Ci>rift^ and: this 
Fadt is abfolutely without a Date, if the 
Words of St, Mflttbev) are to be underftood 
to denote the Time of the Women's Arrival 
at the Sepulchise., When I fay without a 
Date, 1 mean, that it does not appear from 
soiY thing in St. Matthew or tht other Evan- 
g^ifts, what. Hour of that Night -this great, 
Event happened. All the Information, thay 
give us iSi, that when the Women came to 
the SepulchnCa . th«y: were- told by Angels he 
was^rifcn: But 6n the contrary, by under- 
ftanding St. Matthew to fpeak of the Time 
of Mary Magdalene* s fettitig Mtf to take a View 
of the Sepulchre^ we have thel Date of the 
Refurredion feitfed, and know precifely that 
Cbrift rofe from the Dfead bdCw^en thft Dawn- 
ing pf the pay and the Sutf-rifrng. And cap ' 


[ 44 ] 

any fubftantial Reafon be afTigned why St 
Mattbewy having thought fit to enter into fo 
circumftantial an Account of the Refurreftion, 
fhould omit the Date of fo important a Fa6l ? 
or that, not intending to mark it, by menti- 
oning the Time of the Women's going to 
the Sepulchre, he ihould place that Fa<5l be- 
fore another, which in Order of Time was 
prior to it ? All thefe Confideradons there- 
fore are, in my Opinion, powerful Argu» 
ments for underftanding this Paflagc of St, 
Matthew in the Senfe above expreft. About 
St. Mark*s Meaning there is no Difpute. He 
certainly intended to exprefs the Time of the 
Women's Arrival at the Sepulchre j his 
Words cannot be taken in any other Senfe. 
Thofe of St. y^bn are limited to the fame In- 
terpretation with thofe of St. Mattbewy i|^ 
having been allowed before that they botk 
fpeak of the fame Point of Time. 

Before I quit the Examination of thefe 
Evangelifts I beg leave to add a few Re- 
marks, on occafion of a Word made ufe of 
in this Place both by Mark and Jdm^ the exi- 
plaining of which will fet in a proper Light 


t 45 1 
Paflages, that have not hitherto bcca 
brought fufficiently in View. The Word I 
mean is t^w;, which, having by our Tranf- 
lators been rendered by the Englijh Word 
earVft hath been limited to that Senfe only j 
and yet it has a farther Signification, and im- 
ports not * mature only, but premature y ante 
■ €onJiitutum tempus j not only early ^ but over- 
turbfy before the appointed time \ and in this 5>enfc 
I am perfuaded it was here ufed by the Evan- 
, gelifts. For had they intended to denote only 
leTimc of the Women's fetting out, and ar- 
[riving at the Sepulchre, the defcriptivc Phrafes 
f «?-&;/? /■/ was yet darky and at the rijtng of the Sun 
rould have been fufficient, and the more gene- 
Word early abfolutely redundant •, whereas 
'in the other Scnfc it is very fignificant, ami 
[greatly tends to illuftrate and confirm what I 
lopc more fully to make appear by compar- 
ing the fcveral Parts of this Hiftory together, 
that the Women came at different Times to 
^the Sepulchre, and not all at once, as has been 
Himagined. The Bufuiefs that carried them all 
B^Wther was to pay their laft Refpefts to their 
dcccafed Mafic r, by cm ball 

[46 ] 

Which End they had bought and prepared 
Unguents and Spices, but were obliged to 
defer their pious Work by the coming on of 
the Sabbath, upon wWch Day they rejiedy fays 
St. Luks, according to the Commandment. On 
the Eve of the Sabbath therefore, when they 
parted, and each retired to their feveral Ha- 
bitations, it is moft natural to fuppofe that 
they agreed to meet upon a Certain Hour at 
the Sepulchre •, and as the Errand upon which 
they were employed required Day-light, the 
Hour agreed on in ail Probability was foon 
after the Rifing of the Sun ; their Apprehen- 
fion of the Jews, as well as their Zeal to their 
Mafter prompting them to take the earlieft 
Opportunity. But Miiry Magdekne^ it feems^ 
■whether from a natural Eagernefs of Temper, 
or a more ardent Affcftion for her Lord, t 
whom Ihe had the great eft Obhgations, or 
from a higher Caufe, fet out together with 
the other Mary^ jiift as the Day began to 
break, in order ii> tnh a Virjj of the Sepul- 
chre V and having cither called upon Salome, 
or joined her in the Way, came thither to. 
gether with her, tt^w'", earh\ lefore the 'Time 
This, in my Opinionj is a very 


fi^reed on. 

3 ■ 


r 47 ] 

flfltoral Account of the whole Matter, and 
potots out the Importance of thefe remark- 
aWc Expreflions, went to fee the Sepukbre^ 
ih St. Matthew, and who Jhall roll away tb* 
Stone far tts, in St. Mark. For i ft, the Rea- 
fon of thefe two Maries fetting out fo earl/ is- 
hare affigoed : They went to take a View of the 
Sepulchre, ue. in general^ toiee if all Things, 
were in the fame Condition^ ia which they 
had left them two Days befove, that if. i» 
that Interval any thing extraordinary had hap- 
pened, they might report it to their Compa- 
nions* and in Conjunction with them take 
their Meafures accordingly. Hence is it alfo^ 
evident in the fccond Place, why they were 
ib few in Number ; they came to view the 
Sepulchre, and came before the Time appoint- 
ed for dieir Meeting. 2dly,' As upon the 
prefent Suppofition thefe were but three Wo- 
men, who came firft to the Sepulchre, theitr 
Defign in coming fo early could be no other 
than that exprefled by St. Matthew •» for they 
knew that they themfelves were not able to 
»oll away- the Stone, which two of them at: 
lead Cthc xstQ Maries) had fecr^placcd there bj 


yiffipy oiArmafbeafi and which they kik# 
couki not be ronoved without a great Num» 
ber of Hands. Accordingly) at tbe^ drew 
near they /aid amaiig tbemfelves^ H^h§ fitaU roH 
aivay the Stene for us from the Door cfthe Se- 
pulchre? Thefe Words intimate^ . that one of 
their chief Views in coming to fee the SeQiol-' 
chre was to furvey thisStone» 'vrfiich dofed 
up the Entrance into it) and to confider-whe^ 
ther thcf and the other Women^ who! were 
to meet them therC) were by thectifetvcft able 
to remove it } or whether they muft have Re- 
courfe to the Affiftancc of others. For, /iPit 
fitall rail away the Stone for us ? implies a Senfe 
of their own Inability) and of the Neceffity 
of calling in others i after which the only 
Thing to be confidered was whom and how 
many? This therefore was the Point under 
Deliberation when they approached the Se- 
puichre. 2dly, It is alfo plain from thefe 
Words, that they did not expcd to find any 
body there, and confequentiy that they knew 
nothing of the Guard, which the High Plricft 
had fet to watch the Sepulchre •, of which had 
they received any Intelligence, they would 

+ Mark xr. 47. 

[ 49 1 

hardJy ventured to come at al!, or Would 
not have deliberated about rolling away the 
Stone j as the only or greateft Difficulty. 

H §. 6. St L U K E, Chap. xxiv. 
^ NOW upon the Jirji Day of the fVeeky very 
early in the Morning, they came unto the Sepul- 
fhre, bringing the Spices which they bad prepared, 
yd certain others with them : And tley found 
be Stone roiled away from the Sepulchre. And 
hey entered in, and found not the Body of the 
..ord Jefus. And it camr to pafs as they were 
^mucb perplexed thereabout, behold two Menfiood 
by them in fbining Garments \ and as they were 
afraid, and bowed down their Faces to the 
Earth, they /aid unto them. Why feek ye the Liv- 
ing among the Dead ? he is not here^ but is rifen. 
Remember how he fpake unto you, when he was 
fet in Galilee, faying, 'The Son of Man mufi be 
tlivered into the Hands of Jtnful Men, and he 
rucifed, and the third D^ rife again. And 
'ley remembered bis TVords^ and returned from 
he Sepulchre, and told all tbefe things unto the 
Ucven, and to all the refl. It was Mary Mag- 
dalene, and Joanna, and Mary the Mother of 
James, and other Women that were with them, 
F* which 

[ 50 1 
which told thefe Things unto the ApofiUi. Aid 
their Words feemed to them as idle Tales^ and 
they believed them not. Then arofe Peter and 
ran unto the Sepulchre^ and ftooping down he be- 
held the Linen Clothes laid by them/elves, and de- 
parted, wondering in himfelf at that which was 
come to pafs. 

In this Relation of St. Ijik^^ are many Par- 
ticulars that difFer greatly from thofe menti- 
oned by the other Evangclifts. For ift, TTie 
Women entering into the Sepulchre fee nei- 
ther Angel nor Angels } And 2dly, Not find- 
ing the Body of the Lord Jefus, they fall in- 
to great Perplexity. 3dly, In the midftof 
this Perplexity there fiood by them two^ Men 
in finning Garments-, Who, 4thly, Say to \ 
them Words very different from thofe fpokcn 
by the Angel in St. Matthew and St. Mark: '• 
fthly. When thofe Women return from the 
Sepulchre, and tell all thefe Things unto the 
Eleven and all the reft, St. Peter is made to 
be prefent, and upon their Report to riftf . 
immediately and run to the Sepulchre,. £sf^. 
Thefe Marks of Difference, one would ima- 
gine, were fufficient to keep any one from con- 

jundlng the Stories above- cited of Joama 
id St. PiteTi with thofe concerning the Ma- 
(s and that Difciple related in ttie other 
fofpels -, efpecially as they have been obferv- 
and acknowledged as well by the Chriftian 
the Infidel ; the latter of whom hath pro- 
luced Lliem to fupport the Charge of Incon- 
fiftency and Contradi<ftion» which he hath en- 
deavoured to fix upon the facred Writers j 
while the former, feduced and dazlcd by 
fome few Points of Referablance, hath agreed 
with hinnt in allowing thefe dilFerent Fads to 
be the fame ; but denying his Conclufion, 
hath laboured to reconcile the Inconfiftencies, 
by RuJes and Metiiods of Interpretation, 
which, as they are ftrained and unnatural, 
tend only to difcover the Greatnefs of hisEm- 
barraiTment. Whereas the true Way, in my 
Opinion, of anfwering this Charge, is to fhew 
' that it . is founded upon a Miftake, by Hiew- 
ing tliat the Evangelifts relate diiFerent, but 
not inconfiftent Faifts -, and that inftead of 
clafhing and difagreeing, they mutually con- 
firm, illuftrate and fupport each other's Evi- 
dence. This therefore I Ihall now endeavour 
to do, by making a few Remarks ijpon the fe- 
E 2 veral 

[ 52- T 
veral Articles above-mentioned. I fliall be- 
gin with that relating to St. Piter, becaufe 
the fettling of that will fettle many other 
Points. Then arofe Peter, and ran unto the 
Sepulchre t and ftooping down be beheld the li- 
nen Clothes laid by themfelves, and departed, 
wondering in himfelf at that which was come to 
pafs. This Faft has always been taken to be 
the fame with that related by St. John, from 
which however it differs, among other things, 
in this very material Circumffance, viz. That 
whereas St. John exprefly fays, that Peter went 
into the Sepulchrey while he [yohn\ who got thi- 
ther firff, contented hfmfelf with barely-^oe^- 
ing down, and looking into it, St. Luke, in the 
Paffagc before us, telb us, that PHtrfiooping 
down, and hokir^ in beheld the Lihen Clothes 
faid by themfelves, and departed. " Thfe Word 
'jTx^ay.uiug (ftooping doWn and ihoh^' in) 
ufed by both Evangelifts, and in the litter 
applied only tp St. Peter, in the former 6.t- 
ly to St. John, is in his Gofpel plainly dif- 
tinguiflied from the Word ila^X^iv (entered 
in) and fet in direft Oppofition to It; 'and 
that not by the Force of Etymology ind 
Conftruftron only, but by fome Particulan 


■[ 53 -] 

•refultlng from the Aflions fignified by thofe 
.two Words, which prove them to be diftindt 
P^nd different from each other. He who went 
into the Sqjulchre, faw more than he, who 
laying without^ only Jlooped down and looked 
in. Thus Peter and John^ when they enter- 
ed into tlie Sepulchre, faw not only the Li- 
.jnen Clothes lie, hut the Napkin that was 
about his Head, not lying with the Linen 
[clothes, but wrapped together in a Place by 
atfeir : but when they only ftooped doim and 
Jooked ;'«, they could fee only the Linen Clothes, 
I .as is evident from the Words of St. John -, 

the whole Paflage runs thus : Peter tbo'e- 

^/ore went f crib, and that other Difdple, and 
came to the Sepulchre, and the other Bifciple did 
out-run Peter, and came firji ta the S^ukhre, 
and he (looping down, and looking in, faw the 
[. Linen Clothes lying, yet went he not in. 
S'hen comcth Siinon Ftter follcmng him, and 
went into the Sepulchre, and feeth the Linen 
Clothes lie, and the Napkin, that was about 
his Head, not lying with the Linen Clothes* 
but wrapped together in a Place by itfelf. 

Then went in alfo that other Difciple 

and faw, ^c. Now thefe two Adions be- 
E ^ ing 

[ 54 ] 

t!ng by thcfe Marks as clearly dillinguifhed 
from each other in St. John^ as the different 
'Places where they were performed can be 
by the Terms Entrance and Injide of the Se- 
puWire, and as fo diftinguifhed having been 
feparately performed by that Apoftle, they 
mufb alfo neceffiirily be taken for feparate and 
•diftind: Anions, when related of St. Peter, 
'And if it be reafonable to conclude from St. 
John's Account that Peter^ when he came 
'•With him to the Sepulchre, did not flop at 
the Entrance, J^oop down and look in, but that 
he entered into it j it is no lefs reafonable to 
conclude from St. Luke*& Narration » that 
when he came, at the Time mentioned bi 
him, he did not enter in, hut Jiooping downy 
hcM the Linen Clothes and departed, efpec 
ally if the Force of the Greek Word ^cva be 
ccnfidered, and the whole Paflage rendere{||B 
as it ought to have been, hbeld the Lineh 
Clothes only lying, ra c^ci'tee x€i/x£va. fiovcc. 
From all which it evidently follows, that 
the Faft here related of St. Peter y and that 
related of him by St. yobn, are feparate and 
and not one and the fame, fts 


diftinft Fa(fts 

has been imagined. 

And as the Fafts wei 


different, Co did they take their Rile from 
two different Occafions, or in other Words, 
as it is evident from all that has been juft 
now faid, that Peter went twice to the Sepul- 
chre, fo there are two diftin«5l Reafons for his 
fo doing alTigned in the Gofpels of Luke and 
y&jba, viz. the Report of Mary Alagdaleney 
and that of Joanna and the other Women. 
By the former having been told that the Body 
of Je/us was taken out of the Sepulchre, he 
ran in great Hade to examine into the Truth 
of that Account, and in purfuancc of this In- 
tent entered into the Sepulchre, that he might 
'receive a thorough Satisfaftion upon that 
Point. In the latter were two additional Cir- 
rumftanccs of Importance fufficicnt to awaken 
^the Curiofity of a lefs zealous Difciple tharj 
>t. Peter, whole Affection for his Lord was 
like his natural Temper, fervent and impe- 
tuous. When he heard therefore from Jo- 
y^tinna and the other Women of a Vifion of 
l>\ngels, who had appeared to them at the Sc- 
jpulchre, and informed them that Cbriji- was 
rifcn, can we wonder at his running thither a 
fec^itd Time, in Hopes of receiving fome Con- 
E 4 firmation 


r 5^ 

firmation of the Truth of that Report, which 
tho' treated by the reft of the Apoftlcs as an 
idle Tale, he certainly gave Credit to, as the 
whole Tenor of this PalTage implies ? I fay a 
fecond Tme ; becaufe had he gone for the firft 
Time, upon this Report of Joama^Sf he 
could have had no Inducement to have gone 
to the Sepulchre a fecond Time from any thing _ 
he could learn from the firft Report made hf^ 
Mary M^gdakney whofe Account contained 
nothing but what was implied in that given 
by Joatma and the other Women. His Be- 
haviour alfo upon this Occafion, when he only 
Jio&ped down and looked into the Sepulchre, 
fo different from the former, when he enr 
tered into lY, is very rational, and confonant 
with the Purpofe of this fecond Vifit, which 
was, to fee if the Angels who had appeared 
to the Women at the Sepulchre, were ftill 
there; this could as well be difcovered by 
Uoking^ as by gpingy into the Sepulchre, as is 
plain irom the Story of M(try Magdaknty who 
fiooping down and looking in, faw two An- 
gels fitting, the one at the Head and the other 
at the Feet where the Body of Jefus had lain, 
as St. ^<&» tells us. ^ 


[ 57 ] 

Having now, as I hope, proved that 
this Vific of St. Peter's to the Sepulchre, men- 
tioned by St. Luke, muft have been his fe- 
)nd Vifit, I have cleared this Paflage from 
[two Objeftions that lay againft it ; one, that 
It did not agree with the Relation given by 
Jt- John ', and the other, that it difturbed and 
Iconfounded the whole Order of St. Luke^s 
Tarration : fo that notwithftanding this Vcrfe 
wanting both in the Greek and Latin Copies 
>f Beza^ there is no Reafon for rejecting it, 
[as fon\c have propofcd. 

This Point being fettled, I beg leave to 
lake a few Inferences from it, in order to 
cplain fome Paflkges in the -preceding Verfes 
of this Chapter. 

First then, it is plain from this and the 
linth Verfe, that St. Peters after he had been 
?ith St. John and Mary Magdalene at the Se- 
)ulchre, was now got together with the other 
nApolllcs and Difciplcs, whom in all Proba- 
aility iie and John had affenibled upon the 


[ 58 ] 

Occafion of Mary Magdalene" % Report. Peter, 
I fay, and John, had in all Probability af- 
fembled the other Difcipks and Apoftles to 
inform them of what they had heard from 
Mary Ma^daletie^ and of their having been 
themfelves at the Sepulchre to examine into 
the Truth of her Report, For it is not to be 
•imagined, that thefc Apoftles would not have 
immediately communicated to the reft an E- 
Vont of fo much Confequence to them all, as 
that of the Lord's Body being miffing from 
the Sepulchre. And as we now find tliem 
gathered together and Peter with them, it is 
n6 unnatural Suppofition that they had been 
fummoned thither by John and Peter. At 
kaft their meeting together fo early in tiae 
Morning is this Way accounted for. Here 
then we fee the Reafon of St. Luke*s naming 
Mrtry Magdalene and the other Mary among 
thofe, which told thefe Things to the Apoftles. 
.For altho' thcfe two Women v/ere not with 
Jvanna and her Set, and confequently could 
rvot have joined with them in relating to the 
Apoftles the Vifion of the two Angels, i^c. 
^ct as the Account of their having found the 


[ 59 1 

Stone rolled away, and the Body of Jejus 
miffing had been reported from them bf 
Ftttr and 'John to the other Apeftles, before 
the Return of 'Joanna from the Sepulchre, Sr. 
Lxikt thought fit to fet them down as Evi- 
dences of Pome of the Fa<5ls related by him ; 
and indeed it was very proper to produce the 
Teftimony of the two Maries concerning the 
Stone's being rolled away, and the Body 
"gone, becaufethey went firft to the Sepulchre, 
and firft gave an Account of thofe two Par- 
ticulars to the Apoftles. I here join the other 
Mary with Mary ]\>iagdakne s for tho* I think 
It is pretty plain from St. J(/hn, that fhe alone 
[-"brought this Account ; yet it is remarkable 
p that in her Narration flie fays, U^^e know rwt 
■where they have hid him, fpeaking, as 'it 
ttt, in the Name of the other Mary and her 
ivrti ; and doubtlefs fhe did not omit to ac- 
[\juaint them that the other Mary came with 
her to the Sepulchre -, fo that this Report, tho* 
lade by Mary Magdalene alone, may fairly be 
taken for the joint Report of the two Maries, 
and was probably fliled fo by Peter and Jehft, 
and therefore reprefented as fuch by St. ZJuks 
la the Piffige before in. 


[ ^o] 
SicoNDLT, From hence airo I inftr, that 
the Reports of the Women were made fepa- 
rately, and at different Times. For if Peter 
went twice to the Sepulchre, there muft have 
been two diftin6l Reafons for his fo doing, 
which Reafons I have fhcwn to be the Reports 
of Mary MagdaUiK and Joanna : And as there 
was a confiderable Interval between his ftrft] 
and fccond Vifit, a proportionable Space 
Time muft have intervened between the two 
Reports, After Mary A^lagdalene^s he had 
been at the Stpulchrc, had returned from 
thence to his own Home, and was now got 
with the other Apoftlcs and Difciplcs, whom,__ 
as I faid, he and John had in all FrobabiiityS 
called together, before Joanna and the Wq- 
jnen with her came to make theirs. 

Thirdly, As the Reports were m" 
at different Times, and by different W 
men, as the Fafts reported were diff< 
rent, and (aid to have happened ajl in the 
fame Place, viz. at the Sepulchre, and as 
thcfe Fadls muft of Confequence have happen- 
ed at different Times; it follows that the 
Women, who reported thofe Fa(9:s as hap- 
pening in their Prefcncc, muft have been at 

[6i ] 

the Sepulchre at different Times. For had 
they been all prefent at each of thefc Events, 
no Reafon can be given for their differing fo 
widely in their Relations, and pretty diSicuic 
will it be to account for their varying fo much 
as to the Time of making their Reports. 
Here then is a ftrong Argument in favour of 
what I have before advanced concerning the 
Women's coming at different Times to the 
Sepulchre, and particularly about the Maries 
coming thither earlier than the reft. The 

I 'Reafon for their fo doing I have already 
-pointed out in my Obfervations upon Sr. 
'Mark^ and have fhewn, that upon the Sup- 
pofition of that Rcafon's being the true one, 
their whole Condud was proper and confid- 
ent : Which leads me to confider that of Jth- 
/mna and the other Women, who came fomc- 
hat later, and with another Purpofe, to the 
^Sepulchre. The former came to take a View 
or Survey of the Sepulchre, as St. Matthew ex- 
refly fays ; the latter came to embslm er a~ 
int the Lord's Body, and for that End noc 
only hrougbt the Spices, which they bad pripar- 
edt but were alfo accompanied by other Wo- 
anen. ' Qtbir. Women, mud mean fome be- 


[ 62 1 

fides thofe who followed Jt[ui from GaUlee, of 
whom alone St. Luke fpeaks in the former 
JPart of this Verfe, and the latter Part of the 
preceding Chapter. By thefe therefore, as 
contradiflinguilhed from the Galilean Women, 
he probably means the Women of Jerufalem^ 
a great Company of whom followed Jefus as 
he was going to his Crucifixion, bewailing 
and lamenting him. [See the 27th Verfe gI^ 
the preceding Chapter.] But what Number 
of them went upon this Occafion with tl 
Women of Galileii is not any where faid 
neither, of thefe, are any named befides Joanna^ 
Mary Magdakm, and Mary the Mother of 
James, tho' many others followed Jefus from 
Galike to Jerufalem, as both Matthew (c. 2 7. 
V, 55.) and St. Mark (c. 15. v. 41.) inr^^ 
form us, and were prefent at his Crucifixion. ' 
It is therefore very probable that moft, if not 
all, of thofe who were wont to minifter to 
him in Galilee^ who attended him to Jerufa- 
km, and accompanied him even to Mount 
Calvary, contributed to this pious Office of 
embalming their Mailer's Body, either by 
buying and preparing the Unguents and 
Spices, and carrying them to the Sepulchre, 


[^3 ] 

or by going to afi'ift their Companions in em- 
balming the Body and rolling away the Stone, 
for which Purpofe I fuppofe the Women of 
Jerufalem principally attended, fince none of 
them feein to have made any Purchafe of 
Spices for embalming the Body j and for 
this Jail Purpofe it is farther probable 
.they thought their Numbers fuiRcient. Ac- 
jrdingly we do not find them laying among 
lemfelves. Who fhall roll away the Scone 
for us, as the Maries did -, nor do we find 
the Maries hringing the Spices which they had 
bought, as is here related of Joanna and 
thofe with her ; and doubtlefs the Evangelifts 
had a Meaning in their Ufe and Application 
of thefc Exprefllons, the former of which is 
very agreeable to the Purpofe that carried 
the Maries fo early to the Sepulchre, as is the 
itter to that of Joanna^ who coming to cm- 
ilm the Body, brought with her all that was 
neceflary for performing that Bufmefs, viz. 
^the Spices, and other Women to aflift her 
rolling away tlie Stone, (s'c. The different 
fConduft of the Women therefore indicates 
their feveral Purpofes in going to the Sepul- 
chre, and tends to confirm what I have been 



all along labouring to prove, that they went 
thither at different Times, and not all to- 

And as their having had different M 
tives was the Caufe of their going at diffe- 
rent Times, and dividing thcjnfelves into dif- 
ferent Companies, fo from their coming to 
the Sepulchre in different Bodies, fprang a 
Subdivifion of one of thofe Companies, whieh 
I fhall now explain. The two Maries arid 
Saknie came firft to the Sepulchre, and as 
they drew near, lifting up their Eyes, per- 
ceived that the Stone, which was very great, 
was rolled away from the Entrance i upon 
fight of which, Mary Magdalene, concluding 
that the Body of Jefus was taken away, ran 
immediately to acquaint Peter and John with 
it, leaving her two Companions at the Se- 
pulchre. That Ihe was alone when Ihe. came 
to thofc two Apoftlcs, is ftrongly implied bf^ 
the whole Tenor of that Paflagc in St. John^/ 
where this Fa<fl is related, as I have already:; 
obferved -, and that llie left her Companions 
at the Sepulchre, is as evident from what .Sc. 
Mark fays of iheir .entering inw.thejSegplchjrej^ 



tffc. The Reafoa. of which pi-oba^If Was 
this ; fhe knew that Joanna and her Compa-* 
ny would not be long before they came thi- " 
ther, and might therefore think it proper to 
dcfire the other Ma^y and Salome to wait for 
them there, to inform them that they had 
found the Stone rolled away, ^c. and that fhe 
was gone to acquaint Peter and John with it j* 
But whether this, or any other Reafon was 
the Caufe of Mary M<^gdalene*s going by her- 
felf to Peter and John^ and the other two 
Women's (laying behind at the Sepulchre, is 
not very material to inquire ; all I contend for 
is, that fo it was ', and that hence arofe a Sub- 
diviiion of this Company, that gave Occafion 
to two Appearances of Angels, and as many 
of Chrifit and confequently multiplied the 
Proofs and Witncffcs of the Refurretflion; 

I HOPE by this time it is fufficieritly evi- 
dent, that the Fafts related by the feveral 
Women to the Apoftles were different and 
diftind Fa<5ts -, and therefore I think it nn- 
ncccflary to enter into any farther Argument 
Tjpon that Point. And altho' in the Beginning 
of my Obfcrvations upon this Chapter of St. 

f Lnke^ 


em f yet, for the laft mention- 
ed Realbn, I dare (ay I Itiall be ealily acquit- 
ted of my Promife, efpecially as thofe Marks 
of Difference are fo obvious and ftriking, that 
little more need be done than pointing them 
out to Obfervation. I muft however beg lea^ 
to obferve, that the Pofition relating to 
Angels appearing and difappearing as th 
thought proper, laid down in my Remarks 
upon St. John^ is farther proved by the Man- 
ner of their appearing mcn^oned here in Saint 
Ltikey which is implied to have been fudden^ 
not only by the Force and Import of the £»- 
prefllon, but by the remarkable Circumllancc 
of their not being feen by tlie Wemeo, a( 
their entering into the Sepulchre, 


9f Ul» I 

§. 7. T H o' the following PalTagc of 
Chapter relating to Cbriji^s Appearance to the 
Difcipksat£OTOTtfajhath been already produced 
in part, yet I think it proper to infcrt it intiic 
in this Place, that by the Reader's having it all 
before him at once, he may be better able to 
l . judg? 

1 67 ] 

judg^ 'cf the Obfenratioh I intend to make 
upon it. 

yiND heboid two lof them went that fame 
i)ay to al^Bage called Emmaais, which was froth 
Jerufalem nhout thrnfcdre 'Fitrlongs. And tbtf 
falktd together of all tb'tfe itings that had hap- 
pened. And it tanle to pafs that while they com- 
mitned together, and reafoned, Jefus himfelf.drewt 
Hear, aki went with them -, hut their Eyes were 
holden that they fiinuUl not know him. And he faid 
unto them. What manner of Communications are 
thefe, that ye home one f6 another, ait ye walk and 
Jtre fad? Artd one ofthinA, w^ofe Name was Cleo- 
pas, anfwerii^ faid' unto him. Art thou only a 
Strang in Je^(alem» and baft hot known the 
Tbi^s whkb ate come to pdfs there in thefe Days ? 
And be fcUd uMo thm, What things? And they 
JittduMto him. Concerning Jefus ^^/Nazarethi which 
was ^^Ftophet mighty in Deed and Word before 
Gddf and all the People -, and how the Chief Priefts 
M'CUr Riikrs delivered him to he condemned to 
JDuiib; and %ave crucified him. But we 
trufiU tbarit^ bad b?0 He which fhould home 
niftKmkf fi^l : Aak bejide all this, to-day 
''"■ ^'^'" Fa is. 



t , j^. 

.^ 'A 

M /i>tf ihifiDny ftnse theft 'things loe're Btfui 
■ Yea^ and certain PP'omcn alfo ej our Cotnpapy 
made its /^Jlowjhed, uhicb were early at the Se- 
■pulchre i and when they found not his Boe^ 
they camCy fayingy that they had alfo feen a Vi- 
fion of AngelSy whiih faid that he was alive. 
^And certain of them which were with us, went 
to the Stptdchney and found it even fo as the )Vo- 
mt n had fai-d : But him they faw not. Then he 
faid unto thefn, O Fools^ and flow of Heart to 
Relieve all that the Prophets havefpoMen ! Ou^bt 
not Chrift to hanje fuffered thefe Things, and 
enter into his Glory ? And beginning at MofiS 
and all the Prophets^ he expounded unto them - 
in ail the Scriptures the Things concerning him- 
felf. And they drew nigh ifnto the yUlage whi- 
ther they went y and he made as though he would, 
have gone farther. But they confirained hii 
faying. Abide with us, for it it towards Eve 
ing, and the Day is far fpent. And he went n 
to tarry with them. And it came to pafs as 
fat at Meat with them, he took Bread and bkjf^ - 
e4 it, and brake and gave to them. And their 
Eyes itere opened, and they knew him j and hr 
''jpanifhsd out of their Sight, And they faid onr - 
Jg another, Did not our Hearts burn within 

[ ^9 ] 

'^bile he talked with us by the PTay, and while 
•he opened to us the Scriptures ? And thty rqfe 
np the fame tfour^ and returned to Jerufalem, 
and found the Eleven gathered together^ and them 
thai were with them^ faying^ The Lord is rifen 
indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. And 
the^ told what Things were done in the Tf^ay, 
and bow he was known of them in breaking of 

' VTHOfctTER. reads this Story over with any 
Degree of Attention, and confiders the SuS- 
jeA of the Converfation, which our Saviour 
held with the two Difciples upon the Road to 
Emmaus, will perceive that it muft have arifen 
from what the Angels had faid to the Wo- 
men, "^rc^tcd." in the preceding Verfes of this 
Chapter. "To let tWs Matter in the cleareft 
Lijght, we wilt piit'the feverar Parts toge- 
ther. The Angels faid to the Women, who 
came to embalm the Body ofyefus. He is riot^. 
Jaersy hiir is rifen.' Remember how he fpake unto 
jRw, 'wfien be wasyet^h Galilee, faying. The Son 
ofMah'mufih'edisliverejifinto the Hands efftn' 
fm Mm, Md^ he cructfied, and the third Day 
rifo ■i^^atH. Th6 Wofds of our Saviour re- 
' " ■" '* ' ^ T''^ ■ fcj-red 

I 7^ J 
fcrre4 tQ;by ^i«.Angeh are theTc^Li*^ X9^^ 

km, atU afl fbitfgs thgfar^^nkten.^^^^ i^ 
pbets coHCirning the Son ofJManfiMli hfidmtl^iii^ 
id. For heJMh 4tliverfdmto,ikeQe!^\^m4i 
fiail bt mcked, ani^iteful^;f$tmH4iJ9ld$»k^ 
tidoi^i andtbey JbaU fcouf^Mt^i ^mijf^iff^>ij!^ 
li^Sb^ and tbt third Daybejholifife *sf ^at^., Jhtt. 
Words of the Angels dicfc two Difi^plcf ^ J»4 
heard from the Women, ; before. tii«^'lef|7«-, 
rufidem \ and as they were Wking towARds 
Emmaus^ and taking oVer all the woddes^^ 
Things that had come to pafs, they feein at 
iaft to have fallen into a Debate, upon the 
Subjeft.of thefe Words, and the Pit^hecie^ 
referred to l;>y them, juft as our Saviour tire\^ 
near. That tbqr were engaged in fomc^ Ar* 
guQfient or Difquifidon, I infer, noc oalji 
from the Cxfaafe Word a«Ji;T€ii', which, figoi* 
fi£S tD difcuis, examine, or inquiry together s< 
hut ftom XMi Saviour's Queftion, whflb ap^ 
parentiiy, having oveivheard ibme PafC of 
their Difcourfe, iSkit tlMift^ Tivk ct hiry^a 
wrw its dvt^9ti?^i?^i i*"foi «AA«>,t«j f^htU 

AffSMt^^^eitBi/hi^' tHof-yfarg^ dilating - one 
''KJift*^*^**!^^'^ vM^'yn •waft and an -fadf 

ttel* Ali^er^ttr'ihltfsQeeftioii,^ in n^ich they; 

^h^jilm^ci Und^rftiftid that they i^ere rea-> 

f«tllll^i)di;^''ik«^^hirigs that Mi come to 

p^ tollcdlHli4g^^>^^ ^f'f^aiiapeih, >t»bom, fay ' 

cheft'^^e^D^hg -^liil^y ~^ the W^tds of tht 

•i^ii|ek-y in^^'(^^|V^ akd our Rjukri b'a^i 

Jlrf^m^m'^ -^itndmnid to Deaths mi havt 

€f^c^Mm,yiAtSdi hence arifeS all our Sad^ 

ndfet'for ae ihe^fhat it bad been Ht wUcb 

Jbmbit-bmt r^idevmed liraeL *, and dwr and abaift 

dU tbtfe tbings^^iv-day h tbt tbird D^ sfi^ce 

tbefe Wbings'tioueA i^ (anochef Alkifion to 

tlieWondl of- the Angels v) t«A ixhdi^ fom 

Jt^mrnn^fur Cuupafrf aftooi^ed us with an 

Aittonnc of 'their ihavingbeeR^early U the Se^ 

pulchre^^imd^ttioti fuidhig thitOlo^y ofytftift 

having dsere bosa told b^' Aii^kthat he was 

rito ■ &otik :tlB Beadi.. Afid feme of oirir 

Ctun^onlow rtmiiing invntafiateiy to the Sr* 

ffdlduri, found, the Reponr,<kf die Woiwen 

torbt triie^ ^ ismfkef^:^ mh Thc$ufi«> 

^^.ib» Subje^s of then- Debatei, fofetold^ 
F 4 as 

I 7» 1 

as the Angels bade tjicm remcrabcr, out of 
tlie Prophets, by Cbrijl iiimfelf ; and the Scope 
pf their Inquiry was how to reconcile thefc 
Events with the Prophecies, to which they were 
referred. Part of them chey had it^n accom^ 
pliJhed in the Sufferings and Death of Cbrifi •, 
and that ought to have aflUrcd them of the 
Accompliflunent of the other Fart: But cither 
from not underftandino^^ of from a Backff 
wardnefs in bejievjng all that. the Prophets 
had faid, they flopped Ihort of this Conclu- 
fion. For this Ignorance and Backwardnel's 
CJbhft reproves them j afks them whether (ac?^— 
cording to the Prophets) Cbriji ought not tsM 
have fuffcfid tbefe Ibings, and ta enter inia 
his Gkry^ k Ci to -rife again j and then he^n- 
mng at^ Mofes and all tbs PropbetSy be expounds 
to tbem in all the Scriptures the Things concern- 
ipg bhn/flf. The Connexion is vifibic ; at the 
Beginning of the Chapter the Angels rtfcr 
thc; Difcipks for the Proof of the Refurredi- 
on to the Prophets j aqd here, Cbriji joining 
two of thofe Dilciples on the Roadj is, by 
their DifcoiKfe upon that Subjcd, led to ex- 
plain thpfe Prophecies, and prove from them 
iteifc Jhe Miffisk was certainly rifcn from 
tl«i the . 

,d. And in the hkc Manner is d^ 
: tcmaining Part of this Chapter to Verfc thh 
'rconnei^bcd with this and the preceding. 
For thcffe twODifciples returning to Jerufa- 
, i#w, relate to the Apoftks and the reft, 
[jwhom they found gathered together, what 
p^d paffcd between Cbrifi and them upon the 
Load to Ettitndui-i and while they were fpeak- 
t;3C^tiJi'^h'tA\M{ appears ; and after having 
ivmf^tm fettfible Proofs of his being rifen 
im^em^ad, «minds fhfem, as the Angd 
xd donSi of the Words-wtiich he fpake unto 
lem in Gdlike^ faying, Ihefe are the Words 
]^hxch f fpake tmtvyoUy'vohile I was yet with you ^ 
'jot all thirds nmfi be fuljilkdy wbicb-totre writ- 
ten^ in tbs LasW'. of Mofes, and in • the Prophet^ 
m-^ths ^bXvas' concerning me. 'Then opened 
te-^berr Ufukrjhhidingy that they might under- 
\and the Scriptures' ',. and f aid unto tbt^^ Thfii 
; 1 if zvritteny and thus it behoved Chrift to 
% : and to fifi :fr^m .the Besd the third 
^ay^ -» «35:>ri fcpt { f Jadqat^ -^i or rA 

,<i >ueoK tfa no 2?Jo:i::»I p«ri 

itJRfl K Connexion and Dependence of the fei 
vciii Parts tyf^thij Chapter upbn^ each other, 
jxjint cruf to u* -the Reafon iHat induced Str. 


► will i 


[ 74 I 
Luke to relate the Vifion of the two Angds td 
Jtattna and the other Women; and at. the 
lame Time prove that Vificn to be diftind 
and different from thofe fcen by the Maries i 
each of which had, in hke manner, its feparate 
and peculiar Reference to other Fads, as will 
jKrcfently be fecn. 

i^r§. 8. 1 SHALL HOW proccedto confider the Ap 
pcaranccs oiCbriJi to the Women, on the Day. ■ 
of his Refurrcdion ; which, like thofe of the^ 
Angels, have alfo been confounded, and from 
the fame Caufe, viz. From the want of at^ 
tcndmg with due Care to the feveral Ciraim- 
ftances, by which they are plainly diflinguifh- 
ed from each other. And ift, I obferre, thac 
thefe Appearances oi Chriji are fo connefted 
with the Appearances of the Angels, that thefe 
havmg been proved to be diltindt, it follows 
that thofe are diftind alfo. 2dly, St. Mark 
exprefsly tells us, that Chifi appeared firfl t<>S 
Mary Magdalene, which, according to. all Pro- 
priety of Speech, implies that fhe was alone 
at the Time of that Appearance, as I have 
faid once before. But I think it beft to fct 
down the Paflages thcmfelves, of Sl John and 


$|.2i|^fdr«limii nn i wlQcb theft*: Appefo&txxi m 

Feet, where the Body of Jefus bad lain ; and they 
ffiy unta ber, WonoK, v»by weepefi tbpu ? She 
fi^&'iimnUAmiBHat^ tbey bofoetakm dw^nif 
'ij^iMdciJkmw^i^ vibere tbfif baw Mbiff* 
s!fyd\<siifbmlJl»:Jtk^:fofd^^btu keffi^ 

backi mij^jda&'ftamimgi ml knew not *bM 
itm'in Jrfw r^mfeitb unta bar^ Wman, «v^' 
fnifift:ilMt fWhim fiekeft tbm t^ Ske^pp^ 
Mie tt^^bt-^/Qmioar, faith wttffbm* Sir^ ^ 
tbM ifUfiyibmiethii^ hmce, tell me vbtrt ib^h 
httpitHMmi; md t$M take bm mtfu^i ' Jefi«t 
piUh lotto ,fi^('Mary ! She tttrmA birfelf^ mtd 
j/i/it&'^Oibvify\Rabbom f which is toja^^ h^erl 
}>e&tk JaBb. ittka btr-^^ T^eiub me not, fpr I sm wt 
ytt 'kfietidtdi^unfo i^ Father * But. go to ff|y Br4* 
tbfiin^iandJarfuntQtbem, I afcend-unkAmx F^. 
tbe^iani'yourFsUher^ and to my Gad and yotff^ 
Gttk ^Axcf^j^^^ecSt came md^a^.ib§iBif 
evpIettimJheisbadifmstbg-tordimMlbath^ bad 
jpokm^fr 'J'biMgrJHUaibar, ^feahlldj.^xxvtit 
'^*.'J ver. 

tt>l"«(X '-^J^ '^W^ 




pable ^ 

'^ith a3l tlie Attention I 

vith a fincere Ddire of difcovering and' 
embracing the Truth ; and have, as I think,' 
made out the following Points ; ift, That 
the Women came at different Times, and in 
different Companies to the Sepulchre : 2dly, 

ITJut there were feveral diltin£t Appearances 
of Angels : 3dly, That the Angels were not 
always vifible, but appeared and difappeared 
as they thought proper : 4thly, That thefe 
feveral Fafts were reported to the ApoftJes • 
It different Times, and by different Women : 
tfithly. That there were two diftinft Appear* 
ranees of Cbri^ to the Women : And ^thl^^^ ' 
That St. Peter was twice at the Sepulchre.' " 
Thefe Points being once eftablifhed, all the ObP ■ 

leflions againft this Part of the Gofpel-Hiflory^' 

*■'.'■ . ■ ■) 

s pohtradifitory and inconfiflcnt, intirely va- 

lilh and come to nought. That very learn- 
ed and ingenious Men have been embarralTed 
jy thefe Objedions is fome Excufe for thofc 
who firfl: ftaited them, and thofe who have 
lately, tnlifted upon them. Their having now 
[received an Anfwer, (if that will be allow'd) is a 
clear Proof that it was always poffible to anfwer 
ien|» even with a very moderate Share of 


comonon Senfe and Learning. The Natu^i 
of the Aahmt kfdf, ^hicl is fbcndod'^^pori 
the ufual, obvious, pkki Seafe of the Wcttds^ 
without; putting any Force, either upon the 
particuhtf ^cpreflionBy <sr the general Con* 
ftnid^ion of the ieveral Pai&ges, Is an Evir 
dence of what I now fiy. So thate I iaiii^ 
needs aeknoiriedge that its naving^-^^een* fo^ 
long mified^ is Matter of far gNdWS&t^r^^ 
fhan its having been hit updn'ftOW. ''"■'"[ 

I snxLi. here *beg leave to fu^oiniiftw'^ 
Obfervations of a very eminent and'^jtidf^ouf^ 
Perfon, to whofe Infpeftion I fobmittcd It&cfr^ 
Papers ; and in whofe Approbation of '^m I^ 
have great Reafon to pride my felf. 1FBey 
are iis follows : 

"To prove the Appe»arices at the &-^ 
•« pulchre to be diflTerent, and madie to" diffc-; 
** rent Pcrfons, two Things concur. 

" I. Tnir feveral Accounts as given by 
•* the EvangdiftS; 

i 79 1 

"II. The Ctrcumftances which attended 
«theCafev y ^; 

•' The firft Poioe is fully confidefed ; and of 
•* the fec«ad'it is -very juftly remarked, That 
*• the .Women haTing agreed to be early at 
•* the Sepaj^hre^ it fell out naturally, Tiat 
** femjamt before others. Now there being at 
" the' Place of Meeting fomething to terrify 
•• them as fafi? as they arrived ; it accounts al- 
** &> for th^ir Difperfion, and their not meet- 
^ ing at all in one Body. It may help like- 
•^ "wife ta aceotmt for the Manner of deliver- 
" ing their Meffiges to the Apoftles ; fuppo- 
** fiag ^UkSSa%t% not delivered in the fanne 
•* Order in Point of Time, as the Appearances 
•* happened. For the moft terrified might be 
** the lateft Reporters, tho* they received their 
•* Orders^ firft. Which Obfervation is favour- 
" ed by St. Mark*s bM »Hv liirovy neither 
* fmd tbe^ awf thit^ to atry Man, 

*' Thb Difficulty upon ftating the Appear- 
** aoces to be diftrent, and made to different 
*• Pfcrfoas, ^irifes chiefiy from Mary Magdakne 

~ ' , '^ being 







[ 80] 

being mentioned as prefent by every Evan* 
gelift : But there fcems to be this Reafon 
for it i flie was at the Head of the Women, 
and the chief of thofe who attended our 
Lord, and followed him from Galilee \ 
and Mary Magdalene and the JVomen with 
her, denotes the Women who came from 
Galilee, in the fame Manner that the Eleven 
denotes the Apofties. 






" Three Evangellfts fay cxprefsly that 
many Women were prefent at the Crucifixi- 
on : Had it been left fo generally, we (houM 
have had no Account who they were* 
Therefore St. Matthew xxvii. 56. adds, cf 
a.\ r J', among whom was Mary Magdalene^ 
&c. So it is again Mark xv. 40. — St. Luke 
having faid in general Terms, that the Wo- 
men, who followed from Galilee, were Spec- 
tators of the Crucifixion, goes on with the 
Account (xxiv. i.) of their coming to the 
Sepulchre, feeing Angels, and returning to 
tell the Eleven and all the reft. But to give 
Credit to their Report, and to corred the 
Omiffion in not defcribing them before, he 
tells us who they were : And how does h© 

" defcribc 

[81 ] 
"' defcribe them ? Why, by faying they wefe 
*• of the Gompaliy of Mary Magdalene : *H<fet» 
•* S^ Yi Mayla^m (^c. xxiv* lo. which 
** Vcrfc.admitSi perhaps requires, a different 
** Reading from that in our Tranddtioni 

*• TtiESE Confiderations feem to account 
*' -for ier being mentioned in the Tranfaftioni 
*' of thele Women, tho* not always prefent 
** herfelf. St. Luke fays (xxiv. i.) that befides 
•^•^e'Woin*« ftoni Galilee^ there were otbe^ 
^^^Wmmtkeriir -To'diftinguifh thofcj whd 
H^ttudce^thti -Report to the Difcipks, from the 
**'.*aher\ff^omini he adds the Words already 
^* referred to *. 

^.^\\x-A^.- G It 

-.A -."' 

..^ ,^[%f W«r49 of St. Luie deferve a particular Examina- 
tion; tiufraaikvumiheGreei: k«( Cmriii-^avtu «w« « 

f/tHf^ JM^tihu Tdf TA wtttT» tilt WiKcf »^ vSfi ttit tSimiu 
^^, 'fi • .)it«)>/<lX»Wi UafU ly 'laiMMt ly M«^/c 'laxatCv, «^ a« 
XMnu rJ» tuilcUt, «4 •\i}/Cv v^c TkV aTsreXttC raZr*. JO £«- 
j^Silf^ ^fui turrnng iaci/hm the Sepulcbrif they told all tbeje 
'tmigt to the Eleven^ and to all the reft. Now they, who 
ftUtMfy/t Things to the ApoftUsy luert Mary Magdalene, 
4|^ Jeao^ W Mary the Mother of Jamcj^ and the reft 
mnti^Hemf i. e. of their Company^ As the Acoount of the 
tjHJbrcftwgKOftiie Galiieag Women begins in the foregoing 
C^pteb ^^is carried on without any Interruption to. th^ 
pih'VemoP' this Chapter; fo that the fevefal Verbs oc- 
apfn^k^flt^ an^ tl^precefiing Verfei are all governed 
TUrf^r^ ^fominative Cafe, vix, yvvAiMc'yii vcr. 5?. 

[ 82 ] 

"It is remarkable that St. Mark fays of 
the Women, mentioned by him, no more 
than that they had bought Spices to anoint 
the Body \ enough to fhew with what Intent 
they went to the Tomb •, — that they had 
any Spices *k;//>E» them he does not fay. But 
St. Luke fays of thofe he mentions, that they 
actually hrgught with them the Spices ; and 
not only fo, but that they had prepared them •, 
that is, made them fit for the Ufe intended. 
The feveral Drugs were bought fingly, each 
by itfelf at the Shop, and were neceffarily to 

" be 

of the 23d Chapter, it is evident that TauTJ* ieJii\du^ aW 
thtfe Things, muft be taken to extend to all the Particu- 
lars mentioned in that Accocnt, and cannot be confine 
to the TranfaftioBS of the Sepulchre only; and 
fame Obfervation holds equally to the raZlit in t| 
foUowing Verfc. The utmoil therefore that can be 
ferred from St. Luic^s naming Mary MagJalait and ti 
oth«r Maty, is, that they were concerned in foine or otli 
cf thefe Tranfaftions, and joined in relating fome of the 
Things to the Apoftles } which is true, for they /a/ nvtP^ 
(tgninfl the ^rpulchn; when Jofcph laid in it the Body of 
the Lord, Matth. xxvii. 61. Anti hibtld ivhert he nuas 

laid; Mark xv. 4;. They alfo had bought pijctit 

Spiers, that they might etmr and anoint him -^Mtirk xvi. l*^_ 
And were the firl!; who came to the Sepulchre thnH 
Morning, and brought the firft Account of the Body^^ 
being miffing j Matt, and Mark, And rho' by compar- 
ing the Accounts given by the other Evangelilb with 



«< be mixed; or melted together for Ufe : And 
«« I imagine that, tlio* all the Women joined in 
*' buying the Spices, yet the Care of getting 
** and preparing them was left particularly to 
" the Women mentioned by St. £.«^^; And as 
•' they were Galileans, and not at Home at Je- 
*' rufalem, and probably unacquainted with 
** the Method of embalming Bodies, that they 
** employed fome Inhabitants of the Place to 
•* buy and prepare the Spices, and to go with 
*' them to apply them to the Body ; and thefe 
•* arc the nva <rvy tlujou?, others with them, in 

« SMntlAAe. 

G 2 This 

this of St. Lah, it appears that neither of thefe Womea 

mvsti'viiStijHtmiaztAher Company to the Sepulchre; 

yet as diey were Galiltan Women, and bore a Part, and 

a principal Part toQ, in what the Women of Galilta 

•Weie Aen chiefiy esiploycd about, namely, the Care of 

(embalming the Body oijefus, there is certainly no Im' 

propriety ifl St. Lukt'i naming them with Joanna and the 

reft, as he does in the End of the general and ooIleAivd 

AccooAt he gives of what was reported and done by the 

Galilean Women. Neither does his naming them appro- 

^riata to //&«*r any ptrticuki* Part of that general Ac- 

coont. aiiy more than his not naming them would have 

odbded them from their Share of thofe Tranfa6tion% 

. and 4fe Report then made to the Apoflles. In this Cafe 

thty would have been included in the general Terms of 

Gmjileam Wmiufi ; as by being named, they are dillingai&i' 

«i and marked . as the mod eminent Perfons and Leaders 

<>f that CoUMny of Women, who followed Jefut from 

Qaliltt, (5fe. 

[ 84] 
** This will account for St. Matthew fay- 
** ing nothing of Spices 5 — for thy had none 
** with them : They fet out before thofc, who 
** wereto bring the Spices, to fee what Condi- 
•* tion the Sepulchre was in : and their Buti- 
*' nefs is properly expreffed by ^mfitreu tIv 
•• rafpcv, to fee the Sepulchre. 

" MAR T Magdalene was with the firft 
** {Matthevn aniMarK) who went to the Se- 
" pulchre ; but I think (he did not go to the 
" Sepulchre then : As foon as fhe was in 
•* Sight of the Place, lifting up her Eyes \dv(xr 
" ^Ae-^aaa, Mark xvi. 4.] and feeing the 
** Stone removed, flie turned inftantly IrpS^i 
" 5;', John XX. 2.] to tell Peter zndJebH. And 
*' it is plain by her Behaviour at her fecond 
" going, that flie had no Share in the Fright, 
** that feized thofe who went on after flic left 
«* them." 

f . 9. Having thus cleared the Way, I fliall 
now fet down the feveral Incidents of this 
wonderful Event, in the Order, in which, ac- 
cording to the foregoing Obfervations, they 
feem to have arifen \ after premifing that our 


[ 85 ] 
Saviour Cbriji was crucified on a Friday^ (the 
Preparation, or the Day before the Jewifl) Sab- 
^atb) Qiayc up the Ghoft about three o' Clock 
in the Afternoon of the fame Day, and was 
buried that Evening, before the Commence- 
ment of the Sabbatby which among the Jews 
was always reckonai. to begin from the firft 
Appearance of the Stars on Friday Evening, 
and to end at the Appearance of them again 
on the Day we call Saturday : That fome 
time, and moft probably towards the Clole 
of the Sabbath^ after the Religious Duties of 
the Day were over, the Chief Priefts obtained 
of Pilate, the Roman Governor, a Guard to 
watch the Sepulchre, *till the" third Day was 
paft, pretending to apprehend that his Difr 
ciples might come by Night, and Ileal away 
the Body, and then give out that he was rifen, 
according to what he himfelf had predi(5led 
while he was yet alive : That they did accord- 
ingly fet a Guard, made fure the Sepulchre, 
and to prevent the Soldiers themfelves from 
concurring with the Difciples, they put a Seal 
upon the Stone, which clofed up the Entrance 
of the Sepulchre. 

G 3 The 


The Order, I conceive, to have been at 
follows : 

Very early on the firft Day of the Week 
(the Day immediately followiug the Sabbath^ 
and the third from the Death of Cbrift) Mary 
Magdalene and the other Mary^ in purfuance 
of the Defign of embalming the Lord's Body, 
which they had concerted with the other Wo- 
men, who attended him from Galilfe to J^ ' 
rufalefitt and for the performing of which they 
had prepared Unguents and Spices^ fct out 
in order to take a View of the Sepulchre, juft 
as the Day began to break : And about the 
Time of their fetting out, there was « gnaf 
Earthquake : for the Angfl of the Lord defcenif 
edfrom Heaven, and came and rolled back the 
Stone from' the Door of the Sepulchre, and fai 
upon it: His Countenance was like Lightning, 9md, 
his Raiment white as Snow ; and for fear of 
him the Keepers did fhake, and became as dead 
Men, during whofc Amazement and Terror, 
Chriji came out of the Sepulchre ; and the 
Keepers being now recovered out of their 
Trance, and fled, the Angel, who till then (at 


f 87} 

upon the Stone, quitted his Station on the 
Outiide, and entered into the Sepulchre, and 
probably difpofed the Linen Clothes and Nap- 
kin in that Order, in which they were after- 
wards found and obferved by *John and Peter, 
Afary Magdalene, in the mean while, and 
the other Mary, were ft ill on their Way to 
the Sepulchre, where, together with Salome^ 
(whom they had either called upon, or met 
as they were going) they arrived at the riling 
of the Sun. And as they drew near, dif- 
courGng about the Method of putting their 
Intent of embalming the Body of their Maftcr 
in Execution, they /aid among them/elves^ IVha 
JbaU roll us away the Stone from the Door of the 
Sepulchre? for it -was very great ; and they them- 
felves (the two Maries at leaft) had fecn it 
placed there two Days before, and feen with 
what Difficulty it was done. But in the midft 
of their Deliberation about removing this 
great and fole Obftacle to their Dcfign (for it 
docs not appear that they knew any thing of 
the Guard) lifting up their Eyes^ while they 
were yet at fome Diftance, they perceived it 
waa already rolled away. Alarmed at fo ex- 
traordinary and fo unexpected a Circumftance, 
G 4 Mary 

r. S8 ] 

Mary Magdakne concluding^ that, as the Stone 
could not be moved without a great Number 
of Hands, fo it was not rolled away without 
fome Defign -, and that they, who rolled it 
away, could have no other Defign but to re- 
move the Lord*s Body -, and being convinced 
by Appearances that they had done fo, ran 
immediately to acquaint Peter and John with 
what flie had feen, and what Ihe fufpefted, 
leaving Mary and Salome there, that if Joanna 
and the other Women ihould come in the mean 
time, they might acquaint them with their 
Surprize at finding the Stone removed, and 
the Body gone» and of Mary Magdalene'^ 
running to inform the two above mention- 
ed Apoftles of it. While Ihe was going on 
this Errand, Mary and Salome went on, and en- 
tered into the Sepulchre, and there faw an Angel 
fitting on the right Side^ chathed in a long white 
Garment^ and they were affrighted. And he faith 
unto them. Be not affrighted : Te feek Jefus of 
Nazareth, which was crucified : He is rifetit he 
is not here : Behold ihe Place where they laid 
him. But go your fVayy tell his Bifciples and 
Peter that he goeth heforeyou into Galilee -, there 


fbaUye fee bim, as be /aid unto you. And they 
weta out quickly and fled from the Sepulchre i for 
they trembled and were amazed i neither faid they 
tmy thing to any Man j for they were afraid* 
After the Departure of Mary and Salome 
came John and Peter^ who having been in- 
formed by Mary Magdalene.^ that the Body of 
the Lord was taken away out of the Sepul- 
chre, and that flic knew not where they had 
laid him, rati both together to the Sepulchre \ 
.^xnd the other Difcipk [John] out-ran Peter, 
'mnd came firfi to the Sepulchre ; and he ftoop- 
ing down^ and looking in, faw the ZJnen Clothes 
^yingy y^f ^ent be not in. Then cometb Simon 
Peter follotoing him, and went into the Sepulchre, 
and feetb the Unen Clothes lie, and the Napkin^ 
that was about his Head, not lying with the 
JJnen Clothes, but wrapped together in a Plact 
by itfelf. 7 hen went in alfo that other' Bifciple, 
which camefirjl to the Sepulchre, and he faw and 
* believed; for asy^t they knew not the Scripture 


♦ Btlieved.] Commentators have generally agreed to 
dnderftand by this Word no more than that St. John be- 
lieved, what Mary Magdalene fuggefted, fix. That they 
^jiGJ c^en 4(way the Load's Body; and they fcem to have 


[ 90 ] 
fbat be mufi rife again frgm the Ikai, ■ Then(i» 
Lifciples went away again unto their mm Homti 
But Mzryjlood without at the Sepulchre wefpit^i 
and as Jhe wept, fie ftooped down, and Itwhei 
into the Sepulchre, and fee th two Angels in1Vbitt% 
fitting, the one at the Head, and the other at th 
peet, where the Bodjf of Jefus had lain j and $h^ 
fay unto her, Woman, why weepefi tlm ^ Sbt 
faith unto them, Becaufe they have takm moof m^ 


been led into this Opinion by the Words immediately fub- 
joined, /er as ytt tbty knrw not tbt Serifi/iHtt tkat he mufi 
life again from the Dead-, which Words contain a fort of 
an Excufe for their not believing that he wa» rifen. It 
is however certain that by the Word StKt^t when it 
is p\it abfolutely, the faaed Writers moft comxafxAf 
mean to have, what is called. Faith ) aod ia tUi Seaie it 
is ufed n« lefs than three Times in the latter f^ of thi« 
Chapter. To obviate this ObjeAion, retain the afoal Sig- 
nification of this Verbi and yet reconcile thw Ycrfe wkk 
thfe following, it is pretended that Bezd'i old Grttk M^ 
nttfcript fays be did not believe, /V e. inftead of Wfffiwir 
it has ?x iTir«(/0'fy» or inrWivrw. Inftead ofnimnvg 
into an Examination which of thefe two Readings is to 
be preferred, I fltall only obferve, that Benm himirif in 
his Comments upon this Pafiage, takes no notice of tht 
various Reading above mentioned ; on the contrary, he 
contends that St. John did believe the ReTarreflion. 
Thefe are his Words: Et credidit, j^ iiris-v/rw, 
Chriflum videlicet refurrexiffe^ quanquam tenuis adbuc fortt 
htrtfid$Sy i^ aliis tefUmvniis egeretf qwiius coffirmarttur. 
Joannes igitur folut jam turn hoc credidit ^ (ifc. See hia 
Grgei T^ament in Fol. ipTmted at Geneva, A. D. l$99« 
And I own I am moft inclined to his OpinioB, for Reft* 
{(ms which will appear in the Coorfe of this Work. 

C9I 3 

Lord^ audi know not where they have laid him: 
/Ind when Jbe had thus faidt Jhe turned herfelf 
^ack, andfaw Jc(us Jianding, and knew not that 
$tv>as J^{u%, Jefiis faith unto her. Woman, why 
weepefi. thou ? TFhom feekeji thou ? Shefuppojing 
him to be the Gardener, faith unto him. Sir, if 
thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou 
be^ laid him, and J will take him away. Jefus 
faith umo ber^ Mary ! She turned herfelf, and 
faith tintohim-, Rahboml which is to fay, Mafterl 
Jcfus faff b unto her, Touch me not, for I am not 
yet afctndfd unto mif Father : But go to my Bre- 
thren, and fay unto them, I afcend unto my Fa- 
ther and your Father, and to my God and your 
Cod. After this Appearance of Chriji to Mtrj 
Magdaknf, xq whom St. Mark fays exprefly he 
appea^dfirfti the other il^ry and 5/2/0«i«, whp 
had fled ffoqi the Sepulchre in fuch Terror and 
Ama^em^nt that they f aid not any thing to any 
Many (tb^ is, as I underftand, had not told 
the Md&ge of the Angel to fome * whom 


Elil • ■ 

r^l • Probablf ytbn and Peter, who were running with 
lAqn MafJalmu to the Sepulchre, about the Time that 
thefc Women were flying from it, might have been 
<ii&enMd \xf them at a Diftance, tho' the Terror they 
*•« in aright occafion their not recollefting them immc- 

di«dy, But of this I fludi hereafter fay fomething 



[ 92 3 
they met, and to whom they were directed to 
deliver it) were met on their Way by Jejiii 
Chnfi)\\vc&i\U who faid unto them, AUbail! and 
they came and held him by the Feel, and worjhipei 
htm. Then faid Jefus tt»/o them^ Be not afraid, 
Co tell nvy Brethren that they go into Galilee, and 
there fball they fee me. Thcfe feveral Women 
and the two Apoftles being now gone from 
the Sepulchre, Joanna with the other GalileM 
Women, and others with them, came bringing 
the Spices which they had prepared for the em- 
balming the Body of Jefus, and finding the Stmif 
rolled away from the Sepulchre, they entered in; 
but not finding the Body of the Lord Jefus, 
thty were much perplexed thereabout, and beboU 
two Men flood by them infhining Garments; ad 
as they were afraid, and bowed down ibeir 
Faces to the Earth, they faid unto them, Wbj 
feek ye the Living among the Dead ? He is not 
here, but is rifen. Remember how hefpakeunto 
you, when he was yet in Galilee, faying, ^ 
Son of Man muft be delivered into the Hands of 
fmful Men, and be crucified, and the third D^ 
rife again. And they remembered his Worii, 
fn4 returned from the Sepulchre, and told all 


'nfa Things unto • the Eleven^ and to alt 
he rejt. And their Wcrds feemed to them, 
$ idle tales, and they believed them not. 
»ut Petety who upon the Report of Mary 
dagdalene had been at the Sepulchre, had 
ntered into it, and with a Curiolity that be- 
3oke an £xpei5bation of fomething extraordi- 
ary, and a Dedre of being fatisfied, had ob- 
;rvedthat thcUnen Clothes, in which Chriji 
as buried, and the Napkin that was about his 
fead, were not only left in the Sepulchre, 
at carefully wrapped up, and laid in feveral 
'laces i and who from thence might begin 
> fufpeft, what his Companion St. John from 
lofe very Circumftances feems to have bc- 
cvcd : Peter, I fay, hearing from Joanna, 
lat Ihe had feen a Vifion of Angels at the 
epulchre, who had affured her that Chriji 
as rifen, darting up, ran thither immediatc- 
f, and knowing that the Angels, if they 
'ere within the Sepulchre, might be difco- 
crcd without his going in, he did not as be- 
orc, enter in, but ftooping down looked fo 
u iti 9S to ke the Linen Clothes, and departed, 
fjondering in himfelf at that which was come to 
^afs. And either with Peter, or about that Time, 


C 94 ] 
went fome other Difciples, who were prefeat 
when Joanna^ and the other Women made 
their Report, ani found it even fo as thetVomen 
bad f aid. Tke fame Day two of the Difciples went 
to a Village called Emmaus, which was from 
Jerufalem about threefcore Furlongs. And tbej 
talked together of all thofe things that had hap- 
pened. Jnd it came to pafs that while thty com- 
muned tog. t her, and reafoned, Jefus himfelfdrew 
mart and went with them ; hut their Eyes were 
bolden that they fhould not know him. And be fmi 
unto them^ What manner of Communications [Ar- 
guments] arethefethatye haveonetoanotber^ asye 
walk and are fad ? And one ofthem^whofeName was 
Cleopas, anfweringt faid unto him^ Art thou oiity 
a Stranger in Jerufalem, and bafi notknemnthe 
Things which are come to pafs there in thefeDaysf 
And he faid unto them^ What Things ? And they 
faidunto him^ Concerning Jefus o/Nazareth, ibbich 
was a Prophet mighty in Deed and Word before 
God^ and all the People \ and how the Chief Priefis 
and our Rulers delivered him to be condemned to 
Deaths and have crucified him. But we 
trufted that it had been He which fhould htwe 
redeemed Ifrael: And hefide all tbis^ fo-d^ 


195 1 
is the third Day fince theft things were done. 
Teoy and certain Women alfo of our Company 
made us afiouijhedi uhicb were early at the Se- 
pulchre •, and when they found not his Body, 
they came^ faying^ that they had alfo feen a Vi' 
/ton of AHgdSt which faid that he was alive. 
And certain of them which were with us^ went 
to the Sepukhn, and found it even fa as the Wo- 
men had faid: But him they faw not. Then he 
faid unto them, Fools, and flow of Heart to 
belief all that the Prophets have jpoken ! Ought 
net Chrift to have fuffered thefe Things^ and i9 
enter into his Glory f And beginning at Mofcs 
and aH ths Prophets, he expounded unto them- 
in all the Scripttttes the Things concerning him- 
felf. And they drew nigh unto the Village whi- 
ther they went, and he made as though he would 
have gone farther. But they conjf rained him, 
fc^yingi Abide with '■«/, for it is towards Even- 
in^i and the Day it fatfpent. And he went in 
te tarry mith them. And it came to pafs as he 
fat at Meat with them, he took Bread and hlejf- 
ed it, and brake and gave to them. And their 
Eyes were opened, and they knew him -, and he 
vunijbed 91^ of their Sight. And they faid one 
to another^ Did not our Hearts burn within us, 


tvhile he, talked with us^^, the J^^;^, .^HeLv^^i 
he opened, to us the Scriptures ? Jn£ tJ^e% rof( 
up the fame Hour, and returned to Jerufalemd 
and found the Eleven gathered together ^ and them 
that were witkthem, faying^. Xke Lordjs r^fen 
indeed, and hath appeared ti Sim^q. ..^/^ 
t'hey told what Things, were done in jb^ ^^ 
and how he was known of th^ i^:^if^J'£M 

5.^ 'iljxt 


This is the Order, in,wh|cli tjip. fe*^em 
Incidents above related appeal: to have anfcni 
the Conformity or which with the Words of 
the Evangclifts) interpreted in their bbYioi)s 
and moft natural Senfe, I have fliewjn^ in ^jt 
Remarks Upon the Paflages, wherein they are 
contained : And altho' the Reafons* J^Iwm 
given, are, as I apprehend, Sufficient! of ^^^- 
felves to jiiftify theExpofition I contead!"fQr» 
yet, for the better Confirmation of wjlat h/ut 
been advanced, I beg leave to lay before ypu 
an Obfervation or two, fuggcfted by di'is 
Very Order itfelf* from whence its Aptncfg 
and Tendency to the greit End, to which' it 
was in all its Parts direAed and difpofcd ty 


ic Hand of Providence, viz. the Proof of 
jc Rcfurre<?lioi\ of Cbrifi, will maftifcftly ap- 

§. 10. First then, by this Order, in which 

all the different Events naturally and eafily fol- 

w, and as it were rife out of one another, 

he Narration of the Evangelifts is cleared 

om all Confufion and Inconfillencies. And 

2dly, The Proof of the Rcfurreftbn is bct- 

er eftablilTied by thus feparating the Women 

nto two or more Divifions, than upon the 

contrary Suppofition, which brings them all 

together to the Sepulchre -, for in the iaft 

Cafe, inftead of three different Appearances 

of Angels to the Women, and Cwo of Jefus 

Cbrijij wc fhould have but one of each % 

I whereas in the former there is a Train of 
WitnefTes, a SuccefTion of miraculous Events, 
(nutually ftrengthening and illuftrating each 
Other, and equally and jointly concurring to 
prove one and the fame Faft •, a Fa6V, which, 
as it was in its own Nature moft aftonifhing, 
and in its Confequences of the utmotl Impor- 
tance to Mankind, required the fullefl: and 
moft unexceptionable Evidence. And I will 
II Yen- 

^P-jnf g«ateft"Piart,^ff -not alij of the A- 
poftks and Difdpks of Je/uj, thofe at lead 
Awho openly and avowedly followed him, 
were Men of kjw Birth and Incan Gccupa- 
tions, illiterate, and \Jrtaccu(ldmed to dttp la- 
(\uitki,- tthd abftraftid Reafonings -, IMcrt of 
grofs Minis,-'?cntrafted Notions, And ft^ng- 
I7 pofleffedAvith the fdfifh, carnal, and na- 
tional PrtjudieeS' of the Jtwijh RtVigion, as ic 
was ih^n taagitt by the Striliei and Pharifees. 
And hence, altho' it is evident from feveral 
Faflages 'in the Gofpel-Hiftory, that, convino 
cd by the many Miracles performed by JeJiiS 1 
of Nazareth, and the Accomplifliments of 
many Prophecies in hi on, they believed him 
to be the Mejiab^ yeit their Idea of a Mcjiab 7 
was the iame wich that of their Brethren the ' 
Jew \ who, by not rightly undefftapding 
the ime Meaning of fc«ne Prophecies, ex- 
pefted to fimd ia tUe. M^JJiaiv a Temporal 
Prince, a Rc^eeniei: and Rulep of ^rae^, who 
ftvottid neycr die. And fo deeply was this - 
PreJQcUce rooted in the Mind* of the Apoftics, 
as well as the reft of the Jews^ that altho' 
9Uf$ Qur conftantly difclaimcd the Charac- 
H 2 tcr 

[ lOO 1 

tcr of a Temporal Prince, and upon many 

pcafions endeavoured to undeceive his DifcipU 

jtc they could not wholly give up the 

lOpinion, even after they had fcen Kim rii 

ffrom the Dead, and received that jncontel 

ale Proof of his being the Mejjiah^ and of th^ 

having millakcn the Senfc of that Proph« 

fabout his being never to die, , For in one 

»is Conferences with them after his Refurre 

^ion, they ask him. Whether he would 

'that Time * rsjlare the Kingdom to lixael 

With fo much Obftinacy did they adhere^ 

'their former Prejudices. This therefore 

["ing their fettled Notion of the Mf'Jfwb, cfl 

we wonder their former Faith in him fhoi 

be extinguiflied, when they faw him fuffei:- 

ing, crucified, anti dying ; and inftead of 

Lfaving others, not able to favc himfelf ? To 

prepare them for thefe Events, he had io- 

deed moft circumftantially foretold his own 

.Sufferings, Death, and Refurredion : But 

the Apoftles themfelves afllire us that they 

did not underftand thofe PrediftJons, *tlJ! 

rfome Time after their Accomplifhment ; ant! 

they made this ConfcrTion at a TJme, whai 

.^ . . Aft», cI^a|*.^^ vcr. 6. 

[ 101 J 

fcnfible of their former Dulnefs, 
and lincl.oubtedly as much, amazed at it, as they 
)\^ pretend to be^ Who objc6l ^t agalnfl: them j 
|i» ihit their Veracity upon this Point is. not 
be queftion'd. Immortality thereFore and 
"cmp oral Dominion being, in their Opinion?, 
the Charaderiflicks of rhc MeJJiahy the Suffer- 
logs ;m J Deatji of Jeftts muft have convinced 
them before his Refurredlion, tliat he was not 
[jke Meffiab^ not that Perfon, in whom they 
id trufled as the]R.edeemer and King oi Ifrael, 
And having, as tliey imagined, found them- 
klves ipiftaken in their Faith as to this Point, 
they might with fome Colour of Reafon be 
cautious and backward in believing any Pre- 
ditftions about his Rifmg from the Dead, 
.had they uriderftood what thefe Prediftions 
njcant. The State of Mind therefore, into 
vrhich the Apoftles fell upon the Death of 
t^eir Mailer, muft have been a State of Per- 
plexity and Confufion. They could not bu*^ 
reflect upon his miraculous Works, and his 
niore miraculous Holinefs of Life, and were 
not able to account for the ignominious Death> 

of ib extraordinary a Perfon. A State oiT 

Dejcjflion and Defpair: They had conceived 
Siav H 3 great 

[ ro^ 1 
great Expe^atipjri5.frop>.-the IJer^lQoa.ihati 
wtis fffe Cbril^ ^/<Jc</;i B^pTthcf^i were .41 
niihcdi their prorn,i|c4 Jgkjjiy^rer, tMi; 
peded King was dead and buried, aad^xif 
one left to c»U i"//* from t^e Grave, a»,i&tf4ii 
L.azarus, With this Life, they might pi 
fume, ended hts Power of workiog Mirack 
and Death perhaps was atv Enemy, he coii 
not fubdue, (uiC£ it was appare&c he cou| 
notefcapeitj and hqice, proceeded the^f, 
^air. it was likewife a Statp of Anxietyrjai 
Terror, The Jews had jiilt put their Maftf 
to Death as a Malefaiftor and Impoftorj 
what then, could his FoJlowcrs expcft ,fror 
his inveterate and triumphant Enemies, bi 
Infults and Reproaches, and Jgnominj 
Scourges, Chains, and Death ? The Fear of 
the y^wi made them dcfcrt their Mailer, 
when he was firfl feizied ; made Ptter^ ^^^i^l 
jDoft zealous of the Apoflles, deny him iJ^rice^ 
even with Oaths and Imprecations; and ms 
^he Apoftlcs and Difciplea, when they 
togedier^ op the Day of the Refurrcdion, 
confer upon the Account* they . had recdved 
0(,Cinifi*s being rifeo, retire into a Chambdj^ 
cjiDd ihut the Door, left they ihould be difco- 


I mi 

/'"Siicli then '^"^Kc^ iJtate 

' the Apoftlcs Mrnds upon tJie death of 

leir Matter, liill bif Prejudicfc, Doijbt, Pcr- 

ity; Defpkir^iilid^^rrc«r''j ICl^fteri^per*^ 

\)Ki Oat' f^uinf^' a ^entlfe' tlf^atttient, *fe- 

iknt MedJciirds,' and a gratiual ic6re. '\?Vhich 

idj hie to cohTidcrin the next Place the 

[artner, He. thi Method and Order of that 

Jyidcrtce by whibTi they were recorcrcd into 

state tof Sanity; and From Defertfers oF their 

'^h-^rted into Belicven, Teachers j 

id Martyrs of the Gofpei- 

>oJlo<|tni ^ ^ t* 

^h "f^Tflfe firft Alarm they teeiVca was Jnfii 

A&^dfe/<f«r, who early itt thfc Morning, 

the third Day from the Burial of our Si. 

lcWi*,-<iJime running to inform Peter ah^i 

li/'^that fhe had found the Stond roll^ 

hbm tht ^fotrth of the S"epulc]ir6, ' and thSt 

tt'Body bf the Lord was taken away. Tins 

fel-matioh carried thofe two Apoftles th?- 

t", \i*rho entered into the Sepulchre, ahcl 

bort^' the linen Clothcj/ in whith Tiis 

!y 'had "been wrapped, and tJie Napkii?, 

'waPbbiihd about His Head,' folded u^, 
-ojftib 3d bi^odl Y^/^I^H jooU »tlj Ji/rfl ::^ 

[ 104] 

and lying"?h"^fferent ^artsbf tlie Sej^ulchr^^ 
'Thtft t CitGtWnftances, • triflihg- las they^ as 
(tern ;«: fifft (ightj Wefe, if diiJy tAnfid* 
v€ry awakening, and very proper to prepat 
their • Mimis for fomcthing cj^tfaordinary 1 
Cnce nothing but the Rcfurrtdlion of yefi 
could, in right Reafpn, bcf concluded Trbt 
them. The Body they faw was gone i but 
whom could it be taken away ? and for wha 
Parpofe ? Not by Frrends ', for then "in all Pre 
bability they would have known fomrthinl 
about it : Not by the Jews, for they had 
thing to do with it. Pilaig, tcJ whom alorifc 
theDifpofal of it befong'd,- as the Body oj 
d Malefador executed by his Orders, hac 
given it to his Difciples, who laid it ii 
the Sepulchre but two Days before ;' ZTi( 
wherefore Ihould they remove it" again 
ipon? Not to bury it i for in that Cafe the^ 
would nof have kft the Spices, the Windfj 
ing-fheet, and the Napkin behind them] 
Whoever therefore had removed the BodyJ 
they could not have done it with a Defign t( 
burjf. it ; and yet no other Piirpofe for the 
K^riiovaJ of It'coul'd well be imagirted. Bei'^ 

"^'^ , f.d«. 

[^"g/it, :1?JF Steam?*;. jan^ T?<i«fequf??tiy ? w. 'ft 
:; iiIo\y; then cawcr the ]i|y^ing-ft»e€| 
^ Napkiiv CO be^iokjed .ugjct^d dirpof- 
U^.^Q^.^^rcJcrly a Mannef witbia the Sfl-^ 
julohre ? Add to ajl this, that . the Stono 
very: lar§c> and therefore many People 
wd Myc. ^ l?eeij^ ^<ro,ncerned in this TranHuHi'* 
)^ jpot pne o£ Yflipm was there to give ao- 
fwer tp,2Uiy ,Queftions.; Jhefpi or ^uqfcf 
;q KjCflcdions qould. not but nfe in their 
linds, and t^eie. Dif&Quliks could not but 
|4i5[^ofe thejn to, expcft fame, e;{U"aordinary, 
Ivent. ^ His Life, they Jcnew, was a Life o£ 
[jraclesa.^swid his Death was attended with 
Vodigics and Wonders ; all which could not. 
It come crouding into their Memories ; and 
fcp none of them at diat Time (excepting 
IfoAfi) believed that he was rifen from, the 
Dead ; for (is yet (as the ApofUe alTures us) 
they knevj not the Scripture, that he tnuji rife 
again from the Dead ; that is, they did not unr 
derftand from the Prophets that the Meffiak. 
vraj to rife again from the Dead, being on 
the contrary perfii^ded, that thefe very Pro- 

f. ro6 ) 

pltets had foretold tht MeJJiab (injuld-'not^dic^ 
hsit nbide for :ever, " t*\^t\i'{ 

h • rv:* ^r\L \i 

I' * Tm8 next Infbrrnstidn they reoch 
fna From J^lina^ and the Womch who 
-r. com- 

• I have placed this Report of 7*w»w ncjtt (o tii 
Relation above-ciled fliadc by Mary iiIaf^tnet^uy\ be4 
lore rile fecond Rq)ort nade b/ her, andclMt ot theotl; 
two Maries ; bccaute, by what the two I^jiapkrs, 
«A^egoiiig to Mmtnaia, fay to yifiti, SttJS evident 
they bad beard tbe Report of JdapfHf, And had not, vri 
they left the tc& of the Difciples, heard cither of tlie f 
tfientiolntid Rqiorts. Farther, by their ofitig the firil Pe 
Ton plural in fpeaking of thofe, to whom thisRepoi 
w;w nnade, aj fome Women of. *irr Company made nli^ 
aftontfhcd, compared with whatSt.iai^ fays at the 91 
'VKr(e, of the Women returning aad telling all thofflj 
Things to the Eleven end a// ibenJI, it Iboks at if ch< 
were of the Noxnber of thofe^ who were preiect wh« 
this Report was made ; and that St^ Petfr was of ^ tli 
lihtmber is evident, and fo, I think, were all theElotfeof 
and many other of thofe called Difcipks, aiTenibled ^c 
gethcr,. probably by yohx and Prter, as was before obfcrv- 
ed. Tbefe fevetalPoints bdrtg admitted, it will' foUow^j 
that the Report of Joanna and thofe iinth lur, was ma 
to the £/ef «'» i^wi <ny the rein, previoufly to tbe.fecon« 
Report oiMaty AlagdaJme'f and that of the other tv 
XIaritr, tho' the Evehts, Which gSve occafibn to the 
loctsr, were in Orde*- ef Time prior to tlmt related b] 
ytanra ; for if any of thofe, who were prefent wheml 
^jfianva related what had happened to her at the Sepui-J^j 
chra, had heard that Chrijl had appeared to Mary M*_ 
lialttie and tbe two other Marhs, they would doubtlef^ 
have mentioned it upon that Occafiovi, in which' Cafe 
moil have been heard, and would as cert;;iinly have beet 
inentiefied by the two Difciplcs, in cheir Converfatioit J 


[ »©7 } 

companied Jicr to the Scptilchrt, trho ac- 
quainted them with t\^'o tcvr Jtnd very firt^ 
prizing Particulars, viz. That they had there 
txViJion of Aitgels, and that thofe Angels 
had told chem ^SiZjejks was rifen, and hod 


wjfh Jff*! on the V.*ay ro Erwiaus j and. even fuppofmj 

th«y wwe rot prertnt when yoatma-msi^c. hfcr Report, bul 

received it onlv from fome i»/ho Were^ itd pifobsbte that 

tlu^r who told tljicm the Particulars relating to Jean*ta^ 

tbd Pmr's recoitd Vi6* to «he Sepuldwe, \frflmld at the 

^tne Time have informed ihetn of the Acconwa gircn by 

jUatf MayJalme and the other Muriei, had they at that 

Time beord tny thing' of them. ' There niajr indeed bt 

{ome Difficulty in accounting for this^ efpecially as tha 

Appeatmce of Cbri/i to Mary Mn^ilme •Was ver^ early t 

and it it (aid Jshk xst. tS. thatihe went and told it to 

the Difc'fples } and ftill more exprefly by St, Markxv'i, 

29. «jid if her Ztal atid Hade in carrying the News of tht 

Stone's being removed, and the Warmth of her ovvn 

I Temper, and the ^xpi-efs Comtnahd of ChHJi to her io ac- 

cjvriint his Difciples, be coiifidcred, it wiU a.ppesr voy 

probable that fhe went on this Errand immediately ; and it 

is -very nitura! to think that {he weftt direftJy to t'rtit rffts 

1 iceowi Time, as Jhe did the lirft ; and that Apoflle, 

rhen he left her at the Sepuichre, went direftly home, 

did alfo JobHf Jehn xx. lo. But if he and Petrr were 

KfOM tD aicquftint the other Difcipks with Hhe Lord's Ba- 

Mf being mi0jng, ae is above fuppofed, her not findiag 

iHwm immediately is eaiily accounted for i befides which 

Istauif other Thiags might happen unknown to ut> to bring 

"Jeanne, and thofe witii her, to PtW and the other Dif- 

ei|^, before they fciw Mary MagdsliHe after her fecoftd 

Viftt to the Sepulchre, and before the other tut> Mitfut 

I came witJi their Meflage, who, notAfithlhuidiftg their 

[Nearncfs to the City when Cbrifi appeared to themj and ^ 


[ loS ] 

moreover reminded tliem of what hitnlelf had 
formerly fpoken to his Diicfples concerri?ri^,| 
his Sufiferlngs, his Death^ahd Kis Kelbrrediibfi . 
on the third Day, being Ifofetbldby thfi(| 
Prophets. "What various R'eflidtVohs 'tnuft; 
thelc two amazing CircumrtihceS immediate- 
ly fuggeft to them ! Thd great Difficulty, 
about the Body of thetr Matter being rriiffihg, , 
which had fo ttiuch alarmed and puzzled- 
them, was at once folvea. * Angels told-'] 
the WomeA he was rifen from the Dead"/;' 
and to induce them the more eafily to ht- 
3ieve fo aftonilhing an Event, bade them rc; 
Irtember that Chrijl himfelf had, not only 'j 
from the Spirit of Prophecy, with which they 
knew he was indowed, but from the Prophets 
alfo prediAed his own Sufferings, and Death," 
and Rifing again from the Dead on tjie third] 


the* early Date of that Appearance, might pefTibl^^ 
not be enough recovered from their Fright to deliver their* 
MeflTage immediately ; or if they were, they might, for 
the R«a(bn above given, mifs that Apoftle [Petfr] <o 
whom they were particularly commanded to deliver it, . 
and to whom therefore, in all Probabilit}', they went di- 
rcftly. AH thefc Things, however, are mere GoDJec- '< 
turei, and as fuch I fubmit them to the Judgment of thej 
|6e^er. .'ti*T 

''t'jd^. ... . 


XJlfy^.. .Thp Words of their Maftcr they well 

remembered, ancj were fo far con vine' d that 

;he Wpmen fjpoke Truth. Thofe Parts alfo 

of this Pr€di<n:.i^,' which reiat€4 to his Sufr 

fcrincsand I)eath» they had fccn moft exad- 

ly, apc^pplifhed \ and that t^yas . a powerful 

"Argument for their believing that the reft 

niight be fo too : Befides, this was the third 

Day, the very Day on which jfefus had told 

ihein .he: ihould rife from the Dead. The 

Argument therefore drawn from the Tefti.- 

mon^ of the ProphetSj upon which their 

Clfbehef of the Refurreftion was, principally 

foundpd^ w^ here attacked 3 and the Int^^r 

pretation of their Mafter, verified in nioft of 

the Particulars by the Eventj was here.fct.up 

in Oppofition to that of the Scrihs and Pho- 

V//?^/,whofe Leaven they had fo frequently been 

cautioned againft. But then they did not un- 

dc^^ftand what was meant by his Rifing^ from 

ttieDedd. Was he once more to live with 

them Upon the Eanh ? If fo. Where was he? 

No body had as yet feen him, neither th$ 

Women, nor thofe among them, who, upon 

their Report, had gone to the Sepulchre. By 

hh Riling from the Dead therefore might be 

I • meant 

as He <iW ^^-^ a^4i£/y4oi ^^S^PiW^ill^iiQIfti^ 
he wq^d r4!i!($irpk(c&(r^th«A$y!.£Qki^Th^Bj»S^ 
cr *nd . KiJig!- jof, J(lhiikf iT^ obmc tMstlb-V' 
veral I)ifBcuii;ks^. .And.ptoc(^:;f^9riSt9^ 6n.i; 
ther towards -expIs4olfig i0. j^orithftLMmlidgc 
qf the Rje£^crc6^5^r), ibSf^fttfi'ifKlMikfiiiS,*^. 
quajknted .ii| thft-jiexi; FiSK^ byniMiKjr ikPf<«^i 

firft iij^cpc} ,%, di4,09t=.*H»f>w;;Jvf% rSAuiSM 
him for xh^pardcttir', th^up(||i j^ jalJli|iS|>' 
her by jher Name.fheknevr hiui ;,. ihaf.^Yifig^ 
offered to emhra^p hitn he forbade. ^f,.gKf»:^-^ 
ing h^f for a Jleafpn that he Yf^PffJti^ittdi' 
ed tahfs patter : Bqt biddip§ b«f Q%MtltlOiHt' 
his pifcipl^s, that in ^rihQ«;TiWfthit|hgBl4 - 
afcmdtokii FaihpTi ^ tbemf^fbfft kh^»i^ 
andjp$tr Qatf. la tlys R^l^op gf il£isir)r .y<|jj^' 
4al(^\yf^tc %oeAflC»cle3 9fgret»tImpQniiiCf*f^ 
1 ft^ A ftrong€x proQfr thao: axvy. they M Jitcberr > 
to received, ^i^^brij^fi bgit^ rifcp ir^nt^idir: 7 
Dead^ ^Jl^ ^e^dfikttfi -had ii*n iuxj^/^^dl]^ ;"> 
He told hpr ,^ yr9,$.m.Y^t4jffnd4taAif f^r 
tbery hj wh^ch there feewed to be fonw 



Ho^^pWft cKera, that they ilfo "might" 
hav^ iht' ^atisfadion <5f feeing him, 3dly, ** 
ThcVi/w^s^IafcifidUtnyFatbir^ {^c, plain- ' 
ly refcrrcsd - lo"' a Gonverlation he had with 
thercf bcfor^rbe » was b^thayed, in which he 
toWthewthat heftiduld j^(> to bis Father^ l^i/^ 
By th^ Wor<3si- therefore, they were not only 

Iremin^td '^of • "anether- Prediftion of his, buc 
calJcd upQii tbejfpeft the great Things, which 
were to be the Confequencc of his going to the 
fatb^y •viz. The Coming of the Comfort n-y a 
Power of working Miracles ; and what would 
be ahEarneft of all thefe Things, the Joy of ' 
feeing him again j ail which he had promifeij' 
them in the Converfation alluded to in this ' 
Meffagc* Yet fome Doubts and Difficult'' 
tics ftiH remained. No body but Mary Mag-''- 
hadfcenhim-, and fhe did not know"* 
^liimat firft, buc took him for the Gardener;^ ^ 
Perhaps the whole was lilufion j but allow- 
g It was Ci>rift whom Ihe faw, Why was 
e commanded not to touch him ? it was 
ibably an Apparition, and not Chrifi him- 
If. Bcfides, Wherefore did he not appear 
/lii Difciples, who, according to his own 




See JohTi xiii. 14. 

,< t.. 



[ nil 

Promife, Were to fee him again ? The whole 
Story therefore might ftill appear to them an 
idle vifionary Tale. 

To deliver them from thefe Perplexities, 
nothing could be better calculated than the 
Account given by the other Mary and Salome, 
which imported, that they alfo had been at 
the Sepulchre, where they had feen an Ange), 
who not only alTured them that Cbriji ivas 
riferiy but ordered them to tell his Difciplcs» 
tliat they f^ould vieet him in Galilee, agreeably 
to what he himfelf had faid to them in his 
Life- time : That they were fo amazed and 
terrified at this Vifion, that they fled from 
the Sepulchre with the utmoft Precipita- 
tion, intending to communicate thae Things 
to the Apoftlcs, as the Angel had com- 
mandcxl them, but were fo overcome with 
Fear, that they had not the Power to teOH 
what they had feen and heard to fome, 
whom they faw in the Way : That as they 
were going, Jefus Chrifi himfelf met them, 
and fdluting them with an All hail ! hade tbm 
not be afraid, but go and tell his Brethren that 
they Jhculd go into Galilee, and that they Jkould 
fee him there \ to which they added, that tb^M 



gel had exprefly injoined thei;n • to, dpjf^f^r, thi»^i 
Meflage to him in particular. Had the Apo- 
ftlps ^d ,Plifcjpks ^Iven Credit to this Ac- 
coy nt.of.JVi^ry and SalmStt-h^y could have had 
but. ope Scruple kit. Jefus.had now appeared 
tp two Wpinen befides, Mary Magdalene ; had 
per^pi^tted thpfe W/arnea to embrace his Feet, 
and given thereby, A, fcnJibk.JProoE that it was 
hirofelf ajid not .an Apparition, and had alfo 
appointed a Place, wher^ they tJiemfelves were 
.to fee him. The pnly Scruple therefore, that 
" ngw remained, , arojfe from their not having 
fo^l^im. nhemfclve* > and till they did, they 
%med refolvcd to fufpend their Belief of his 
jilting fifcii from ^ the Dead, and treated all thefe 
fever^l Vifions of the Women as fo many idle, 


'> f* <J> 

9 7. *J ^ pbrervable that, all thefe miraculous 
[Incidents followed clofe upon the .Back of one 

Wother, _ and cpnfequerjtly were crouded into 
Jl Irnall Compafe of Time ;, fo that we ougl^t 

to be the lefs furpris^'d at the Apofties ,not 
.yielding at fo much Evidence. Such 

itAi .t/!'!— *. t'^'TJ rt^-"* '■ J'i i' 


k 1V4 S 

Wonders were cnougli 
and overwhelm their Underftandings. They 
were therefore left for a Time to ruminate 
l]pon what they had heard ; to compare the 
fevcral Reports together j to examine the 
Scriptures ; and recolleft the Predidlions and 
Difcourfcs of their Mafter, to which they 
were referred both by the Angels and him- 
iclf. But the Examination of the Scriptures 
was z Work of fome Time-, and in the Situ- 
ation in which they then were, their Minds 
undoubtedly were in too great ah Agitation 
to fettle to fuch an Employment with the 
Comporure and Attention that was nccefTary. 
Befides, it muft be remembered, diey Were a 
Company of illiterate Men, not vcrftd in the 
Interpretations of Prophecies, nor accuftomed 
to long Arguments and Dcduftions j and 
were moreover under the Dominion of an in- 
veterate Prejudice, authorized by the Scrips 
and Pbarifeesy the Pricfts and Elders, whofe 
Learning and whofe Dofltrines they had been 

' inftruftcd early to revere. To affift them m 
their Inquiries, and lead them to the true 
Senfe of the Scriptures, the only rational 

*Mcl»ns of cohquering their Prejudices, Cbri^ 


T 115 1 

imlclf appeared that fatnc Day to twQ of hi? 
JDiiciples, who were going to Emmaus -, a Vil- 
JUge about tljreefcore Furlongs diftant from 
Jerufalemt aad vvhom. he found difcQurfing 
and reafoaing as they went, upon thofc Ytrf 
Topicks. Thefe Dilciples, as I have already 
flic wed, had ■ left Jerufakm before any <pf the 
Women, who had feen Cbiijt^ had made their 
Report i at JeaJl that Report had not come 
to their Knowledge. AH they had heard was, 
that Xome Women who had t)een je^rly ^ 
the 'Sepulchre, had there been i^ormed b/ 
Angels, that he w^s rifcn from die Pe^, and 
|>ut in Mind that he himiclf had forjinerly 
prediAed hi£ Rcfurre^ioo, by flj swing out of 
the Presets that Jb it was to be. Xhi* Ar- 
gument were tiicy debating, when our Savi- 
our joined them ; who queftipniog them up- 
on the SubjCiSt of their Debate, and the Af- 
^i^iqn vifible \sx their Countenances i and un- 
/dcrftanding from the Account they gave, that 
4ihey were Hill unfatlsfied as to the main Point, 
^wnd feemed to put the Proof of his being 
•rifen from the Dead, upon his (hewing him- 
.iielf aJivc, rebuked them firft for their Ij^no- 

ue and Bac.kwardnsfs in Melisving all tkat the 
I 2 Pro- 

[ ii6 1 

Prophets bad fpoken \ ajtd then hgiiming at 
Mofes and all the Prophets^ be expounded to 
tbem in all the Scriptttres the Tbings concerning 
himfelf. During this whole Converfation they 
knew him not ; their Eyes were holdenj as Sr. 
Luke informs us, and for what Reafon is very 
plain. The Defign of Cbrift in. entering in- 
to fo particular an Expofition of the Prophets 
was to fhcw, that, by making a proper Ufe 
of their Underftanding, they might, from 
thofe very Scriptures, whofe Authority they 
allowed, have been convinced that the Mejftab 
ought to have fufferedy as they had feen him 
fuffer, and to rife from the Dead on the third 
Day. That is, Cbrift chofe rather to convince 
them by Reafon, than by Senfe ; or at leaft 
fo to prepare their Minds, that their afljjnting 
afterwards to the Teftimony of their Senfcs 
fhould be with the Concurrence of their Rea- 
fon. He had proceeded in the fame Manner 
with the other Difciples at Jerufalemy from 
all of whom he had hitherto with-holden the 
Evidence of Senfe, having not appeared to 
any of them, excepting Pettr^ till after the 
Return of thefe two Difciples to Jernfakm. 
This Proceeding, at once fo becoming the 
i ♦ Lord 

[ 117 ] 
Lord of Righteoufnefs and Truth, and the 
Freedom of Man as a reafonable Being, mufti 
have been prevented, had Cbriji difcovered 
himfelf to them at his firft appearing. Won- 
der and Aftonifhment in that Cafe had taken 
place of Reafon, and left them, perhaps, 
jWhen the. firft ftrong Impredion was a little 
l^orn away, in Doubt and Sccpticifm, But 
iow having duly prepared them to receive 
le Teftimony of their Senfcs, he difcovered 
iimfelf to them, and that by an Adt of De- 
rotion, in breaking of Breads which among 
theJ^iTi'waB always attended with Thankf- 
^giving to God, the Giver of our daily Bread. 
But there fceras to have been fomething pe- 
culiar in this Action, upon which Account 
it was mentioned by St. Luke in his Narra- 
tion of this Hiftory, and by the two Difciples 
themfelves, when they related to the Apoflles 
at Jerufakm^ what had happened to them at 
Emmaus, The Manner undoubtedly of break- 
ing the Bread, and probably the Form of 
Words in the Thankfgiving, were particular 
to our Saviour ; and thefe latter perhaps were 
the very fame with thofe made ufe of by him 
at the laft Supper. At leaft, thefe two Ac- 
I 2 tions 

[ lis ] 

ttons are defcribed by St. Luke in the fame 
Words, viz. He took Bread and gave Thanks* 
And ifrdke it^ and gave to them. If fo, how 
ftrongly were they called upon by this Ac- 
tion to remember their Lord, who had in- 
ftituted that very Form in Remrmbrance of 
his Death ! and how properly did it accom- 
pany that Difcovcry of himfclf which he now 
thought fit to make to them ! Accordingly 
they were convinced, and returned that fai 
Hour to Jcrufalcm, where they found the 
poftles affemblcd together and debating, 
parently upon the feveral Reports they had 
heard that Day, and particularly upon what 
Peter had told them, to whom fome Time 
that Day Chriji had appeared. But as nei- 
ther the Time, nor the Particulars of that 
Appearance are recorded by the Evangeliils, 
I fliall not pretend to fay any thing more 
about it, than that the Apolliks fcem to have 
laid a greater Strefs upon that aJone, t 
upon all thofe related by the Women. For 
upon thefe two Difciples coming into the 
Chamber, they accoft them immediately, with- 
out waiting to hear their Story, with The Lord 
tz rifek indeed, and hath appeared to Simon, 


[ 119 1 

but make no mentionof any of his Appearances 
to the Women. After which the two Difciplcs 
rciated what had happened to them in the 
Way to Emmausy and bow he was known of 
item in bnaking of Bread. But St. Mark fays, 
• they did not believe tbefi two Difciples any 
more than they had done the others, to whom 
Chrijl had appear'd •, which Words fecm to 
contam a fort of a Contradidion to what they 
themfelves feem to acknowledge in faying, the 
Lord hath rifen indeed, and hath appeared unto 
Simon. Let us therefore examine thefe two 
PalTages with a little more Attention. The 
whole Paffage in St. Mark is this : Jfter tbat^ 
be appeared in another Form to two of them, as 
they 'iva/ied, and went into the Country, and 
they went and told it unto the Rejtdue, neither 
he/ieved they them. To which I muil add th,c 
following : f Afterward he appeared unto the 
^^leven, as they fat at Meat^ and upbraided them 
9ith their Unbelief and Hardnefs of Heart, 
\ecaufe they believed not them which had feen 
nm qfter ks was rifen. By comparing thefe 
'affages in St. Mark with the parallel Paf- 
(age in St. l-ukf, it will appear what the Bc- 

I 4 lief 

• Chap, xvi, 13. f Vcr. 11. 

C I20 ] 

lief of the Apollles was, and what tbdr Un« 
belief. The Parallel to the Hrft has been al* 
ready confidcred. The Courfe of my Narra- 
tion leads me now to confider that to the fe* 
cond } and in doing of this, I Ihall take Occa- 
fion to obferve how they illuftrate and exphiQ 
each other, and thereby vindicate theie two 
Evan^elifts from theSufpicionofcontradi^lng 
one another's Account. 

The Apoftles, by the feveral Relations of 
the Women, which they received early in the 
Morning, and qpon which they had had fufil- 
cient Time to comment and reflcft (for it was 
now Night) and afterwards by thofe. of Ptf/<r 
and the two Difciples from Enmaus^ being 
ripe for Conviftion, Cbrifi vouchfafed to give 
them that Evidence . they feemed fo much to 
defire, and which having been granted to 
others, they had fopieReafpn to hope for and 
cxpeft. Accordingly, as the Difciples from 
Emmaus had juft finilhed their Story, Jefus 
himfelffiood in the mi^ of them, and faith un- 
to them. Peace he unto you j and they were ter^ 
rified and affrighted, and fuppofed they bad feen 
a Spirit. Here then was their Error, and in 


this cohfifted their Unbelief. They acknow- 
ledged indeed that Chrift was rilen from the 
Dead, but did not believe that he had bodily 
appeared to thofe, who pretended to have 
Iben him, and to have had fufficient Evi- 
dence upon that Point. Thefe, St. Mark 
fnySf they did not Relieve ; and we |carn from 
St. Luke, that when he appeared to them, 
they did not believe even their own Eyes, but' 
fuppofed they bad feen a Spirit. That this was 
the Unbelief, for which, as we read in St.. 
Mark, our Saviour rebuked them, is evident 
from what follows after in St. Luke. And be 
/aid uHt9 tbem. Why are ye troubled ? An4 why 
4o thoughts [Reafonings A<aAoy<(rft«] arife in 
your Hearts? Behold my Hands and my Feet! 
that it is I rnyfelf: Handle me and fee ; fmr a 
Sprit bath not Flejh and Bones, as ye fee me 
have. And when he had thus fpoken, be /hew- 
ed them his Hands and bis Feet. We may 
judge of the Diftemper by the Remedy. He 
bade them feel and fee that it was no Spirit, 
but he himfelf. Why? Becaufe they doubt- 
ed of it : And he upbraided them with their 
Unbelief and Hardmfs of Heart, becaufe they 
doubted of it, notwithftanding the Teftimony 


[ ^22 :i 

of People, whpfe Veracity they had qo Re» 
fon to fufped, and who brought Credenti^b 
with them, that could not be forged. It be- 
ing evident from thefe Paflages, thus cotn- 
pared together, that the Unbelief of the Apo, 
ft^es, mentioned by St. AUrk, and the Belief 
which they profefied, according to St. Luke, 
were both partial, thofe two EvangeUfla^ an 
thus pcrfeftly reconciled. 

3 u T if any one (hould Hill iiilift (Iqt ttief? 
Words of the Apoftles and Difciples, lie 
ijeird, is rifen indeed^ and b^tb appeared to St- 
moviy imply that they then had a full and ex- 
plicifr Belief of the Refurreiftion of Cbrijt^ as 
frpm the Force of rfje Wqrd indeed I am my^ 
felf inclined to think, and Ihould demand 
how they came afterwards to difbelieve the 
two Difciples, and. to fufped even that Ap- 
pearance which thcmfelves faw? I anfwer, 
that in the Appearance of Chri^ tQ the two 
Bifcipks, and in that afterwards |:o themfelves, 
were fome Circumftances, wh'cb at firft, and 
till more fatisfadory Proofs were given, 
might naturally tend to confound and unfettlc 


[ 123 ] 

the Faith, which they had taken up upon the 
Evidence of Peter : Becaufc Cbrifi appearing 
firft to the two Difciples in another Form^ and 
vanishing out of their Sight as foon as he was 
made known to them, feemed better to fuit 
with the Idea of his L>eing a Spirit, than a liv- 
ing ^idy-, and his entering into the Room 
where they were aflcmblcd* the Doors being 
put^ rather confirm'd that Idea, in the firft 
fudden Imprefiion it made upon their Minds ; 
which Miftake, in both Cafes, arofc from 
their not attending fufficiently to the miracu- 
lous Powers belonging to Cbrift -, to the Ope- 
rations of which his being in the Body was no 
Impediment. This Inadvertency, and want of 
due Confideration intheApofllcs and Difciples, 
juftifiesour Saviour's rebuking them for not be^ 
lieving them -which had feen him. But the 
Doubts occafioned by it were foon overcome by 
lofe farther Proofs of the Reality of his Body, 
rhich he afterwards vouchfafed to give them : 
Lnd by this Explanation, as well as by the for- 
ier, the Evangelifts are cleared from contra- 
liking each other. 


Ci24 3 

However, neither did thefe Proofs en-, 
drely fatisfy them; for, as the Hiftory goes 
on. While they yet believed net for Joy^ and 
wondered, Chrift/Jwi unto them. Have ye aity 
Meat? And they gave him a Piece of a broiVi 
i'ijh^ and an Honey-comh, and he took it and did 
eat before them. So much Compaffion.did he- 
ihew for their Infirmity ! and fo much. Care 
did he take, that hot even a Shadow of a 
Scruple ihould remain in their Minds, upon 
a Poiiit of the utmoft Importance to the great 
Bufinefs he came about ! And perceiving now. 
that every Doubt was vaniftied, and they 
were perfeftly convinced, he faid to . them, 
(purfuing the Argument begun by, the An- 
gels, and carried on by himfelf with , the two 
Difciples in the Way of Emmaus) fbefe are, 
the Words which Ifpa)t€ unto you^ while I was 
yet with you, that all Things muji he ful^edt 
which'were written in the Law of MoTes, and 
in the Prophets, and in the Pfalms tfncermng 
me, Then opened he their Underjlandings, that_ 
they might underftand the Scriptures, and faid 
unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it be — 
hoved Chrift, (i. e. Meffiah) to fuffer, anc^ 

[ 1^5 ] 

•Ifefrom the Bead on the third Day ; and 
Repentance^ and Remijfwn of Sins Jhould be 
preached in his Name, beginning at Jerufaleni •, 
Ufndye are Witnejfes of tbefe Things. 

H The Apoftles having now had every kind 
of Evidence laid before them, that was re- 
quifite to convince them of the Reality cf 
the Refurreftion of Chrifi \ and being more- 
over enabled by the Gift of that Holy Spirit, 
-which infpired the Prophets, to underftand 
the true Meaning of thofe facred Oracles, to 
which their Mailer conftantly referred them 
for the Marks and Charaftcrs of the Meffiahy 
^fefirhich he affirmed to be found in him, as well 
^%\ his Sufferings and Death, and Rifing again 
from the Dead on the third Day, as in the 
miraculous Anions and unfpotted Holinefs 
of his Life, were again left to confider and 
imine at Icifure the feveral Proofs of the 
Lefurredion, which they had heard and ktn. 
lat Day, and particularly thofc arifing from 
Ihe Accomplilhment of the Predidions con- 
•"tainedin the Holy Scriptures. That they might 
apply themfelves to this Examination with that 
cool, deliberate and fobcr Attention, that is more 

926 ] 

e^ccially neceffary to the rooting out inre- 
terate and religious Prejudices, and planting 
in their (lead a rational and weJl- grounded 
Faith, fuch as is required of all thofe who 
believe in Cbrifty and was particularly necef- 
fary for them, who were to be WitneiTes of 
all thefe Things to all the World, he forbore 
vi filing them any more for eight Days ; after 
which he condefcended to fubmit himfelf to 
a farther Examination, in order to remove the 
unreafonable Scnjples of St. ThsmaSy one of 
the Apoftles •, who, having not been prefent 
when our Saviour appeared to the other Dif- 
ciples, and confequcntly not having feen him 
himfelf, refufcd to believe upon the Report 
of others, fo wonderful a Thing as Chrifi*-^ 
rifing from the Dead : Nay, he was refolved 
not to be convincfed with feeing only. Ex- 
cept IJhallfee in his Hands^ fays he, the Print 
ef the Nails, and put npf Finger into the ?r\ 
ttf the Nails, and tbrujl my Hand into his 
I will not believe. Jeftis, when he appeared t<^ 
his Difciples, Jhewed them his Hands and his 
Feett as a Proof of his being the fame Jefu 
that was crucified. This Circumftance, 
mong the reft, the Apoftles undoubtedly re- 


t 127 ] 

Thomas^ as an Evidence by which 
they were affured that it was their Mafter, 
■whom they had feen \ and upon this Evi- 
dence St. Thomas alfo was contented to be- 
Iteve t But firft he would be convinced that 
It was real j he would not only fee the Print 
the Nails, which might be counterfeited, 
le would put bis Finger into the Print of the 
lails, and thruji his Hmid into bis Side. Eight 
Days after therefore, when his Difciples tvere 
,4gain met together in a Chamber^ and Thomas 
'}as with them, Jefus came, the Doors being 
Wt, and Jioed in the Midjl, and faid. Peace 
^e nn$o you. ^en faith be to Thomas, Reach 
Either thy Finger, and behold my Hands, and 
zach hither thy Hand, and tbrufl it into my 
Side ; and be not faitblefs^ hut believing. What 
could St. Thomas do, but yield immediately 
to the Evidence he had required ? And what 
could he fay to one, who appeared to know 
■P&ll his Thoughts, but my Lord, and my God! 
^mefus faith unto him, Thomas, becmife thou 
W^aft feen me, thou haft believed : Blejfed are 
^'ihey that have not feen, and yet have be- 


[ 128 ] 

After this there feetns to have bem no ' 
Scruple left in the Minds of any of the 
Apoftles, to whom however Chrift was ftill 
pleafed to continue his Vifits, * being feen of 
^benii as St. Dike tcftifies, forty Bays after 
his Pajftony andfpeaking of the Things pertainr 
ing to the Kingdom of God. But as hitherto 
all the Appearances of Chriji feem t& have 
been intended, only for the Conviction of his . 
Apoftles -, and thofe that follow rather for 
their Confirmation and Inflrudioa in tbeFaich ' 
and Dodrines of the Gofpcl, the facred Wri- : 
ters, who have been very particular in the 
Accounts they give us of the former, have 
mentioned but very few of the latter : I hj 
few } for I think it highly probable that the 
Appearances of Chrift to his ApofUes for the 
remaining thirty Days, were more than they 
have thought proper to record. And thcRe*» 
fon of this different Proceeding is very obvious. 
The Apoftles are to be confidered both as 
IVitneffes of the Miracles and the Sufferings, 
the Death and the RefurrcAion oijefus Cbrift^ 
and Teachers and Preachers oi his Dodtrine.- 
In the Charadber of JVitneffeSy a circumftantial 

, Ac- 

• A^, ch. i. vcr. 3. 

t 129 1 
Accoont of the Means and Opportunities they 
had of knowing certainly the feveral Fafts at- 
fieiled by them, muft needs give great Force 
and Credit to their Evidence ; whereas in that 
.of. Preachers it is fufficient if their AuditorB 
were fatisfied in general that the Dodbrlnes 
taught by them were derived from the In- 
ftruclions, and authorized by the Commiflion 
given them by their Matter fo teach ail Na- 
tiws \ and of this, the various Gifts of the 
.Holy Spirit, poured out not upon the Apoftles 
.only, but by them apon all Believers, were 
full and unqueftionable Proofs. But among 
the laft- mentioned Appearances of CM}? there 
are two, which, by reafon of their Connexi- 
on with the former, ought by no means to 
have been omitted : The firft relates to 
Cbrifi'3 meeting his Difciples in Galilee, which 
was foretold by Chriji himfelf before his 
Death, repeated by the Angels to the Wo- 
men at* the Sepulchre, and afterwards con- 
firmed to them again by Chrijl. The Ac- 
compU^ment of this Prophecy, it was cer- 
tainly neceflary to (hew •, accordingly we have 
it in St. Matthew, who fays, 7hen the Eleven 
JHfifpks ««»/ into Galilee, unto a Mountain* 

[ 130 ] 
where Jefus bad appointed tbem^ and when tbef 
favf him tbey WQFjhipfd bim : but others dwht- 
ed. The fecond, in like manner, correfpond$ 
with what was fppken by our Savioiir to 
Mary A^agdalene in thefe Words : Bui gf tt 
my Brethren^ andfiy unt9 tbfm, JafeeMdmtf 
my Father andyovr Father ^ an^ t^ ny C^dani 
your God ; which Words, as I h^ve 4^ready 
pbferyed, referred to at CpnverfatioA be had 
ivitli his Difciple$ the Night befofe ha w$a be« 
tfayed, wh^cia he tpid them| li^ Tbat be 
Ihould^d to bis Father \ 2dl7, That he would 
come to them bpfore he went ^o hU Fate} 
3dly, That after he was gone to the Father, 
he would fend thetp a Comforter^ even the 
Spirit of Truth \ who would teofb tbqm aU 
Things^ and bring all Tbi»gs ff ^«> Sjemuh 
brance, fubatfoever be bad /aid mtp^ ^h^m. 
And 4thly, That whofoeyer believe^ on bim 
ihould have the Power of working 4s gr^t, 
nay. greater Miracles than he did, .Tbc; ful- 
filling of which feveral Promife^ prPcopbecies 
I ihall no^ (ejL down, only pretnifing^.tbat the 
fecond Article was abundantly acoooppUlb^ 
by the ieyeral Appearances above<nu:ntioned, 
as we have ahwdy fcen. The firft, viz, hi* 


[ 131 ] 

-■'Afcenfion into Heaven, came to pafs in this 

'-Manner : ' • * And being affembkd together 

■Vff^ iktm, hi ctmmanded them that they Jbould 

'^liH depart from Jerufelem, but wait for the 

. Proik^cfibe Father^ vuhkh, faith he, ye have 

4Kari^fme. For John truly baptized with Wa- 

■ -ieri h^ je fhcdl hi baptized with the Holy 
'Oboft wr nmny Days hence. When they there- 

■ -fwt were come together^ they ajked of him fay- 
\itigY Lerd^ vhH thou at this Time refiore tbe 
' KH^domUlfneU And he faid unto them. It is 

•mt fifr ypu to know the Times or the Seafons, 
^tbkk ike Fatiter hdth put in bis own Power-, 
^ye/baB receive Power, after that tbe Holy 
GJioft is eeme upon you -, and ye fhall he Wit- 

■etefes untitme, both in Jeruralem, and in all 

'Jvdca, md iu Samaria, and unto the uttermofi 
Pirts if tibi Earth. And when be bad fpoken 
tifefe ?Mif;, while they beheld, be was taken 

Hip, Ma Goud received him out of their Sight, 
Akitobile they looked fledfaftJy towards Heaven, 

' e^ Be ktitni up^ behold two Men flood by them 
ht'vMte Apparely which fdidunto them, Te Men 
«f* Gdlfeej w!y fhnd ye gasang up into Hea- 

•ifWtf'^lhas'fme Jcfus, which is taken vp from 
■' ■'^■■"' ■'■•:'•■■■-•_ ■ K 2 • ■ • you 

f AQ»f Ch. i. ver. 4, —-14," 

[ 132 1 

you into Heaven, fljoll Jo come, in. like mamur' 
as ye have /ecu kirn go into Heaven. — ---The 
Hiftory of the AccompUihtncnt of the t^vd 
Article is in the next Chapter, -^d . in'. tlM^ 
Words: Jnd wken the SXay.of Bentecojt^wi^s 
fully come, they were aU with, one Ac(w4m 9m 
Place-, and fuddenly then came >^ ^ainfj,\fkom 
Heaven, as of a mfttvig mi^ty_Wtn4\ Mli^U 
filed aU the Houfe where ^tb^ ^^^*iSflingt 
And there appeared unto them eleven-^ iTongifSf^ 
like (U of Fir(, and it J4t ftpon each ^f .tf>etih 
and they vom filled with /Z'<^, .IjJoJy ,QfeoA» 
a,nd began to fpeak with other Tcngmst m the 
Spirit gave them Utterance, And there were 
dwelling at Jerufalem, Jews, devout Meti,,~^f0 
of every Nation under Heaven. Noitf when. this 
was noifed abroad, the Multitude cam tog^tbtf 
an^were confounded, becaufe that _ eveify^Moft 
■ heard tbem.fpeqk in their qunLangu,age. ^^^94 
they were all amazed, and marvelled, fayirig one 
to another. Behold, are not all theje whifjk ijpiak, 
palileans? ojidhcu^ hear we every Mtfn^m mr 
own ^ongife, wherein ^e are born J JP^i^iaiij^ 
and Medcs, and Elamite^, and the J>ufellers^^ff 
lylefopotaoiia, aij^d in Judea, andQa^j^d^ff^ 
in. Pontus, and Afi^ I'hrygia, «»( Panjphj^ 

E 1^3 1 
jiaj ik E^ypt,' ukd in the Parti i?/ Libya, ahoiti 
Gyrcne> 4nd Strangers of Romei Jews an J 
Profclyt€Si Cretes and Arabians, we do hear 
Hfem.JPiak in our Tongues the wonderful Works 
<ff . God: — For a Proof of the Completion of 
the foarth Article^ I fhall refer th^ Reader to 
the I^ory of the AA^ of the Apioftles, in 
"wludi he will find numberlefs Inftances of 
the Power of working Miracles in the Apo- 
ftles.^ iy wbofe Hands (fays the Hittorianj 
ch. Vi ver. 1 2-.) were many Signs and Wonders 

^BTMght among the People, info much that 

they kreught forth the Sick into the Streets, and 
laid them on Beds and Couches, that at leaji the 
Shadow of Peter pqffing hy might overfhado^- 
fome of them, There eame alfo a Multitude out^ 
of the ' Gties round about Jerufalemi bringing 
JkkFelkSy and them which were vexed with um 
titan Spiritit • and they were healed e^ery one,, 

From this View of the Method arid dr- 
deri'iQ'ivfaich the feveral Proofs of the Re- 
fttrnftiob were laid before the Apoftles, it is! 
ih^difeft that, as C^n/? required of them af 
itafohii&Ifc ind well-grounded Faith/ fo did 
be pUtfae th* tttoft proper and> cffeftual 
~^'- K 3 Means 

[ 134 ] 

Means for the attaining that End. With thif 
Purpofe, infteadof bearing down their Rea- 
fon, and dazzling their Underftanding by s^H 
full Manifeftation of himfelf all at once, vre 
fee him letting in the Light upon diem bj 
little and little, and preparing their Minds b) 
the gradual Dawning of Truth, that thcyf ' 
might be able to bear the full Luftre of the. 
Sun of Righteoufnefs rifing from the Grave .jij 
to confider and examine, and know that 
was he himfelf, and to alTure the World it 
was inmpoffible they could be deceived. And 
as, by this Proceeding in general, he iatcnd- 
cd to open their Underftanding by Degrees, 
and condud them Step by Step to a fuJi Con- 
viJticn and Knowledge of the Truth ; (b by: 
referring them to tlie Scriptures, and fubtfl 
mitting himfelf to the Scrutiny and Judg-»r 
ment of their Senfes, he did not only wave 
all Authority, but require them in a ftrcngj 
and particular Manner to exercifc their Rea- ^ 
fon in examining the Evidence brought ber 
fore them ; for which Purpofe alfo he both 
improved their Faculties by the Infufion of 
his Holy Spirit, and gave them fufficienc 
Time, and frequent Opportunities, Jhewing 


[ i35 1 

Hrifif to thed aiive after hii Pafftofi, hy many 
)§itfaMl6 Proofs^ fays the Author of the Aifs^ 
ting /een aj tbtm forty Days^ and [peaking of 
he 'Jh'nigs pertaining to the Kingdom of God. 
And molt certainly never was E^dence more 
fairly ofiferedcoConfideration ; never was there 

Ejuiry put upon a more rational Method, as 
eed there nerer were any Fails that could 
ref abide the Tcft. This I Ihal! now endea- 
. wjr to evince, by confideringthe Fads them* 
felves, upon which the Proof of the Refurrec- 
tion, and confequently the Fahh of the Apoftlesi 
was eftablilhed. •! 

§. 12. Thj Fa<5ls, of Which the Evidenceoif 

le Refurredion confifted, may be comprized 

inder three Heads : ift. The Appearances of 

le Angels : adiy^ The Appearances of Chrifi 

I the Women : And jdly. The Appearances 

Chriji to the Difciples and Apoftks. r\ 


ift, T»E Appearances of i\\t Angels at 

[the Sepulchre on the Morning of the Refur- 

l^dioQ were many, each differing from the 

thwr w»d feen by different Perfons •, as ift^ 

K4 % 

[ 1^6 } 

B-y the ^«<^2i»r .^oldiors*. iwhp>kq)t-ijie4Si8r: 
pvij[4br9jt2«Lly, :By uhc .etiier Mary and jbfi 

Jeamas ami xhdfe: with hcrrfi.::: t?; iiiuu w 7. 

■ ■ ■ » 

Thb Angd, idiaappcmd-in^nibe'JeAmir. 

SQlditrs» msa:x:loBtbsd^vntivTestcr^iWiiFaas 

ms like, Z4gi>tMingy and his< MMMOtipf^ «ss 

Snow, His Ccaning was atreaded: imdi ms 

Earthquaifi^, and im .Streogth ib ^muCb'teU 

)RQnd that.of -Movtals^ thaTshe dngly^ rtiUedt' 

away the Stoofi ^om -die Mobtlk ef-ithe'^Sfe^ 

pulchre ^ which, according to j?e!2^sCi>pi«8;^ 

both Creek and, was fo lai^ge rhat 

twenty Men could hardly roll it. IJiaVc'd!- 

rieady taken notice of the two Parpofesi' Ai jr- 

on which this jii^el of the Lxhri ^cxki^Sse^ 

from Heaven, t;/z. To fright away the Soli 

diers, and to open the Sepulchre, thaf^thf 

Women who were then on their Way -ihi-^ 

ther, and the others both Women and Dif- 

ciples, and 7^w/, who were come thither 

that Day, might have free Entrance into' it, 

and fee that the Body o^Jefui was not thei^; 

The Rcafonablenefs of thcfe t^o Puipofes, ' 1 

^ * \hihki 

[ ^37 3 
tldidc^>e<r«ry body muft acknowledge % and 
tkad h' « ^9tkf ladterial Point cowards efta-< 
faittiuig tbe CndiMlitltof the f>i/ft ; efpecialljr 
if we confiderthat, without tlu!'Iiaterpoficioi> 
of He«veD» the Sepulchre would probably 
lidtviiiircahBeaiopsned, ;nar. the Guard remov-^ 
ed^'titt'^toitiM^Exptrattcuiof: the third Day» 
the JO^^ttBastdlbY Cbrifi for his HIing from 
the BiBad;i.!ibr'!«diich Cafe:^ tho' no earthly* 
PofYfTiijCQulsl have hindered Cbrrjt, who is 
^iFow^^iOfi God» from coming out of the 
Gpiytit\iff(^ tlji9iPoor of. the Sepulchre remain-:>fedir.:^>iHlthe Guard continuing there, 
mu^ ^e^u^jF have prevented that Exami^ 
iiatioi>:Jinfio the State of the Sepulchre, whicli 
c9pyiiip^,St.^7(?^/f that Cbriji. was rifen ;and 
w^iflii. ,if itxUd not of itielf amount to a clear 
T^ifi.,^.^ R^furredion, was «t ka£b ad^ 
miira^y calculated, to prepare the Minds, not 
of fjie-^foftles-only, but of all the Jews who: 
YiRf^ at, that Time in Jerufalem^ to admit 
fu(^: other Proofs, as were afterwards offered 
tQ tbcic Confidemtion. For it 13 not to be 
igi^n^ t}i^ none but the; . Difciples of Jt- 
J^ y^fi^ thc^J^pulchre that I)s^y. XheStory 
tO(Id t|/ clie Soldiers undoubtedly foon fpread all 


r '381 

over Jerufakm ; and bare Curioficy, \ 
any other Motive* was furcly fulHcient to 
carry Numbers to furvcy the Scene of fo aito- 
nilhing an Event: A Scpuichrci hcircd out 
of a Rock, ciofcd with a vaft Stoncj and that 
Stone but the Evening before fealed up by» 
the High Priefts and Eldersj and committed 
to a Guard of Roman Soldiers ; this Sepul- 
chre, notwithftanding ail thcfe Precautions^ 
opened, as one Part of the Soldiers reported^ 
by an Angel from Heaven, or as others fai 
by the Difciples of Jtfus ; who, as was 
tended, tame by Nighty and whilt thg GUi 
Jlepty Jlok away the Body of Jefus, which 
Effeft was miffing. Thefc two different an(f 
irreconcileable Reports muft have iikewife 
induced others to go, and confidcr u 
the Spot, by examining into the Nacttre 
Situation of the Sepulchre, the Probabilit 
of that Report, which charged the 
ciples with having ftolen away the Body 
Jefus \ for as, upon that Suppofition, no 
but human Means are faid to iil^e be^h em 
ployed, in order to know whether ihol 
Means were proportioned to the Effcfts a' 
fcfibcd to them, it was ncceffary to cofnpa 


t H9 1 

whac was done, witli the Manner in which it 
was pretended to be performed. And upon 
fuch an Esomin&tion, I think, it znuil have ap^ 
peared to every confiderate Man, if not im- 
poflTibie, at icaft improbable in the higheft 
Degree, for the Difcipies of Jefus to havo 
ftolen away his Body, while the Guards were 
at their Pofts. For fuppofing theDifciples to 
be tlic Rcverfe of what they were, bold, cn- 
terprizing, cunning InPipoftors, and capable 
of making fo hazardous an Attempt ; can it 
alfo be fuppofed, that a Company of Rotiuiji 
Soldiers, trained up under the ftricleft Dif- 
cipline, and placed there but the Evening be- 
fore, ihould be all afleep at the fame Tinie,, 
and (kep (o found 1/ and fo long, as not to be 
awakened, either by rolling away the Stonev: 
(iwiuch, as it fmgly clofed up the Mouth of 
le Sepulchre, muft certainly have been very 
irgc) or by the carrying off the Body ? the 
^former of which required a great Number of 
Hands, and the latter muft have appeared to 
have been done with fome Deliberation, fince 
the Liiien Clothts in which the Body was wrap- 
ped, and the Napjdn that was wound about 
the Head, were folded up and laid in diffc- 

I rent 

t M6 1 

^nt Parts of the Sepulchre". The Sepitiiehft! 
was hewed or hollowed into the folid Rock f 
fo that they could have no Thought of mak-. 
ing a feeret Paflage into it* by digging thro* 
the Rock j and confequently muft have goi« 
in by that only Entrance^ which was clofed 
Up by a great Scone^ and guarded by a Band, 
of Roman Sokliers. Tbefe feveral Circum* 
iiances duly attended to, were of themfellrei- 
fuSicient to invalidate the Teftimony of 
thofc Soldiers, who pretended that thcDiP* 
ciples ftole away their Matter's Body while- 
they were afleep. But they were on the othct- 
hand very ftrong Arguments for the Credl'-' 
bility of that Account, in which all the Sol- 
diers at firll agreed, and which Part of them 
undoubtedly had publilbed, before the other' 
Story was put into their Mouths by the Chief* 
Priefts and Elders. For in this Reladon a 
Caufe is afligned proportionable to all th& 
Eflfedtsi Effefts, which as they were vifiblc 
and notorious, as well as extraordinary^ a>uJd- 
not fail of exciting the natural Curiofity of 
Mankind to inquire, by what Means iixy; 
were brought about,: The Solution is cafy i|Jid; 
full, yin Angel efthe^J^prd defsendeA^fhrn . 


t '41 ] 
HssviMi r6lUd aw(v^ the Stone from the Mouth 
0f ^he Siepulehre, 'ind/af upon it: His Gounte- 
mmci^40iu'^Ufie''i^ightning; and his Raiment 
vMie 4i'«W*». This Accounts* fo^ the Terror 
df'tbt §^rfdi^hfi theif deferting their Poft, their 
jwefcrpitatft'yi^Htl itito the City'- i for the Stone's 
UeiHj^ mlM iawsf ' fcom the Mouth of the Se- 
puk:hrei^ei«tt5if^hite''it' was furrounded by a 
MiMfQnXix^r\ ^If the- ffepulch^al Linen be- 
iihg jeft^ift'dik'GMve, folded up, and lyihg 
iii'dif&rentFlaiiacs; and for the Body's being 
nui&fl^ ivaSi therefofe the Caufe here affign- 
«dv i)owever>wpnderful, is moft likely to be 
trUft- .■ "'."' '■■■■■'^ - • ■ ■<■■'■ 

■ . NoBi oedlld the Miracle be an Obje^kloit 
t»: the .Credibility of this Account among 
the yimt\ mhol -uppn the Authority df their 
Lawgiivtr, their Prophets, and their Hifto-' 
ckus, were aocuftomed to thiAk tfie working 
Muatcles very confiftent with the Idea of God, 
tberAil-niighty and All- wife Creator of Hea- 
ven 9|iid Earth j tho' fome niodern Thilofo- 
phrts have pretended to difcover from Rci- 
ibtii ^6i^MtrMtksareto the common, Senfe itni 
J^td&ftm^^ ^f Men utterly impoJIibk^ and 
"". con- 

[ 142 1 

contrary $o the UncbangeahUnefs of God. This 
Point indeed, if it could be made out, (as 
jnofl: certainly it can not) would of itfelf be a 
fufficicnt Anfwer to all the Arguments, that 
can be brought in fupport of the Credibility, 
not of this Story only, but of all the Evan- 
gelical Hiftory, and the Jewijh Religion alfo \ 
and would fuperfede all other ObjcAions to 
them» as needicfs and fuperfluous. Let thofe 
then, who upon the Force of this Speculation 
deny Chrillianity, here try their Strength 
Let them prove that Miracles are utterly 
poflible, ^c. or, till they do, let thcra givi 
leave to thofe, who are of a contrary Opinioi 
to infift that in the prefent Cafe the Miracli 
can be no Obje6lion to the Credibility of the 
Faft J and that, as I have faid, it could hare 
been none among the Jews in particulai* 
whom from their Infancy had heard, and re; 
and believed the mighty Signs and PFondt 
wrought by God for bis People Ifracl -, had c: 
pcfted to find in the Meffiab a Power 
working Miracles ; and h^d Evidence of 
many performed among them by Jefus a; 
■his Difcipks. And indeed the Appearan 
of an Angel, upon this Occafion, fo far 



[ U3 1 

_^ffom being an ObjoHiion, was highly proper, 
had almoft faid ncceffary. 7(/»J had, but 
two Days before, been put to Death by the 
Rulers of the Jews^ as an Impoftori one, 
who by the Authority of Beelzebub caft out 
iX)evils, and by afluming the Character of the 
{ejjiab blafphemed God. His Sepulchre alfo 
IS guarded by a Band of Soldiers, under 
^hc Pretence of preventing his Difciplts from 
irrying on the Impofture begun by their 
[after, by Healing away his Body, and giv» 
[ing out that he was rifen from the Dead, in 
lonfequence of what he had faid before his 
LCrucifixlon. Under thefe Circumftances the 
..Atteilatioo of Heaven was neceflary to (hew 
>hat God, though he had fuffered him to ex- 
.pire on the Crofs, had not forfaken him 5 but 
|€)a the contrary, had co-operated with him 
rtn in his Sufferings, his Death, and Buria?, 
\d Refurrcdion from the Dead on the third 
[pay 1 having, by the fecret Workings of his 
Vovidence and his Almighty Power, ac- 
[,Complillied in every Point the feveral Prc- 
• didions of Jefus relating to each of thofe 
-vcntJ: Events, which at the Time of thofo 
PrediAions, none but God, or an Eye en- 


[ 144 1 

lightcn'd by his omnifcient Spirit, could forc- 
fec ; and which nothing lefs than his all-con- 
trouling Power could bring about. The De- 
fcent therefore of the Angel of the Lord from 
Heaven, and his rolling away the Stone from 
the Sepulchre, was a viJiblc Proof that the 
Finger of God was in the great Work of the 
Refurrediion, was a proper Honour done to 
him, who claimed to be the Son of God, 
and unanfwerably refuted the impious Ca- 
lumnies of thofe, who upon Account of that 
Claim ftiled him an Impoftor and Blaf- 
phcmcr. , 

§, 13. What has been juft faid of the Pro- 
priety and Ncceffity of an Angel's defcending 
from Heaven, upon the prefent Occalion, is 
applicable in general to the feveral Appearances 
of Angels fecn by the Women, which I fhall 
examine in the next Place, taking it for grant- 
ed, that the Miraculoufntfs of fuch Ap- 
pearances will be no longer urged as an Ar- 
gument againft their PoIIibllity. The only 
Thing then remaining to be confidered in 
this Examination, is the internal Evidence 
which thefe feveral Vifions carry along with 



tViem of Reality and Truth ; for by fome they 
have been treated as pure Illufions, and by 
others as downright Falflioods. The princi- 
pal Argument made ufe of to prove their 
Fallhood is founded upon a fuppofed Contra- 
diftion and Inconfiftcncy in the fereral Ac- 
counts given of them by the Evangelifts ; 
which Argument having been thoroughly dif- 
cufTcd in the foregoing Part of this Difcourfe, 
I mull refer the Reader thither for an Anfwer 
to it. That thefe Appearances were Illufions, 
the Effcfts of Superftition, Ignorance and 
Fear» hath been infmuated rather than avert- 
ed ; but hath never, that I know of, been 
attempted to be proved. I ihall not therefore 
amufe myfclf with a vain Search after Argu- 
ments, which, I prefume, are not cafy to be 
found } or they would have been produced 
by thofe, who have laboured with fo much 
Diligence to expofe and ridicule the Faith of 
Cbrifiians'y but leaving fuch to make good 
their Aflertion, who Ihall think fit to main- 
tain it, I Ihali proceed to lay down a few 
Obfervations, tending to prove the Reality and 
Truth of thefe Appearances of the Angels to 
the Women, 

L. The 

C '46] 

The Angel firfl: feen by the Women was 
that defcribcd by St. Mark^ in the Form of a 
yiung Man fitting [within the Sepulchre] on 
ib€ right Side^ donthed in a long white Garment^ 
at the Sight of whom the Women {Mary 
and 6'fl/flj*^] difcovcring great Signs of Fear, 
lie faith unto them. Be not affrighted \ ye feek 
Jcfus of Nazareth, which was erucijied j be is 
rifen^ he is »*/ here. Beheld the Place where they 
laid hitn. But go your Pf^ay^ tell his Difciples 
Mid Peter, that hegoelb before you into Galilee ; 
there Jhall ye fee him, as he faid untoywi* That 
this wai a real Vifion, and no Phantom of 
the Imagination, is evident from thefc Parti- 
culars. I ft, As it does not appear from this 
or any other Account, that the Women, up- 
on their coming to the Sepulchre, wefe un- 
der any fuch Terrors or Perturbation of Mind, 
as arc apt to fill the Fancy with Speftres and 
Apparitions. Oa the contrary, they went 
thither a little after Day-break, prepared and 
expc£ting to find the dead Body of Jtfits 
there, and purpofing to embalm it 5 about the 
doing of which they had been calmly confer- 
ring by the Way : So, 2dly, By their coming 
' with 

r J47 1 

^Jlh a DeCgn to embalm the Body, it is plain 
they had no Notiort either of his being already 
filfcnj or that he would rife from the Dtad i 
and therefore, ^dly, Had the Angel been only 
the Creature of a difturbcd Imagination, thty 
vrould fcarcely have put into his Mouth a 
Speech, that direftly contradifted all the 
Ideas, upon which they proceeded but one 
Moment before. 4thly, It is to be obferved 
farther, that the Illufion muft have been 
double i two Senft-s muft have been deceiv'd, 
the Hearing and the Sight j for the Angel 
was heard as well as feen i and tho' this fre- 
quently happens in Dreams, and fometimes 
perhaps in a Delirium, or a Fit of Madncfs, 
yet I queftion whether an Inftance exadly pa- 
rallel in ail its Parts, to the Cafe here fup- 
pofed, was ever known \ for no two People 
dream together exactly alike, nor are affefted 
in a Delirium with exactly the fame Imagi- 
nations. 5thly, The Words fpoken by the 
Angel refer to others fpoken by CM}? to 
his Difciples before hi? Palfjon, in which he 
told them, that after he was rifen^ he would 
^0 before them to Galilee. This Promifc or 
Predi<^ion i e Angel here reminds them of, 
L 2 "bid^ 

[ 148 ] 
bids them tell the Difciples from him to go 
into GaliieCy and promifes them that Chri/i 
will meet them there. Now, as not only the 
Refurrcftion, but the perfonal Appearance of 
Cbriji alfo, is implied in thefe Words, the 
Reafon given above under the third Parti- 
lar concludes in the prefent Cafe mote ftrong- 
ly againfl: fuppofing them to have proceeded 
only from the Imagination of the Women ; 
for the fudden Change of whofe Opinion 
from a Difbelief of the Refurre&ion, into a 
full and explicit Belief of it| no adequate 
Caufe can be afTigned. For if it ihould be 
allowed that they knew of thb Predii^ion of 
Chriji^s, (which however does not appear) 
yet the Bufinefs that brought them to the 
Sepulchre makes it evident, that till that In- 
ftant they did either not recoiled:, not under- 
ftand, or not believe it : And if it be- farther 
faid, that upon their entering into the Sepul- 
chre, and not finding the Body of JefuSy this 
Prediftion might naturally come at once in- 
to their Heads, and they might as fuddcnly, 
and as reafonably believe Chriji to be rifen, 
as St. John did, whofe Faith was built upon 
no other Evidence than what thefe Women 
I had 

f 149 ]. 
had now before them j I anfwer, that allow- 
ing St. John, when he is faid to have firft 
bcJicved the Refurreftion, had no other Evi- 
dence than thefe Women now had, or might 
have had, yet it is to be obferved, that St. 
'John was in a fitter Difpoficion of Mind to re- 
fleft and judge upon that Evidence, than the 
Women. St. John ran to the Sepulchre, up- 
on the Information given him by Mary Mag- 
Jakne, that the Body of Jefus was removed 
from thence, and laid flie knew not where, 
nor by whom : And, as the Sepulchre was at 
fomc Diftance from his Habitation, many 
Thoughts muft naturally have arifen in his 
Mind, tending to account for the Removal 
of the Body j and among the reft, perhaps, 
fome confufed and obfcure Hope that hfc 
might be rifen from the Dead, purfuant tO 
many Predidions to that Purpofc delivered 
by him to his Difciples. But whatever his 
Thoughts were at the Time of his coming to 
the Sepulchre, about which it muft be owned 
nothing can be offered but mere ConjeiSure ; 
it is certain he had Leifure to refleft upon the 
Prediftions of his Matter, and to examine into 
rhe State of the Sepulchre, which both he and 
L 3 Peter 

_ [ 15° 1 

Peier did, (and that implies fome Delibera- 
tion and Prefencc of Mind) and that after 
this deliberate ExaminJiion he departed quietly 
to his own Home. Whereas the Women are 
reprefented as falling into the utmoft Terror 
and Amazement immediately upon tlieir en- 
tering into the Sepulchre-, and continuing unr 
der the fame Confttrnation till they were met 
flying from thence by Chrifi himfelf. Under 
fuch a Piforder ot Mind, can we fuppofe them 
capable of reco]le(5ting the Prediftions ofl 
Chrijl about his Refuircftion ? confidenng 
the Proofs of their Accomplifhment arifinj 
from the State of the Sepulchre ? and pcr-^ 
fuading themfelves at once that he was ne 
only rifen from the Dead, but would pcrfb^l 
nally appear to hisDifciplcs ? And then im»l 
mediately upon thJsConvidion fancying tjief j 
fawanAngcI, and heard him affure them i«' 
a diflind manner that Cbrifi was rifen ; c»ll1 
them to view the Place wiierc ke had bcenj 
laid, and bid them tell his Difciples that he 
would meet them in Galilee? In z Word, 
this fuppofcd Illufion proceeded from a ftronj 
J'erfuafioa that Ck^iji was rifen from tl 


[ 151 ] 

Dead, whence arofe that Belief? If that 

Belief arofe from a cool Reflexion upon the 

Pi^i^ions of our Saviour, and the State of 

the Sepulchre, (theCaufe of St. John's Faith) 

Whence came their Terror? Which, if not 

previoui to the Apparition of the Angel, was 

at Jcafl prior to the Words, Be rtot affrigbt- 

^td, with which he firft accofted them. If it 

Hbe urged, that this Terror was of the Nature 

Vef thofe caufelefs and unaccountable Terrors 

called Panicks, it may be anfwered, that this is 

[giving us a Name inftead of a Reafon, and is, 

[in effed, faying juft nothing at all, or faying 

no more than that they were affrighted, but 

no body can tell why or wherefore. 6thly, 

rit is obfervable, that the Speech of the An- 

Igel to the Women confilts of ten diftindb 

I Particulars : As, i. Be nat affrighted. 2. Te 

fkk Jefus */ Nazareth, ijobo was crucified. 3. 

\Ht is rifen. 4. He is net here. 5. Behold the 

\pla€e where they iaid him. 6. But go your 

'fay^ tell his Difciples^ 7. y^wJ Peter, 8. ^bat 

\J^ goetb iefare you inta GaWlopy 9. there Jhall 

he fee him, 10. As he [aid unto you. The 

Order and Connexion of which feveral Par- 

L 4 ticular?* 

[ 152 ] 

ticulars, are no icfs remarkable than their 
Number : and therefore taking both thefc 
Confideration? into the Account, I leave any 
one to judge whether it be conceivable thaq 
Women under fo great a Terror and Di- 
ftradion of Mind, as to fancy they fdw and 
heard an Angel when there was no fuch 
thing, fliould be able to compofe a Speech 
for this Phantom of Ciieir Fear and Imagi- 
nation, containing fo much Matter, Order, anci 
Reafon, and proceeding upon the Suppofi- 
tion that ^hey were not then convinced that 
(^hrijl was rifen from the Dead, tho' the Be- 
lief of his Rcfurredlion is prefumed not only 
to have proceeded, but even to have occa- 
ffDncd this lUufion. 

I. HAVE dwelt the longer upon the Exami- 
nation of this lirll Appearance of the Angel tc 
the Women, becaufe the fettling the Nature 
of that will fave us the Trouble of enterinj 
into a particular Difcuffion of the reft ; 
fcverai Articles of which will fall under pne 
other of the foregoing Obfervations. All 
ihall do therefore is, to note the different Cil 
cumlUnces obfcrvable in each of them, anc 


[•53 J 

from thence endeavour to raife another Argu- 
ment for the Truth and Reality of all. 

The Vifion, we have jufl now confidered, 
was of one Angel j that feen by Mary Magda* 
lene was of twoj as was likewife that reported 
by Joanna and thofe with her. And whereas 
the firft Angel was found by the Wo men upon 
their entering into the Sepulchre, fitting on 
the right Side, the two laft-naentioned Ap- 
pearances were abrupt and fudden. For the 
Angels which A'iary Magdalene difcovered fit- 
ting, on&- at the Head, and the other at the 
Feet, where the Body of Jefus had been laid* 
were not feen by Peter and John, who juft 
before had entered into the Sepulchre, and 
viewed every Part of it with great Attention*, 
znd Joanna, and thofe mitb ber^ had been fome 
time in the Sepulchre before they faw any An- 
gels ; which Angels feem alfo to have appear- 
ed to them in a different Attitude from thofe 
fttci by Mary Magdalene, and by the other 
Mary and Salome. As the Number of the An- 
gels, and the Manner of their Appearance was 
different, fo likewife were the Words fpoken 

*"" to 

[ 154 ] 

to them by the Women, and the Behaviour 
of the Women upon thofe feveral Occafions : 
Mary and Salome were touched with Fear, and 
fled from the Sepulchre in die utmofl Terror 
and Amazement. Joanna^ and thcfe Kiuitb her^ 
vrere ftruck with Awe and Reverence, and 
bowed down their Faces to the Earth j but 
Mary Magdalene feems to have been fo im- 
merfcd in Grief at not being able to find the 
Body of the Lord, as to have taken little or no 
Notice of ib extraordinary an Appearance •, fhe 
fees, hears, and anfwers the Angels without 
any Emotion, and without quitting the Ob- 
jefb upon which her Mind was wholly fixed, 
till Ihe was awakened out of her Trance by the 
well-known Voice of her Mafter calling her 
by her Name. But here let us flop a little, and 
afk a Quellion or two. Could this Appearance 
then be an Illufion? Could a Mind fo occu 
pied, fo loft in one Idea, attend at the famf 
time to the Produdion of fo many others 
a different Kind ? Or could her Imagination 
be ftrong enough to fee and converfe with 
Angels, and yet too weak to make any Im- 
preiTion on her, or call off her Attention from 
a lefs affeifting, lefs furprifing Subjeil? Real 



[ 155 ] 

Angels indeed fhe may be fuppofed to have 
feen and heard, and not to have regarded 
them i but Apparitions raifcd by her own 
I Fancy could not have failed engaging her No- 
tice. For although, when we are awake, wc 
cannot avoid perceiving the Ideas excited in 
vs by the Organs of Senfation, yet is it, in 
moft Inftances, in our Power to give to them 
what Degree of Attention wc think fit \ and 
hence it comes to pafs, that when we are car- 
neftly employed in any Aftion, intent upon 
any Thought, or tranfported by any PafTion, 
we fee, and hear, and feel a thoufand Things, 
of which we take no more Notice, than if we 
were utterly infenfible of them, as every one** 
I daiJy Experience can teftify : But to the Ideas 
not proceeding immediately from Senfation, 
but formed witliin us by the internal Opera- 
^tion of our Minds, we cannot but attend j bc- 
Hcaufe in their own Nature they can exiil: no 
V longer than while we attend to them. Of this 
Kind are all the Phantoms that haunt our 
fleeping or waking Dreams: For fo ailExta* 
j fics. Deliriums, and the Ravings of Madncft 
Biay not improperly be called ; and whatever 


[ 15^ 1 

may be the phyfical Caufe, that upon thcfc 
Occafions fets the Mind to work, and influ- 
ences her Imagination^ Hie is certainly more 
than paflive intliefeProdu6tions, and is gene- 
rally fo attentive to them, as to difregard, 
during her Tranfports, all the Opportunities 
of external Objeds ; or to blend and colour 
with the prevailing Idea all thole arifing from 
the Informations of the Senfes. From all 
which it is evident, that the Mind cannot ap- 
ply herlelf to the Contemplation of more tha 
one Obje<5t at a Time ^ which, as long as 
keeps PofTeflion, excludes or obfcures all 
others. Mary Magdalene therefore, having 
taken it ftrongly into her Head, upon feeing 
the Stone rolled away from the Mouth of the 
Sepulchre, that fome Perfons had removed 
the Body of the Lord i in which Notion (hi 
was ftill more confirmed, after her Return t 
the Sepulchre with Peier and John, and griev- 
ing at being thus difappointed of paying h 
laft Duty to her deceafed Mafter, whofe Bod 
as Peter his moft zealous, and John his moft 
beloved Difciple, knew nothing of the Re- 
moval of it, fhe might imagine was got into 
the Hands of his Enemies, to be expofed per- 

,11 I 




[ r57 ] 

haps once more to frefhlnfults and Indignities, 
or at lead to be deprived of the pious Offices, 
which the Duty and Affeftion of his Follow- 
ers and Difciples were preparing to perform. 
Mary Magdalene^ I fay, falling into a Paffion 
of Grief at this unexpeded Diftrefs, and aban- 
doning herfelf to all the melancholy Reflec- 
tions that muft naturally arife from it, with 
her Eyes fuffufed with Tears, and thence dif- 
cerning more imperfedlly, looking as it were 
by Accident, and while Ihe was thinking on 
other Matters, into the Sepulchre, and feeing 

Angels, might, according to the ReaJbning 
above laid down, give but little Heed to 
them ; as not perceiving on a fudden, and un- 
der fo great a Cloud of Sorrow, the Tokens 
of ajiy Thing extraoKlinary in that Appearance. 
Sht might take them perhaps for two young 
Men, which was the Form afliimed by thofe 
who appeared to the other Women, without 

fflefting at firft that it was impoflible they 

hould have been in the Sepulchre without being 
peen by Jo^^and Petery and improbable that they 
Ifhould have entered into itafter their Departure, 
[without having been obferved by her. Intent 

ipon what paflTed within her own Bofom, (he 
<lid not give hcrfclf Time to confidcr and ex- 

[ »58 ] 

amine external Objcib ; and thercfo're knew 
not even Cbriji himfelf, who appeared to her in 
the fime fudden and miraculous Manner j but, 
fuppofiftg Mm to be the Gardener ^ begg'd him to 
tell her, if he had removed the Body, where he 
had laid it, that fhc might take it away. By 
which Qiieftion, and the Anfwcr (he had made 
to the Angels immediately before, we may 
perceive whit her Thoughts were fo earncftjy 
employed about j and thence conclude ftill far- 
ther, that the Angels were not the Creatures 
of her Imagination, fince they were plainly not 
the Objeds of her Attention. The Appearance 
therefore of the Angels was real. But to return 
from this DigreHlon. j 

I F the feveral Appearances of the Angels 
examined feparately, may be (hewn to car 
with them evident Marks of Reality ar 
Truth, the confidering and comparing thei 
together, will fee that Point in a yet ftrongc 
Light i fuch, we prcfume, as will intircl] 
clear up every Doubt in the Minds of thofe 
who feem inclined to believe any thing po(fi'^ 
blc, but that the Gofpcl ftould be true. Foffli 
both the Number, the Manner, the Variety, 
1 • and 


[ '59 } 

and Nature of the Circumftances of thefe Vi* 
(ions, and their bting fecn by different Perfons 
at different Times, make it, according to th« 
Datural Courfe of Thbgs, utterl7 incredibk 
that there fliould have been in them either Il- 
ly fion or Impoflure. Many Inftances perhaps 
of llJuIions in fmgle Perfons, and even in 
Numbers (for nothing is more contagious than 
Superftition and Enchufiafm) may be pro- 
duced i hovr well authenticated, it will be 
Time enough to inquire when we know what 
they are. But I believe it will be generally 
found, upon a ftrid Examination, that when- 
ever any Number of People have fallen into 
fuch an Illufion, as, by the Force of Imagi* 
nation only, to hear and fee Speftres and Ap* 
paritions, the Imagination, or Artifice of forfle 
one among them hath given Birth to the Phan- 
tom } and working upon Minds already dif« 
)fed to Superftition, Enthufiafm, or Crcdu- 
ity, or cunningly prepared perhaps for that 
ticular Occafion, hath led them eafily to 
and hear Things, that eadfted only in thetr 
m prepoffelTed and over-heated Fancies. But 
nothing of all this can be pretended in thcprc- 
(att Cafe. The Women, by whom thefe dif- 

ferent Vifions oF Angels were feverally feerii 
had no Communication with each other during 
the Time of thcfe AppeannceSi as is evident 
from the whole Tenor of this Hiftory : Morf 
and ^alomt were fled from the Sepulchre before 
JAarj Magdalene returned ; and Mary Magda- 
lene was departed from thence again, before 
Joanna^ and tbofe with her, came thither -, fo 
that they could not catch the lllufionfrom one 
another; and that their Minds, at the Time of 
their coming to the Sepulchre, were very far 
from being difpofed to form Imaginations of 
Chriji*^ being rifen from the Dead, is evident 
from the Bufinffs that carried them thither« 
They came to perform the laft Offices ufualJf^ 
paid to the Dead ; and by embalming the 
Body, to compleat the Interment of their de« 
ceafed Mafter -, which, by the coming on of 
the Sabbath, they had been obliged to leave un- 
finished i and when, upon entering into the Se- 
pulchre, they found not the Body, it was more 
natural for them to think, with Mary Magda- ^ 
knSj that fome Perlbns had taken it away, an^fl 
laid it they knew not where, than to conclude 
it was rifen from the Dead : And it is plain, 
that Joama, and tbofe with her, were in this 


[ I6l ] 

"Way of Thinking \ for when tbiy entered ;'», 
and found not the Body of the Lord Jefus, they^ 
fays St. Luke^ were much perplexed thereabout : 
i. €. they knew not what was become of the 
Body, could not account for its being milTing, 
and were therefore in great Dift-refs and An- 
xiety about it i which would not have hap- 
pened, had they believed that he had rifen 
from the Dead. 

B If» froni what has been faid, it may feem 
reafonable to conclude, that the Appearances 
of the Angels were not the EfFefts of Illufion, 
the Phantoms of a diftemper'dvifionary Mind, 
it will, I think, be more eafiJy granted, that 
they were not the Operations of Artifice and 
Irnpofture. For, without examining wlio could 
be the Adlors, or what the Motives of an Irn- 
pofture of this Kind, there are Evidences e- 
nough, arifing from theCircumftancesof thefe 
fevcral Appearances, to fliew, that the Powers 
that produced them were more than human : 
Such, for Example, is the Earthquake occa- 
fioned by the Dcfcent of the firft Angel, the 
amazing Brightnefs of his Countenance, which, 
St. Matthew tells us, was like Lightnings and 
M Che 

[ 1^2 ] 

le prodigious Strength, which appear? 
^'his fingly rolling away a Stone, that was large 
•enough to cbfe np the Entrance into the Se- 
pulchre ; and what was common to all the 
Angels, the Faculty of becoming vifibleor in- 
vifibleasthey thought proper. Thefe certainly 
were charafterillical Marks of an Agent cn- 
'dowed with Privileges and Powers fuperior to 
the limited Abilities of Man, whofe Operations 
cannot go farther than his Knowledge of the 
Laws and Powers of Nature ; and how far 
fhort of fuch wonderful Effeds as thefc that 
Knowledge would carry him, I leave the moft 
ingenious Profeflbr of natural Magic to deter- 

2. I come now, In the fecond Place, to con 
fidcr the Appearances of Chrifi himfclf to tl: 
Women, which were two, the lirft to Many 
Magdalene^ the fecond to the other Mary and 
Salome. But J IhaJl not have Occafion to dwell 
long upon this Head, fince the Appearances 
ot the Angel shaving been proved to be rcalj 
put thefc Appearances of Chrijl more out of 
Doubt and Sufpicion. The Angels affirmed 
that he was rifen from the Dead j and if he was 



E i«3 3 

It was natural to exped he would appeani 
The main Difiicuky confifted in his getting 
loofe from the Bands of Death, and breaking 
the Prifon of the Grave i ai)d therefore, who- 
ever upon the Teftimony of the Angels be- 
lieved the Refurredlion (as all thofe muft have 
4one who acknowledged them to be real An- 
gels) would not, if tliey faw C/6r;)? himfelf, be 
very apt to cal) in queftion the Reality of his 
Apppafancc. But tho' the Teftimony of An- 
gels, afivmjng that Or//? was rifen from the 
Dead, genders his appearing afterwards lefa 
l^abk to Doubt and Queftion ; yet before we 
admit the Reality of every fuch Appearance as 
may be pretended, I grant it is reafonable to 
cxpefl fome farther Proofs, tho' perhaps noc 
fo many or fo ftrong, as if no fuch previous 
Evidence had been given. And in the Cafe 
of Mary and Salome it may be fuggefted, that 
th^ very Relief of the Rcfurreftion of Cbrijf^ 
joined to the Dilorder and Amazement they 
were then mjder, might help to convince them 
tooeafily of the Reality of his Appearance, 
tho* at the fame time it might be nothing but 
jiSpe(5lre of their Imagination, and a meer II- 
5on : Let us therefore examine what Evi- 
M a dence 

[ 1^4 ] 

dencc may be colleftcd from the Account 
given of this Appearance, to induce us to 
chink, that thefc Women were not deceived ; 
and the Evidence, I believe, will be found 
fufficient. They had the Atteflation of their 
Sight, their Hearing, and their Feeling: By 
the two firft the Voice and Countenance of 
their Lord might be known ; and by the laft 
ihey might be afTured, that it was no Spedrc 
that they heard and faw, but a Body confiding 
of Flefh and Bofies. One of thefe Proofs in- 
deed was wanting to Mary Magdalene^ Cbriji 
forbade her to touch him ; and yet, any one, 
who confiders with due Attention the Circum- 
fiances of this Appearance, will find fufficient 
Reafon to be perfuaded that it was Cbriji him- 
felf who appeared to her. For firft, he had 
flood by her fome time, had fpoken to her, 
and ihe had anfwered him, before flie knew 
him to be Chrijl ; on the contrary, fhe took 
him for the Gardener : By all which it is ma- 
nifefi:, that the Spcdre, if it Was one, was not 
of her creating. * Her Mind was otherwife 
engaged j and had it been either at leifure, or 
difpofed to raife Apparitions, it is moft likely 


• See the preceding Article. 

[ 1% ] 

flne would have called up fome Pcrfon, with 
whom Ihe had more Acquaintance and Con- 
cern than a Keeper of a Garden, whom pro- 
bably (he had never known nor fcen before. 
2dly, He called her by her Name i by which 
it appeared that he knew her, fo did fhe, it 
fcems, difcoverhim 5 for turning immediately 
about, ihe accofted him with the refpe£tful 
Title of Rabbouniy my Mafter ; and, as may 
be inferred from the enfuing Words of Cbrijf^ 
offered to embrace him. His Voice and his 
Countenance convinced her that it was Chrift 
himfclf. 3dly, In thefc Words, Touch me not, 
for 1 am not yet afcended to my Father ; but go 
ta my Brethren, and fay to them, I afcend to nry 
Father and your Father, to my God and your 
Cody is contained a moft clear Proof that it 
was Cbriji himfelf who uttered them. To un- 
^rftand this, it mufl: be remembered, that 
dicfe Words allude to a long * Difcourfe which 
our Saviour held to his Difciples the very 
Kight in which he was betrayed ■, wherein he 
told them, that he ftiould leave them for a 
fbort Time (a little while and ye Jhall not fef 
mf) and that he would come to them again, 
ll M 3 tho* 

"^^ • Sec Jolm, Chap. xiv. xv, and xvj. 


[ i65 ] 

tho' but for a Ihort Time (and again a little 
while, and y€ Jbdl fee me) becaufe (added he) 
go to my Father. By the Phrafe I go to my Fa' 
thety Cbrijl meant his final quitting the "World, 
as he himrelf explained it to hisDifcipIes, who 
did not then underftand either of the above- 
cited Expreflions. * I came forth from the Fa- 
ther^ fays he, and am coKe into the IVcrli ; 
Again, I leave the IVorld and go to the Fa- 
ther. But left they fhould fall into Defpair at 
being thus forfakcn by him, for whom they 
had forfaken all the World, he at the fame 
Time promifed to fend them a Comforter, even 
the Holy Spirit, who Ihould f teach them all 
Things, bring to their Mnds whatfoever he had^ 
faid unto them -, fhould guide them into all Truth^ 
tfhew them Things to come, and abide mtb them 
for ever -, and that whoever believed in him fhould 
bi able to do greater fVorks [i. e. Miracles] than 
he did, becaufe he was to go to the Father j and 
that finally, tho' they for k Seafon Ihould be 
forrowfql, yet fhould § their Sorrow be turned 
into Joy, and that Joy fhould no Man take from 
them. Thefe were magnificent Promifes ; Pro- 
mi fes, 

• John xvi. zB, \ Ibid, xiv. 26. 
Ihxi.xvu 16. \ Ch. XVI. io.. 

t Ch.xvi. 13,5 

[ «67 ] 

s, which, as the Difciples could not but 
remember Cbriji had made to them, fo they 
might be affured that no one but Chriji was 
able to make them good j and therefore, 
when they came to refled: ferioufly upon the 
Import of thefe Words, Touch me not, for I 
am not yet afcended to my Father j but go to my 
Brethren^ and fay to thern^ lafcend to my Father 
and your Father., to my God and your Godf it was 
impoflible for them to conclude otherwife than 
that it Yfa.sChriJt himfelf who appear'd and fpoke 
to Mary Magdalene. For as the latter Expref- 
[-/lon, / afcend to my Fat her , &cc. implied a Re- 
t-membrance, and confequently a Renewal of 
thofe Promifes, which were to take Place after 
lis Afcenfion to the Father J fo did the for- 
[mer, I am not afcended to the Father, give 
them Encouragement to expeft the Perfor- 
lance of that other Promife of his coming to 
lem again before his Afcenfion, by giving 
Ihem to underftand, tliat he had not yet quitted 
lis World : And I take Chriji' & forbidding 
tary Magdalene to touch [or embrace] him, to 
fltave been meant as a Signification of his in- 
tending to fee her and his Difciples again -, juft 
PS in ordinary Life, when one Friend fays to 
M 4 another. 

[ i6.? ] 
another, " Don't take leave, for I am not ^ 
** ing yet," he means to let him know that he 
purpofes to fee him again before he fets out 
upon his Journey. That this is the true Im- 
port of the Words Touch me not, is, in my 
Opinion, evident, not only from the ReafoH 
fiibjoined in the Words immediately following, 
For I am not yet afcended to pry Father \ (by 
which Exprefllon, as I have Ihcwed above, 
Chriji meant he had not finally quitted the 
World -,) but from thefe farther Confiderations: 
Chrijlj by fliewing himfcif firft to Mary Mag- 
dalene^ intended, doubtlefs, to give her a di- 
ftinguifhing Mark of his Favour, and there- 
fore cannot reafonably be fuppofed to have 
defigned at the fame time to have put a Slight 
upon her, by refufing her a Pleafure which 
granted not long after to the other Mary am 
Salome ; and yet this muft be fuppofed, ii 
Touch me not be underftood to imply a Prohi- 
bition to Mary Magdalene to embrace him, for j 
any Reafon. confillent with the Regard Jhewr 
to the other Women, and different from th^tj 
now contended for, namely, becaufc he iq-1 
tended to fee her and his Difciples again. On 
the contrary, if thefe Words be taken to fignify 


1 169 1 

<ynly a Put-off to fome fitter Opportunity, they 
■will be fo far from importing any Unkindnefs 
or Reprchenfion to Mary Magdalene, that they 
may rather be looked upon as a gracious Af- 
furance, a kind of friendly Engagement to 
come to her again ; and in this Senfc they cor- 
refpond exactly with Cbriji's Purpofe in fend-^ 
ing this Meflage by her to his Difciples; 
which, as I have obferved before, was to let 
em know that he remembered his Promifc 
of coming to them again, and was ftili in a 
Condition to perform it, not having quitted 
this World j and of his Intention to perform 
it, this his refufing to admit the affe(?lionate 

>pr reverential Embraces of Mary Magdalene^ 
^bo loved much, for much bad been forgiven to 
Iber, was an Earneft, as his coming to them 
again would be a Pledge of his Refo!ution to 
acquit himfelf in due Time of thofe Promifes 
(V^hich were not to take EfFedt, till after his 
final Departure out of this World. And thus 
will this whole Difcourfe of our Saviour to 
Mary Magdalene be in all its Parts intelligible, 
rational, and coherent ; whereas, if it be fup- 
pofed that Mary Magdalene was forbidden to 
imb Cbriji for fome myflical Reafon, con- 

[ 170 ) 

tgined in the Words, for I am not yet afcendd 
ic the Father, it will be very difficult to undcr- 
ftand either the Meaning or Intent of that 
Meffage, which flie was commanded to carry 
tx> the Difcipks ; and ftill more difficult to 
account for his fulFering, not long after, tk 
Embraces of the other Mary and Salome.To the 
fame, or even greater Difficulties, will that In- 
terpretation of this Paffage be liable, which 
fuppofes that the Prohibition to Mary Mag- 
dalene was grounded upon the fpiritual Nature 
of Cbrijl's, Body, which, it is prefumed, wa 
not fenfible to the Touch or Feeling. An^ 
indeed, both thefe Reafons for the Beliavioul 
of Chriji to Mary Magdalene arc ovcrturnedj 
by his contrary Behaviour to the other Mary^ 
and Salome. But if the Senfe I contend for 
admitted, ic will be no difficult Matter to ac 
e&unt for this Difference of his Behaviour oi 
thofe two Occafions. Why he forbade Mat 
Magdalene to touch him, has already been ea 
plained j why he permitted the other Maf^ 
and Salome to bold bim by the Feet and worjhil 
hhn, I fliall iiow endeavour to fhew. Thef 
laft- mentioned Women, as * St, Mark in- 
• Chap. irit. 

f '71 1 

>rms us, were fo terrified and amnzed at the 
Sight and Words of the Ange!, who appeared 
to them in the Sepulchre, that, altho' they 
* ran with a Defign to teiJ theDifciples what 
they had heard and feen, as the Angel had 
commanded them, yet, thro* the Greacnefsof 
their Canfufion and Diforder, they had ne- 
glefted to deliver this important Meflagc to 

iforae whom they faw in their Way -, for fo, 
• Matt, xxviii. 8, 
+ That tliefc Words, Niithtrfatdlhiy any thing to anj 
an, mud be limked to fome certain Time, will, I be- 
lieve be readily allowed j for it cannot be imagined, that 
after all the sther Appearances of the Angels, t/r , wei© 
publifhcd, thefe Women oiily^ never opened theif Lips t§ 
any Man about what they had f€en and heard at the St- 
palchre : The Queftion then will be, How long they satf 
be fuppofed to have forborn fpeaking of it ? And this, \ 
think, was no longer than during the Time of their flyinj 
from the Sepulchre, and till they were met by Cbnji him- 
felf ; becaufe the only Reafon here affigned for their ntit 
Jayiftg aiiy tbi'ng to any Man, viz, for thty fjjcrt ajraitf, 
(or ailrighted rather) being removed by Chriji'i appearing 
to them, ijc. it is reafonable to believe (if it is not irti- 
pljed) that their Silence lalled no longer, than the dnljr 
Caufc of It, their Terror. Befides, as St. Mark breaks off 
the Narration of what happened to thefe Women very 
abruptly, fliort ofCibri^^s appearing to them, in order td 
relate his A ppearance to Mary Magdah-ne^ which indeed 
was previous to it, tho' rubfequeni/o the Appearance 6f 
the An|el feen by thefe Women at the Sepulchre, what he 
fays of their not fayinz any thing to any Mm:, cannot be 
taken to extend beyond the Period where he chofe to 
bneak off his Narration, without fuppoling liim guilty of 
a neediefs Impropriet)'. And if thefe Words, Kt:ther /aid 
ffwjr thing ta any Man, be cotiftnicd to fvji:ify that they 


[ ^n 1 

witk all the Commentators, I undcrftand thefc 
Words of St. A&r*, neither fatd they arrj thing 
to any Marty for they were afraid. That this 
Tcftimony therefore of the Angel to the Rcfur- 
reftion oiChrtJ}, and the Affurance given to 
the Difciples, that they (hculd fee their Maftcr 
in Galilee J might not be loft either by the Wo- 
men's forgetting, thro' the Greatnefs of their 
Amazement, what the Angel had faid to them, 
or thro' a Sufpicion of its having been a mecr" 


did not tefl what they had feen and heard to fome, whon(! 
they faw as they were flying from the Sepulchre, it feentt 
Kitional to conclude, that tif/e were fome of the DJfcipIei, 
to whom they were ordered to deliver the Meflage of tho, 
Angel, and to whom they would probably have de-f 
livered it, had they not been under fo great a Terror and 
Amazement. For had the Perfons^ whom they faw, beea' 
any other than the Difciples of ye/s/i, i( is not likely that 
St. Mart would have taken any Notice of their not fayi^g^ 
any thing to any Man, fince it is reafonable to imagine chev 
would not, even tho' they had not been affrighted, hav<|. 
told the Meflage of the Angel, £5"V . to any hut the Dif- 
ciples : And as the Time of Ptttr and Jff^/s running 
the Sepulchre, upon the firft Report qI Mary Magdalene^ 
co-incidcs with that of thefc Women flying from it, it i| 
no improbable Conjeflure, that thcfe were the Perfom 
whom (hey faw in their Way, at a Diftance perhaps, and 
coming by a different Road to the Sepulchre ; efpecialljr 
if it be confidered that, as the Words of St. Mark, Neither 
faid they, Sac, feem to carry with thera an Imputation 
Negleil upon thefc Women, tho' he at the fanae timtf 
both accounts for it, and excufes it, by adding, for tht^ 
nvtre ajf righted I fo the fame Evangelill hath before ac-» 
quainted U5 (Ver. 7.) that they were ordered by the Angel 

to deliver 

the Mcifage he gave them to Ptttr in pact^ 

[ ^73 ] 
lUufion, neglefling or fcrupling to teli iti 
Chrjji himfclf thought proper to appear to 
them, to calm their Minds, difperfe their 
Terror, obviate their Doubts. "With this View 
he firft accofts them with the gracious Saluta- 
tion of /^// bail! then fujfers them not only to 
approach him, but to held him by the Feet and 
ivorjhip him \ and laftly, bidding them difmifs 
their Fears, orders them, in Confirmation of 
vhat the Angel had faid to them, to tell his 
Difciples from him to go into Galilee^ affuring 
them with his own Mouth, that they Jhould fee 
^^im there. Every Word, we fee, tended to 
^Hnfpire them with Courage and Confidence ; 
and the gracious Influence of every Word upon 
their Minds, could not but be rendered ftill 
ore powerful and efficacious by his fuffering 
em to embrace him. After this familiar Irt- 
ance of his Favour and Complacence, and this 
niible Proof of his being really and bodily 
ifen from the Dead, there could be no Room 
left for Doubt or Terror : Conviftion, Cer- 
nty, and Joy muft have banilhed thofe un- 
eafy Paflions for ever from their Breafts. And 
hence it appears, that the different Condud of 
Chrifi on thcfc two Occaiions, was owing to 

2 the 

[ 174 ] 
rhr different Circum fiances attending them ; ta; 
nvhich it was moll wifely fuited. Mary Ma^- 
dalene^sGrkf (zhc only Diforder of Mind Ihc 
then laboured under) for the fuppofcd Lofs of 
her Mdfter*s Body, was Jbon difperfed, upon 
her hearing him call her by her Name, and fee- 
ing him ftand by her ; fhe was immediately 
convinced that it was Cbrifi^ and teftified her 
Convifflion by giving him the Title of Rai^ 
houni, ray Mafter. She wanted not (and there- 
fore there was no Need of giving her) aoy far- 
ther Proofs i but fatisfied with what fhe ha4 
itscn and heard, flie went to the Difciples, and 
told them fhe had [em ihe Lord j and that he 
had fliid fuch and fuch Things to her. But 
Terror, the mo ft untraftable of aJl Paflions, 
when .exceflive, had feized upon the other 
M:!ry and Sakm i a Terror, which, had ic 
proceeded from the unexpected and fuperna? 
tural Appearance of an Angel, was moce 
likely to be confirmed, than removed by the 
4ike Appearance of Cbriji^ had he not pror 
ceeded gently with them, and by his grar 
cious Words and Demeanour given thent 
Encouragement and Fermiffion to familiarize 
tkemfelvcs with him by Degrees, and take, d 

C 175 H 

In their own Way, what Proofs they thoughft 
jroper to remove their Fears or Doubts, and 

>nvince them that their aflfeftionate and be- 
loved Mafter was in reality reftored to them 

rain from the Grave. 

But befides the Aflurance given by Chriji 
:o his Difciples in the Words here fpoken by 
^ary Magdalene, of his Intention to perform 
is Promifes of coming to them again, 6?f. 
I cannot help thinking he had a farther Mean- 
ing, which, tho' not fo obvious, is however, 
in my Opinion, equally deducible from thofe 
-Words with the other jufh now mentioned, 
hat remarkable Expreflion, / afcend to my 
ntber^ Chriji undoubtedly made ufe of upon 
is Occafion to recall to his Difciples Minds 
e Difcourfe he held to them three Nights 
before, in which he explained fo clearly what 
ic meant by ^ng ta bis Father^ that they 
'aid to him, Lo ! now fpeakeft thou plainly j 
nd Jpeakeji no Parable *. 'But this was not 
e only Expreffion that puzzled them ; they 
ere as much in the Dark as to the Mean- 
of, a little while and ye Jhall not fee me, 
and again a little while and ye Jhail fee me, 
which they likewifc confcfled they did not 

% under- 

• John xvi. zg. 


[ 17^] 

underftand. But Chriji did not think Bt to 
clear up their Doubts at that Tirae, and left 
thofe Words to be expounded by the Events 
to which they fcvcrally related, and which 
were then drawing on apace. For that very 
Night he was betrayed, and feized, and de- 
fertcd by his Difciples, as he himfelf had 
foretold but a very few Hours before, upoa 
their profefling to believe that be came fori 
frofn God : The next Day he was crucified 
expired ujxjn the Crofs, and was buried. 
Upon this melancholy Cataftrophe the Dif- 
ciples could be no longer at a Lofs to under- 
fVand what Cbrijl meant, when he faid to! 
them, A Utile while and ye jhall not fee me: 
He was gone from them, and, as their Fears 
fuggefted, gone for ever, notwithftanding 
had exprefly told tliem, that he would co 
to them again j and to thofe Words, A Utt. 
while and ye fhall nst fee wf, he added. A) 
again a little while and ye fJjall fee me. Thi 
latter Fxpreflion, one would think, was ful: 
as intelligible as the former ; and as the one no 
expounded by the ^■vent, was plainly a Pr 
phccy of his Death, fo muft the other be un- 
derftood as a Prophecy of his Refurre<ftion 
from the Dead. But if they under Itood it in 



r 177] 

fe, they were very far from having a 
t Notion of the Refurredion from the 
a i as is evident from their imagining, 
fcn Cbrifi firft Ihewed himfelf to them 
ir his Pafllon, that they faw a Spirit j even 
t they had jufl; before declared their Be- 
^jhat he was ri/en indeed^ and had appear- 
)t Simon. The Refurre(ftion of the Body, 
bould feem from this Inftance^ made no 
It of their Notion of the Refurredtion from 
[Dead ; To lead them there'ore. into a right 
jicrftanding of this molt important Article 
iFaith, Cbrijiy in fpeaking to Mary Magda- 
^ and by her to his Difciples, mal;.es ufe 
pTerms, which ftrongly impJy his being 
Ily, that is bodily, rifen from the Dead. 
^ not yet, fays he, afcended to my Father ; 
\go unto my Brethren, and fay unto them, I 
unto my Father, Sec. The Words 
to my Father, Chriji, as has already 
p obferved, explained by the well-un- 
fftood Phrafe of leaving the World ; and 
[this Explanation the Words immediately 
(Bgoing give fo great a Light, that it is im- 
ffible to miftake his Meaning. The whole 
Tflge runs thus, / came forth from the Fa- 
, and am come into the IForld -, and again I 
N leave 


[ 17S 1 
kave the World, and go to the Father. 
the Expreffion, / am come into the JVorld^ 
Chriji certainly meant to fignify his bcii^ 
and converfing vifibly and bodily upon 
Earth i and therefore by the other Ex- 
prefTion, / leave the Worldy he muft have 
intended to denote the contrary to ail this, 
viz. his ceafing to be and converfe vifibly 
and bodily upon Earth ; and fo undoubtedly 
the Difciples underftood him to mean, when 
they faid to him. Now fpeakeji thou plainly, 
and fpeakeji no Parahk. But as they very 
well knew that the ufual Road, by which all 
Men quitted this World, lay through the 
Gates of Death, and were aflured their Maftcr 
had trodden that irremeable Path, they 
might naturally conclude, that what he had 
faid to them about leaving the World and 
going to bis Father^ was accomplilhed in his 
Death i and confiftently with that Notion 
might imagine that, by his coming to them 
again, no more was intended, than his a[ 
pearing to them in the fame Manner as many' 
Perfons have been thought and laid to ap- 
pear after their Deceafe. To guard againft 
this double Error, which ChriJl^ to whom the 


C m ] 

IfliOUgKts oF all Hearts are open, perceived 
in the Minds of his Difciples, he plainly in- 
timates to them in the Words, 1 am not yet 

sfiended to my Father, but / do (or fhall) 

afcei^ to % Father, that his dying, and his 
final kaving of the World were diftind things ; 
the latcer of which was ftill to come, tho' the 
former was pail! He had indeed died like 
other Moitais, and had, like them, left the 
World for a Seafon, as he himfelf hald often 
Foretold them ftiould come to pafs j but he 
was now rilien from the I>ad, returned into 
the World, and fhould not leave it finally 
till he afcended to his Father. Of bis being 
TCtumed into the World, his appearing td 
Mary Mx^daltne was doubtlefs intended for a 
Proof J and yet of this it; could be no Proof 
at all> if what fhe faw was no more than 
what is commonly called a Spirit j fince the 
Spirits of many People have been thought 
to appear after their Deceafe, who notwith^ 
Handing are fuppofed to have as cffedually 
left tWs World by their Death, as thofe who 
have never appeared at alU Lazarus, like 
Cbrijf, had died, and was by his quickening 
Word recalled to Life^ Which confifts in the 
N a . Ani- 

[ i8o ] 
Animation of the Body by its Union 
the Soul. Now had Cbrtjl called up nothing 
but the Spirit of Lazarus^ and left his Body 
to putrify and perifli in the Grave, would 
not Lazarus^ I afk, have ftill been reputed 
dead, and confequcntly confidered as out of 
this World, tho* his Spirit had appeared to 
a thoufand different People ? If Cbrijt there- 
fore was rifen from the Dead, as the Angels 
affirmed he was ; if he had not yet finally 
left the World, as the Words, / am not yet 
afcended to wy Father, plainly import j and if 
his appearing to Mary Magdalene was intend- 
ed for a Proof of thofe two Points, as un- 
doubtedly it was ; it will follow that he was 
really, that is bodily, rifen from the Dead 5 
that he was ftill in the World in the fame 
Manner, as when he came forth from the Fa- 
ther, and came into the World j and that it was 
he himfelf, and not a Spirit without Flefh and 
Bones, that appeared to Mary Magdalene. 

Before I conclude this Argument, I 
muft beg leave to make one Obfervatioa 
more upon the Term Afcend, twice ufed by 
our Saviour in the Compafs of thefe few 


[ i8i ] 

"Words. In the Difcourfe here alluded to by 
Cbriji, he told his Difciples that he Ihould go 
to his Father, and he now bids Mary Magda- 
kne tell them that he fhould afcend to his 
Father ; a Variation in the Phrafe, which I 
am perfuaded had its particular Meaning, and 
that not very difficult to be difcovered. For 
as by the former ExprelTion he intended, as 
wc have feen, to fignify in general his find 
Departure out of this World, fo by the latter 
is the particular Manner of that Departure 
intimated ; and doubtlefs with a View of 
letting his Difciples know the precife Time, 
after which they ihould no longer expeft to 
fee and converfe with him upon Earth, but 
wait for the Coming of that Comforter, which 
he promifed to fend them in his room j and 
who, unlefs he departed from them, was not 
to come. Jefus made frequent Vifits to his 
Difciples after his PafTion, • being feen of them ^ 

rfays St. Lukey forty Days, and fpeaking of the 
things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. Be- 
tween fomc of thefe Vifits were pretty long 
Intervals, -f during which he feems to have 



A£ls, ch. 1. & Ui. t £ec John xx. 2 1 

[ i82 ] 

diiappieared, i. e. not to have refided ufKn 
Earth. Had Cbriji therefore left his Difcipleei 
without any Mark or Token, by which they 
might be able to diilinguiih his final Depar- 
ture, from thofe that were only temporary»^ 
they would probably have taken each Vifit 
for the laft •, or have lingered after his BdsI 
Departure, in a fruitlefs Expeflation of fedng 
him again ; either of which States of Un- 
certainty, and efpecially the laft, were liable 
to many Inconveniencies, to Doubts and Jea- 
loufies, and Fears, which it was Goodnefs, 
as well as Wifdom in our Saviour to prevent. 
Nor was the preventing thefe Evils the only 
Advantage that flowed from this early Inti- 
mation of the Manner of Cbrifi's final Depar- 
ture out of this World, implied in the Words, 
J afcend to my Father ^ and verified, in his 
Afcenfion into Heaven. For as tWs could 
not have been effefted without the Power of 
God co-operating with him, fo neither could 
it have been fore-known by him, without 
the Communication of that Spirit, which on- 
ly knows the Counfels of God. When the 
Difciples therefore beheld their Mafter * taken 

• Adb, ch. i. ver. 9. See }ri>ltiy on this Place. 


vp into Heaven, and received out of their Sight 
iy a Cloud of Glory, they could not but know 
afluredly that this was the Event foretold 
about forty Days before to Mary Magdalene \ 
and knowing that, could no longer doubt 
whethtt it was Cbrift himfelf who appeared 
and j^ke thofe prophetick Words to herj 
how little Credit foever they had given to 
her, when 0ie firft told them fhe had feen tb^ 

And thus, (as I have endeavoured to 
make appear) in thefe comprehenfive Words 
of Chrijt fpokcn to Mary Magdalene^ Tomb 
me notf for I am not yet afcended to my Father^ 
but go to my Brethren, and fay to them, I afceni 
to wy Father, are implied three Particulars. 
ift, A Renewal of the feveral Promifes made 
by him to his Difciples, the Night in which 
he was betrayed j one of which was the PrO' 
mife of coming to them again before his final 
Departure out of this World, Of his Intention 
to perform which Promife, I take his forbid- 
iog Mary Magdalene to touch or embrace him, 

N 4 ^o 

[ 184] 
to be an Earneft or Token, adly. An Inti-" 
mation, that as his Death and his final De« 
parture out of the World were two diftind 
Things, the latter of which was yet to 
come ; fo by his rifing from the Dead, they 
were to underftand his returning and being in 
the World, in the fame Manner with thofe, 
who have not yet quitted the World by 
Death, and confequently that he was really, 
' that is bodily, rifen from the Dead, of which 
his appearing to Mary Magdalene and faying 
thofe Words, was an undoubted Evidence. 
And gdly, A prophetical Account of the 
Manner of his departing finally out of the 
World, viz. By afcending into Heaven. 
From which feveral Particulars it was impolV 
fible, as 1 faid before, for the Difciples to 
draw any other Conclufion than that it was 
Cbriji himfelf who appeared and fpoke to Mary 
Magdalene, I do not fay the Difciples muft 
neceffarily have perceived, at the very firft 
hearing thefe Words, the feveral Inferences 
which I have drawn from them ; but when 
they came to confider them attentively, to 
rcfleft upon what their Mafter had faid to 


[ 185 ] 

them the Night in which he was betrayed, 
(to which thefc Words evidently referred) 
and when, after having handled his Feet and 
Hands, they were by their own Senfes con- 
vinced that he was bodily rifen from the 
Dead •, and laftly, when they had feen thofc 
"Words, / afcmd to my Father, verified in his 
afcending into Heaven before their Eyes ; 
then, I think, they could hardly avoid per- 
ceiving the fcveral Inferences, and drawing 
from them the Conclufion above mentioned, 
""or if it was not Cbrijt, who appeared to 
Mary Magdalene, it mufl have been either 
fome Spirit good or bad •, or fome Man, 
who, to impofe upon her, counterfeited 
the Perfon and Voice of Cbrrji ; or laftly, 
the Whole muft have been forged and in- 
vented by her. The firft of thefe Suppofi- 
tions is blafphemous ; the fecond abfurd \ and 
the third improbable. For allowing her to 
have been capable of making a Lye, for the 
carrying on an Inipoflure, from which fhe 
could reap no Benefit, and to have been in- 
formed of what our Saviour had fpoken to 
his Difciples the Night in which he was bc- 
p-ayed, which does not appear, ;t muft have 



[ i86 ] 

been either extreme Madnefs or Folly in her to 
put the Credit of her Tale upon Events, fuch 
as the appearing of Chriji to his Difciplcs, and 
his afcending into Heaven, which were fo far 
from being in the Number of Contingencies, 
that they were not everr within the Powers and 
Operations of what are called natural Caufes. 

The fame Anfwer may be made to t 
Suppofition, that the Appearance of Chriji co 
the other Mary and Salome was likewifc a For- 
gery of thofe Women \ and with this I (hall 
conclude the fecond Head, 


§. 15. gdly, Of the m^ny Appearances 
Chriji to his Difciples, for the forty Days aftc 
his Paffion, the facred Writers have mentione 
particularly but very few -, imagining, doubt 
lefs, thofe few fufficient to prove that fundi 
mental Article of the Chriftian Faith, the Re- 
lurreftion of Jeftts. And indeed whoever at- 
tends to the Nature and Variety of the Evi-^, 
dence contained even in thofe few Particu^iV 
lars, which they have tranfmitted to us, can- 
not, I think, but acknowledge that thole, 
who were appointed to be the Witncfles of 


[ i87] 
the RefurrcAion, had every kind of Proof, 
that in the Hke Circumftances, either the mod 
Scrupulous could demand, or the moft Incre- 
dulous imagine. This I doubt not but to 
be ajble to make appear, in the Courfe of the 
following Obfervations y in which I (hall con- 
fine myfeif to the Examination of thofe Ap- 
pearances only, whofe Circumftances the 
Evangelical Hiftorians have thought proper 
to record, and upon .^which the Faith of the 
Apoftks was principally eftablifhed. 

The firft of thefe, though but barely men- 
tioned by * St. Mark, is very particularly re- 
lated by f St. Lukgy in the following Wcwrds : 
And behold two of them went the fame Day to a 
ViU^i calied Emmaus, which was from Jeru- 
falem ai^tt tbreefcore Furlongs, i find thty talked 
tO!g€ther of all thefe Things whisP had happened', 
and it came to pafs, that while they communed 
together y and reafoned, Jefus himfelf drew near, 
and went with them : But their Eyes were 
holden that they fhoiild not know him. And be 
/aid unto them^ fVhat manner of Communica- 
//ons are thefe, that ye have one to another, as ye 

• Ox. xv'u t Ch. xxiv. 


[ i88 ] 

walk and are fad ? And one of tbem^whofeName was 
Cleopas, anfweringj faid to bim. Art thou only 
a Stranger in Jerufalem, and baft not known the 
things which are come to fafs there in thefe Dc^s ? 
And he faid unto tbenty What Things? And they 
faid unto him. Concerning Jefus o/Nazareth, which 
was a Prophet mighty in Deed and Word before 
Cody and all the People i and how the Chief Priefis 
and cur Rulers delivered him to be condemned to 
Deaths and ha-ve crucified him. But we 
trufted that it had been He which fhould havi 
redeemed Ifrael ; And hejide all this, to-di 
is the third Day fmce thefe Things were done. 
Teay and certain Women alfo of our Company 
wade us aflonifhedy which were early at the Se- 
■pulchre \ and when they found not bis Body^ 
they came, faying^ that they bad alfo feen a Vi 
/ton of Angelsy whtcb faid that be was alive. 
And certain of them which were with uSy went 
to the SepukbrBy and found it even fo as the Wo- 
men had faid : But bim they faw not. Then be 
faid unto them, Fools j and flow of Heart 
believe all that the Prophets have fpoken ! Ou 
not Chrift to bav 



[ i«9 ] 

aitd all the Prophets^ be expounded unto them 
in all the Scriptures the Things concerning him- 
^Jelf- And they drew nigh unto the Village whi- 
ther they went^ and be made as though he would 
have gone farther. But they conjirained him, 
fayingy Abide with us, for it is towards Even- 

Iingy and the Day is far fpent. And he went in 
to tarry with them. And it came to pafs as he 
fat at Meat with thetn, he took Bread and blejf- 
ed it, and brake and gave to them. And their 
Eyes were opened, and they knew him ; and he 

tvanifhed out of their Sight. And they faid one 
Jo another. Did not our Hearts burn within us, 
while he talked with us by the fVay, and while 
I he opened to us the Scriptures ? And they rofe 
up the fame Hour, and returned to Jemfalem, 
and found the Eleven gathered together, and them 
ibat were with them, faying. The Lord is rifen 
indeed, and bath appeared to Simon. And 
^tbey told what Things were done in the Way, 
B end how he was known of them in breaking of 
^ Bread. 

f Two Obje(5lions have been made to the 
Credibility of this Faft : ift, That thefe Dif- 
ciplcs knew not Jefus during the whole 


[ »90 ] 

Time of his walking, converfing, and fit- 
ting at Meat with them: adly. That when 
upon his breaking Bread, ^c. their Eyes 
were opened, and they are faid to have known 
him, he vaniflied fo fuddcnly out of their 
Sight, that they feem not to have had Time 
enough to fatisfy thofe Doubts, which muft 
have arifen from their having converfcd with 
him fo long without knowing him. To the 
firft of thefe Objeftions the EvangeHft him- 
felf furnifhes us with an Anfwer, telling us, 
that their Eyes were holden that they Jhould ml 
know him •, which, as it will not be pretended 
to be above the Operation of Him, whom the 
Apoftle of the Gentiles fliles * the Power of 
Gody fo have I already fhewed it to be a Pro- m 
cerding not unworthy of Him, whom the 
fame infpired Writer, in the fame Place, caJJj 
alfo the JVifdom of God. He threw a Mift be* J 
fore their corporeal Eyes, that he might, by " 
the pure and unprejudiced Light of Reafon 
only, remove from before their internal Sight, 
that ftrong Delufion, which held their Un- 
derftanding from knowing the true Import of 
thofe Types and Prophecies, by which his Suf- 

t 191 1 

ferings, Death and Rcfurreftion were forc- 
lewn. He difguifed himfelf, but laid open 
le Scriptures ; which till then had appeared 
to tbem in another Form j and having by an Ex- 
pofition of Mofes and the Prophets, which 
made tbeir Hearts burn within them, ftript off 
thofe Veils and Colours, which the worldly 
and carnal- minded Scribes and Pharifees had 
laid over them, and fet them before their Eyes 
in their genuine Shape and Luftre, he in the 
next Place difclofed himfelf, and left them 
convinced, as well from the Scriptures, as from 
their Senfes, that he was rifen from the Dead, 

(Which leads me to confider the 2d Objection, 
founded on his vanilhing out of their Sight fo 
Coon after his difcovcring himfelf to them. 
And here I fhall obferve, ift. That it ap- 
pears they had no doubt but that the Perfon, 
^nrho joined them in the Way to Emmaus^ and 
opened the Scriptures to them, was the fame, 
whom, upon his breaking of Bread, ^c. 
they took to be Jefus. 2dly, That upon 
illheir taking him to be JefuSy tliey muft have 
been fenfiblc of fomc Alteration, either in 
chemfelves or in him, by which they were en- 

2 abled 

r 192 1 

abkii to difcover the Miftake they were 
der while they knew him not. gdly. That 
Alteration mult to them have appeared fu- 
per -natural and mira£ulous, as it is implied 
to have been in this Phrafe, their Eyes were 
cpenedy and tbey knew bm\ as muft alfo his 
vanifliing (or difappearing) from their Sight. 
And as trom thefe Particulars it could not but, 
be evident to them, that the Perfon, whomJ 
when ibeir Eyes were opened^ they, from hi»J 
Countenance, ^c. knew to be Jefus, was en- 
dowed with Powers more than human i kk was 
it impoflible for them to conclude it to be anj 
other tbin Jefus himfclf, without blafphe 
moufly fuppofing that God would permit anji 
Spirit, whether good or bad, to aflume tin 
Per Ton of his beloved Son, with a View of 
countenancing and carrying on a FalJhood 
and Impofture i efpecially, as in the Conver- J 
fation he had held with them by the Way, 
he had opened the Scriptures, and had Ihewn 
them from Mofes and all the Prophets, that 
Cbrijt was to fufifer and die, and rife again 
from the Dead. But befides the clearing up 
all their Doubts, arifing from his Sufferings 
and Death, which had ftaggered their Faitk 


[ 195 ] 
him, whom till then they trujied to be Him 
'iho Jhould redeem Ifrael, it is very probable, 
rom what they fay about their Hearts burning 
')itbin them^ while he opened to them the Scrip- 
tures, that they perceived, either in his Man- 
ner or his Doctrine, fome lively Marks and 
Chara<5lers of that Dignity and Authority, 
which was wont to diftinguifh him fo much 
jTrom the ordinary Teachers of 7/r<2^/, the Scribes 
and Pharifees. And, not to repeat what I have 
faid before, about the Probability of Cbriji*^ 
having upon this Occafion made ufe of fome 
Gefture or Phrafe peculiar to himfelf, in 
breaking and bkfijng the Bread, I fhall only 
add one Remark from * Grotiuj, viz. that 
fince it was the Cuftom among the Jews for 
the Mafter of the Feaft, or the moft honour- 
abie Gueft, immediately after bldTing the Cup, 
to take the Bread, give Thanks over it, 
break it, and after eating a Bit of it, to dif- 
tribute it round the Table, ChriJ^ by this Ac, 
tion declared himfelf fomething more, than 
what thofe Difciples had hitherto taken him 
for, a Stranger and Traveller whom they had 
picked up by the Way, and conjirained to abide 
O with 

* In locum. See alfo Drufiusi ibid. 

[ 196 ] 
with them *, and by that Declaration awaken^ 
cd their Attention to that Difcovery of him- 
felf, which followed immediately upon it} 
and to which this folemn and religious Ad 
was certainly no improper Introduffcion. The 
Inference that is naturally deducible from 
thefe feveral Obfervations, is, that thcfe tw6 
Difciples, even upon the Suppofition that 0>rift 
difappearcd, immediately after their Eyes were 
opened, and they knrw him, had fuflStient 
Rcafon to be affured that it was he Wmfelf, 
who had waUc«d, converfed, and fk at Meat 
with them ; and confequentlythat hi wa^rifen 
from the Dead, according to what the Angeh 
had told the Women, who had becii that 
Morning at the Sepulchre. 

§. 1 6. The next Appearance of Cbrifi, that 
I fhall take notice of, and that to winch all 
thofe before mentioned were preparatory, 
was to the Eleven, and thofe with them, oil 
the Evening of the fame Day. This Ap- 
pearance is mentioned by three of the E- 
vangelifts, one relating one Particular, and 
another another i out of each of whofe Gof- 
pels I fhall therefore take fuch Circumftances 


as are not related by the others, and putting the 
icattered Parts together, compofe from all of 
them one intire Relacion. 

* Itbm the fame Dayy (viz. the Day of the 
Refarredtion) at Evenings being the firji I>sy 
»f tht Weeky when the Doors were Jhut^ where 
ibejXfnples were affemhled for fear of the Jews, 
•f- wbik theyfai at Meat^ [immediately after the 
two Difciples from Emmaus had Hnifhed their 
RelatxMi} came Jcfus and ftood in the Midftj 
and fmthunt^ them. Peace be with you. \\But 
tbey vftre terrified and affright edy andfuppofed 
that they kadfeen a Spirit, t Jnd he (upbraiding 
them with their Unbelief and Hardnefs of Hearty 
hecaufe thty believed not them, who had feen 
him tiftv he was rifen) faid to them^ 4. Why 
are ym troubled, and why do Thoughts arife in 
your Hearts P Behold my Hands and Feet, that 
it is Imyfelf : handle me and fee ^ for a Spirit 
hath not Fltfhand Bones as ye fee me have. And 
when he had thus fpoken, hefhewed them his Hands 
andbisFeet. Andwhilethey yetbeliemdnotforjoy, 
and wondered, he faid to them. Have ye here any 
Meat? And they gave him a Piece of a'broiled 

. . O 2 - Fifh, 

• John XX. ver. 19. f Mark xvj. ver. 14. 

\ Lake xxir. 36. % Markxvi. 14. -jj- Lukexxiv. 3?. 

Fijh, and of an Hone^i'Comb i and be took it \ and 
did eat it before him. * 1}>en were the Dif- 
ciples glad when they faw the Lord, i* And he 
[aid to themy Thefe are the Words which Ifpcike 
unto you, while I was yet with you, that alL 
Things mufi be fulfilled which were ivritten in 
the Imw of Mofes, and in the Prophets,, and in 
the Pfalms concerning me, then f U hreatlnng on ' 
them, and faying. Receive ye the Hofy Gbofi) 
opened be their Underftandings, that thtf might 
underftand the Scriptures ', andfaid to them^ Thus 
it is written, and thus it behoved Chrift tofuf 
fer ', and to rife from the Dead the third D^. 
'—"And ye are Witneffes of thefe Things, 

To this I fhall add the Appearance of 
Chrifi to St. Thomas, that I may bring all the 
Proofs of the Refurreflion under one View. 

4- -Bk/ Thomas, one of the Twelve^ called 
Didymus, was not with them when Jcfus 
came. The other Difciples therefore faid to him, 
We have feen the hord: But he faid to thew, 
Except I Jhallfee in bis Hands the Print of ik 


* John XX. 20. f Luke xxiv. 44. gJohnxx.:z. 
4- John XX. 24. 

[ 199 ] 
y^aiU, and put my Finger into the Print of the 

Nails, and tbruji my Hand into his Side, I will 
not believe. And after eight Days, again bis Dif- 
ciples were within, and Thomas with them j 
then came Jefus, the Boors being fhut, and 
flood in the Midft, and faid. Peace be unto you. 
'Then faid b« to Thomas, Reach hither thy Fin- 
ger, and behold my Hands-, and reach hither 
thy Hand, and thrufi it into my Side ; and be 
net faithlefs, but believing. And Thomas an- 
fwered and faid unto him. My Lord, and my 
God I Jefus faith unto him, Thomas, becaufe 
thou hall feen me, thou hafi believed: Bleffed 
are they that have not feen, and yet have be- 

The Proofs of ChrijVs being rifen from 
the Dead, here exhibited to the Difciples, as 
fee forth in the above-cited Pafiages, may be 
comprized under four Heads, ift, TheTef- 
timony of thofe who had feen him after he loas 
rifet^ 2dly, The Evidences of their own 
Senfes. gdly, The cxaft Accomplilhment of 
the Words which he had fpoken to them, while 
he was yet ii-itb them. And 4thly, The fulfill- 
ing of all the Things which were written in the 
O 3 Lav) 

[ 200 ] 

Law o/^ofes, and in the Prepbets, and in tht 
P/almSy concerning him. The Conclufivcncfs of 
all which Proofs I Ihall endeavour to fljcw 
in fome Obfervations upon each of them. 
Upon the Firft I have nothing to add to 
tehat I have written already under the fccond 
general f Head, and the B^inning of diis, 
excepting that our Lord, by upbraidhig bis 
Difcipks for not believing tbofe who bad fem 
him after he had rifen, took from than ail 
Pofllbility of doubting afterwards of -the 
Truth and Reality of thole Appearaiices, 
thus confirmed and verified by his ^own ir- 
refragable Teftimony. Under the Words, 
thofe who had feen him after he was rifen, is 
comprehended likewife his Appearance to 
Simon, mentioned both by ♦ St. LMke and j St. 
Paul, as alfo that to the two Dffciples on 
the Way to Emmaus. Upon the fecond 
Head, {viz. the Evidence of their oWn Senfes) 
it might, one would imagine, be thought 
Sufficient to obferve, that the Difdples had 


t See the zd Head, Of Ac AffSAnvMs of Cbrift to the 
Women ; and the jd. Of his Appearance to the t«l> TM- 
f jplc6 on tiie Way to Emiaut. 

* Chap. xxiv. 34. J I Cor. xr. 5J : : 

[ 2©I 1 

the lame * infallihk Proofs (as the Author of 
the JSs c»lis them) of Cbrifi^s being alive 
nfter his Palfipn, as they had ever had of his 
being alive before it. They faw him, faw the 
particular Marks of Identity in his Perfon 
and Countenance, in his Hands, ^ Feet, and 
Side, which had been pierced at his Cruci- 
fixion ; and one of them, who had refufed to 
believe aecept he put bis Finger into the Print 
^ tbeNails^ and tbruft bis Hand into his Side, 
had that farther SatisfadUon, unreafonable as 
it was, granted him ; they faw him alfo eat, 
w^utt they themfelvcs gave him, a Piece of a 
hrnfid Fifb and an Hong- comb \ they heard 
him fpeak, and were by him commanded to 
handie him^ and fee that he Md Flefh and 
Bones \ a Command f which, doubtlefs, they 
obeyed. And yet all thefe infalUble Tokens 
or Proofs, thefe T&cjxfi^tct^ carta ^ indubitata 
fignai have been fet afide by fome' pretended 
* . O4 , Phi- 


• Aa«i. 3. b voKhoHf TiKiMeioKf by many certain 

and undoubted Proofs or Tokens, ^intilian from AriJIo- 

tle faysj Tf xfijeue are irulubitata ^ ctrtijjima JigM, as 

, the 4<^j(po4 of fp^aking, walking, eatine, and driiaklng 

uv.tlit T<»^«ec« [undoubted Signs] of Life. 

f The Words, as ye fee mtjHifiH, ftronjly saq»ly, that 
they had received the Satisfaction offered them by feeling 
his tiawU «ad Ppet. ■ 

C 202 ] 

Philofophet^and philofophizing Divines, tipM 
no better Groundsj than their own vain In" 
fcrences from thefe Words of St. Johuy ^ben 
f<w»tf Jefus, the Boors being Jhuty andftoedintht 
Midjl: For taking it for granted, wha.t as^iuio- 
fophers it better became them to have pfOved» 
that it is fuggefted in thefe Words that Jefui 
paffed thro* the Walls, or Doors, while they re- 
mained fhut, without either fuffcring in his own 
Body, or caufing in them any Chapge, during 
his fo pafTing ^ and having difcovered, ** thftt 
'* for one folid or materkl Body to pais thro*. 
'* another folid or material Body, without in- 
*' juring the Form of either, both the paJP> 
*' five and palling Body remaining the fame^ 
*' is contrary to all the Laws of Nature," 
they have concluded, that the Body of 
Chrijl was not real, /. e. a material Body^ 
and confequently was incapable of being felt 
by St. Thomas^ ^c. From whence it will 
fojllow, that the whole Story is abfurd and 

I N anfwer to this, I deny that the Word^ 
Jefus cam^ the Doors being jhut^ and Jiaoi in 
ihf Midji, imply that Jefus pajfed through the 

[ 203^ 1 

JVaUi W Doors, while they remdiried Jbut, Hoith- 
ouf either fuffering in his own Body, or caufittg 
in them any Change during his fo pa/wg. They 
feem, indeed; to imply, that he came in 
miractiloufly, though not by a Miracle that 
contains a Contradidlion or Impoflibilityy 
and I am perfuaded that had not St. John in- 
tended to fignify that he came in miraculoufly 
he would not twice have mentioned that 
otherwife trifling Circumftance of ihe Doors 
iwig /but. But tho* a Denial without Proof 
be a proper and fufRcicnt Anfwer to an Af- , 
ferti<Mi without Proof, yet I will give fome 
Reafons why the Interpretation contended for 
bythefd Philofophers cannot be the true one. 
ift. It is not to be prefumed, that St. John:, 
^ho wth the other Difciplcs had received 
ienlible Evidence of the Reality, /. e, the Ma- 
teriality of Chrifi*s Body, Ihould be abfurd 
enough to imagine at the fame time, that it 
was a fpiritual Body -, which he muft have 
done, had he thought that Jefus pafled 
through the Walls or Doors, while they re- 
ihained fhut, without cither fuffering in his 
own Body, or caufmg in them any Changr^ 


[ 204 ] 

during his fo palTing ; it requiring no great 
Depth of Philofophy to underftand it to be 
impoflible, even to Omnipotence, to caufe the 
Body of a Man to penetrate thro* a Wall <ff 
r^Door, without caufing fome Change or Alte- 
ration in the one or the other. Neither (2dly,) 
is it to be prefumed, that St. Jobn^ intending, 
as it is plain he did, by relating the Story of 
St. Thomas, to acqu^nt the World, that he 
[Thomas] as well as the other Difciples, had by' 
feeling and examining his Mafter's Body, fen- 
fible Evidence of his being really, i, f. bodily, 
rifen from the Dead, fhould be weak enough 
to infert in his Relation a Circumftance, which 
tended to prove that the Body which St Th^ 
inas is fuppofed to have felt, was not a mate- 
rial but a fpiritual Body, and coniequently 
incapable of being felt and handled. Contra- 
didions and Abfurdities are not to beprdfam* 
cd in any Writer. On the contrary, as it ts 
fuppofed that every Man in his SenfeS has 
fome Meaning in what he fpeaks or writes, iQ 
by that Meaning only (which is bcft col.leAed 
from the Drift and Tenor of the whole Dif- 
courfe) is the Senfe of any ambiguous W*rd 


t 205 3 

or Soitence in it to be determined •, and eve- 
ry* Interpretation of fuch ambiguous Word or 
Sentence, as can be (hewn to be inconfiflent 
with the plain Meaning of the Speaker or 
Writer, is, for that Reafon^ to be rejefted. ' 
THi$. Juftice, Candour, and Common Senfc 
requine. gdly. By the Way of Reafoning 
made ufe of upon this Ocfcafion by thefe free- 
Italbiilng Philofophers, the Spirituality of the 
Wlrfls, Of Doors, may as well be in/erred as 
the Spiritnality of Cbrtfi^s Body -, for Chriji*% 
Body being proved to be Material, by being 
liaiidled by his Difciples, ^c. and it being 
^dniittBd that he penetrated through the Walls 
erDoon,- while they remained (hut, without 
fuffering, 6ff. it will follow that the Walls 
er Doors had fpiritual Bodies ; (ince it is con- 
trary to the Laws of Nature, that one folid 
or nuttexaUiBody fhould pafs, i^c. An Ar- 
gument srhidi would have very well become 
the Pfailo^htcal Arifwer to the ^rygl if (he 
ff^l^jjei^ as being fophiftical, ludicrous, and 

W ATI NO now given my Reafons for rc- 
jedling, as falfe, the Interpretation above 


[ 2o6 ] 

mcntionetl, which fomc have endeavoured 
to fix upon ihefc Words of St. John, Jefus 
came^ the Doors being Jhut^ and Jiood in the 
MJdJi\ and having alfo allowed, chat thofe 
Words naturally fuggeft the Entrance of our .j 
Saviour to have been miraculous j I fhall in* J 
the next Place attempt to (hew that the MU; 


rade here wrought by Jefus^ inftead of a-' 
wakening in the Minds of the Difciplcs any] 
Sufpicion, that their Senfes might have been'j 
impofed upon, in the Examination they took 
of their Lord's Body, becaufe it is as eafy fori 
a Power, that can controul the Law of Na^l 
ture, to excite in us the Ideas of hearing^ 
feeing, and feeling, without the real Exig- 
ence of any Object of thofe Senfations, as to] 
open a PalTage for a Human Body througJ 
Walls or Doors, without making any vifible 
Breach in them ; this Miracle, I fay, inftead' 
of raifmg any fuch Sufripion in the Difciples^l 
tended on the contrary to remove all theip] 
Doubts, and convince them effedually, thai 
it was Jefus himfelf in a Body confifting o( 
Flefli and Bones, and not a Spirit, which aj 
peared to them. 


I 207 ] 

'he Difciples, during their Converfation 
with Cbrift before his Pafllon, had been ac- 
Jcuftomcd to fee him worlc Miracles of various 
Kinds, cafl: out Devils, heal al! manner of 
Difeafes, give Light to the Blind, Elocution 
to the Dumb, Lefs and Nerves to the Lame 

md Paralytick, and Life to the Dead ; and 

[all this by a Word, which they had alfo feen 

sven the Winds and Seas obey. From this 

•xtcnfive Power of controuling the Laws of 

[l^ature, eftablilhed by the great Creator 

imfelf, joined to the more than human Pu- 

[fity of his Life and Doftrine, the Difciples 

[jnoft rationally concluded that he came forth 

from God. And therefore, as on the one 

iiand, the Power of working Miracles was a 

xharafteriftical Mark of Jefus, and confcquent- 

lly his working Miracles after his Refurreftion 

[Vas one Evidence of the Identity of his Per- 

fon ; fo, on the other hand, was the Aflurancc 

of his coming forib from the Cod of Truths 

founded upon his doing fuch Works, as no 

Man could do, unlefs God was with him, an 

infallible Security to the Difciples, againll 

the Sufpicion of his intending to impofe up- 


C 208 3 

on them. From whence it will follow, that 
when, upon their fancying they faw a Spirit, 
he aiTured them it was he himfelf, and no Spir 
rit, which (fays he) hath not FUJh and BomSf 
as they, by feeling and handling hio), fmifi$ 
bad, they could have no Shadow of a Ff©* 
lencc either for difbelieving his Word* or diP 
trufting their owa Senfes.^For»inrcaltey»^di:>t)^ 
not his appealing to their Senfes Sot a Coafif'* 
mation of what heaiferted, (viz. that it was ho 
himfcif, and not a Spirit) tmplf an Aftrmi'* 
tion that their Senfes were the proper Judges 
of the Point in Queftion, and that he therch 
fore left the Determination of it to them ? 
And are not both the Parts of this Affirmation 
abfolutely falfe, if it be fuppofed that the Body 
here affumed by Chrifi was a fpiritual, /. ft. an 
imnuterial Body ? And if, inftead rfche Ob- 
jeft upon which they were to judge, (viz. a 
material Body, capable of exciting fuch and 
fuch Senfations) a very different Thing was 
fubftituted, namely, a mere Idea of fuch 
an Objeft, occafioned by' the iljufory and 
fuborned Evidence of Senfations imprinted 
on their Minds by a miraculous Power -, would! 
not, I fay, an Appeal to the Judginenc of 
their SenfeS in this Cafe, have been a Mock- 
cry ? 

[ 209 ] 

cry ? And would not the impofing upon 
their Senfcs, after fiich an Appeal, have been 
fraudulent and dilhoneft? And would not fuch 
a Proceeding have been abfurd as well as dif- 
honeft ? For, if it be allowed that Jefus 
had the Power of impofing miraculouQy upon 
the Senfes of his Difciples, it will not furely be 
denied that he had the Power of entering mi- 
raculoufly into the Chamber, where they were 
alTembled, while the Doors were Jhui. The 
latter of thefe two Miracles renders the firft 
unneccffary. For if Jefus could in his Human 
Body enter into the Chamber, while the Doors 
were (hut, there was no Occafion for him to 
impofe upon the Senfes of his Difciples. And 
\{ he had it in his Option to work which ever 
of thofe Miracles he pleafcd, would it not have 
been abfurd (with Reverence be it fpoken) in 
him to chufc that, which was inccnfiflenc with 
the Charafter of one who came forth from the 
God of Truth, and diredly oppofite to the De- 
fign of his appearing to his Difciples after 
his Paflion ; which was, by offering his Body 
to the Examination of their Senfes, to convince 
them that he was really, i. s. bodily, rifen from 

the Dead ? 

. 2 The 

t 2IO ] 

THBDifciplesthcrefore»who by the mighty 

Signs and Wonders done by him before his 

Paffion, were convinced that God was with 

him, could not, upon this Occafion, but 

draw the fame Conclufion from his entering 

miraculoufly into the Room while the Doors 

were fhur, and as miraculoufly perceiving the 

fecret Doubts and ReafonJngs of their Hearts: 

And tho*, not underftanding what was meant 

by rifrng from the Dead, they had at firft fu- 

fpeded him to be a Spirit ; yet having beert*] 

fatisfied of the contrary by handling his Body, 

they had no more Reafon to diftruft the Evi<J 

dence of their Senfes, than they had formerly, ' 

when after having fcen him walk upon thti 

Waves* i and having from thence fallen inter! 

the like Imagination of his being a Spirit^ they 

had been convinced of their Miftake by the 

fame Kind of Proofs, viz. by feeing, hearings i 

and feeling him, eating and converfiog with' 

him in the fame Manner as with other Men. 

And indeed there is no Intimation in the facredi 

Writers of their having had, upon either or 

thefe Occafions, any Sufpicion of Fraud or' 

• Matth. xiv. 

[2II ] 

Ittipofture. They were fimple plain Mzti, 
'Scratigers to vain and vifionafy Speculations ; 
and went upon thofe Grounds, upon which 
all Meh a£fy however fome may talk, who 
have reafoned themlclves out of all the Prin- 
ciples of Realbn. Having therefore throughout 
all their paft Lives trufted to the Information 
of their Senfes, they could not avoid believing 
them upon die prefent Occafion, efpecially when 
they were commanded to believe them, by 
<me whofe tranfcendent Knowledge and Power 
manifefted him to have a thorough Iniight into 
tbe-FnmeofMan, as well as a fupreme Au- 
thority over the Laws of Nature. 

■ §.' 17. 3dly, The eJtaftAccomplifhmentof 
the Words, in which our Saviour foretold to 
his Difciples his SuHerings, Death and Refur- 
rediont will evidently appear by comparing 
the Words of thofe Prophecies with the feveral 
Circumftjuices of thofe Events. And there- 
fore,' to enable the Reader to make this Compa- 
'Tifpn with the greater Eafe, I fliall firft fet 
down the feveral Particulars of the Paffion, 
and.Death, ^c. ofChrift, and then produce 
the Prophecies ccrrefponding to them. 

P Thi 

t 212 ] 

The Sufferings of 7^/w, properly fo 
called, took their Beginning from the Trea- 
chery of • Judas, one of the Twelve, who, (as 
it is related by the Evangeiifts) having re- 
ceived a Band of Soldiers, (^c. from the Chief 
PriefiSy with whom he had bargained for Piirtj 
Pieces of Silver to deliver him up, went with 
tbem to a Garden, wbitber he knew Chrift w^ 
accujiomed to refort, and there by the Sign 
greed on (a Kifs) h^^ving pointed him ou| 
put him into their Hands, who feizing on hii 
immediately, carried him before tb< High 
Priefi, i^c. 

This Fa£t was fevcral Times foretold by 
Jifus i at firft more obfcurely, as in thefe 
Words, -f Have n»t I cbofen you Twelve, and 
me of you is a Devil, AiaJ^ohoi, an Informer; 
and in thefe, i| The Son of Man jball be betrayed 
into tbe Hands of Men -, and in others of the 
fame general Import ; then more plainly at 
the laft Supper, to his Difciples, who, upon 


[213 ] 

lis faying, '^Verily I fay untoyott that one if yon 
^Jhall betray me^ were exceeding foircwful, and be- 
gan every one of them to fay to him. Lord is it I? 
In anfwer to which he faid, He that dtppetb 
his Hand with me in the Difh^ the fame fhall 
hetray me. Thefe Words, as Crotius f ob- 
fcrves, muft be taken to come fomewhat nearer 
a Declaration of thePerfori who was to bc- 
[tray JefuSy than ihofe others. One of you fhall 
\etr^ me : " Wherefore, adds that learned 
Commentator, I am perfuaded that Judas 
fat near to Chrifi, fo as to eat out of the 
f*' fame Diih or Mcfs with him, there being 
** ieveral Difhes or Meffes on the Table." 
"his Conje(Sure is indeed very probable, and 
jives great Light to this whole Matter : Upon 
[which we may obfcrve ftilt farther, that as the 
Hfciplcs, even after this Declaration, wercftill 
in Doubt of whom he fpake, it is evident there 
■inud have been others belides Judas^ who 
Hi dipped their Hands in the fame Difh with 
JefuSy otherwifc that Dcfcription had fufficient- 
ly made him known, and there had been no 
Occallon for Simon Peter to have beckoned to 
P 2 that 

* Msttth. XX /' -' 
See Grot, in loc. 

Mark xiv. 1 8, Luke xxii. 2 1 
xUi. 21. 


[ ii4 ] 

thai Difcipk, who was leaning on the Bofom oj 
Jefus^ that he fhould afk him of whor 
he fpoke ? In compliance therefore with this] 
Demand made to him by St. John in the Name] 
of all his Diiciples, and to put an End a?] 
once to all their Doubts, Jefus told them he 
would point out the very Perfon to them, fay-j 
ing, He it ;j, to whom IJbali give a Sop when 
have dipped it ; and when he had dipped the Sop^ 
he gave it to Judas Ifcariot the Son of Simon J 
who appearing furprized at being thus proi 
nounced a Traitor, either for his farther Sa-1 
tisfaftion, or to difTemble the Wickednefs ol 
his Heart, himfelf aflced Jefus, if it was Hei 
To whom Jefus anfwered, Tboufayeji. " Aiic 
*' thus (concludes Grotius) Chriji gave Proof 
" ofhis Fore- knowledge by Degrees; firfl ir 
*' eluding the future Traitor in theNumbc 
•* of the Twelve j then in the lefler Number ol 
*' thofe who fat next to him ; and laftly, bj 
** certain and precife Marks, pointing out I 
** very Perfon himfelf." Towhich Imuft adc 
that in order to imprint this Prophecy ftronglj 
on the Minds of his Difcipks, he introduce 
it with applying to himfelf a Paflage of tbt 

[ 215 ] 

Pfalms, * He that eateth Bread '&Ub me^ haib 
lift up his Heel agahifi me j and with thefe re- 

larkable Words, Now I tell you before it come, 
that when it is come to pnfs you may believe that 

am be. 

2. The next Incident is the Defertion of 
the Difciples, who, as wc learn both from St. 

[JWij/zAfo; -f and St. MarkX-, upon their Maf- 
ter's being feized by the Soldiers and Servants 

[of the Chief Prieft, who came with Judas, all 

'immediately /?r/J?tf^ bim and fed. 

Of this their Defertion7(?ytfj had forewarned 
Ithem but a very fhort Time before it came to 
ppafs, ^nd that in the very Pride and Confi- 
dence of their Faith upon their profefling to 
believe, that be came fortb from God: y Then 
faith Jefus to them. All yefhall he offended be- 
ftaufe of me this Night, or (as it is in St. John) 
l^all be fcatler''d every Man to bis own Home \ 
f for it is written., I will fmite the Shepherd, and 
^the Ship of the Flock pall be fcattered abroad. 
P 3 The 

■ • Pfa!. x!i. 9. f Matth. xxvi. 56. % Mark \iv. 50. 
'Jl Maith.jcwi. 31. Mark xiv, z;. compared with John 
xri. 33, 

[ 2i6 1 

3, T H E third Particular is Pe(er*s difowiv 
ing Chriji^ recorded in all the Evangelifts j 
by whole Accounts it appears, that Peier, fol- 
lowing Cbrrji at a diftance to the Palace of thd 
High Prieft, was let into the Court by the 
Means of St. John, who /pake to her (bat 
kept the BooTy and brought in Peter; where 
ftanding among the Croud while his Mailer ] 
was under Examination, he was three fevcral 
Times charged by fome that were about him 
with belonging iQChrijl^ which he as often 
denied, affirming with Oaths and Imprecations^ 
that he did not fo much as know him \ and 
immediately after his third Denial the Cock 
crew } * and then the Lord turned^ and looked 
upon Peter, and Peter remembered the Word of] 

the Lord and went out and luept bitterfy. Th^] 

Prophecy is as follows : -f- Verily I fay to thee 
[Peter,] this Day , even this Nighty before tbg 
Cock crow twice thou Jhalt deny [or difown]'^ 
me thrice. Here we fee the Nature, the Time, 
and the Repetitions of Pf/(;r*s Offence precifel/1 
defined and limited. And I take the Sudden- 
ncfs and Sincerity of his Return to his former 

• Luke xxil. 6t. f Mark xiv. 3 

[ 217 ] 

Faith in his Maflcr, implied in his weeping 
bitterly upon the Rccolle<5tion of his Crime, 
and of his Mafter*s Words, to be fore-figni- 
fied in this Paflage of St. * Luke, And the Lord 
Jhidj Simon, Simon, hhoIdSstan hath de^red 
to haveycu, that he mayftft you as IVbeat ; but 
I have prayed for tbee^ that thy Faith fail not^ 
I mid when thou art converted DTFu^^-ia?, return- 
L cd back again to the Faith,] flrengtben thy 

r 4. T H E fourth Event foretold by Cbrijl, 

is his being delivered to the High Priefts, and 
; by them to Pontius Pilate the Roman Gover- 
[uor, together with many Particulars of his 
[Sufferings from that Time to his Crucifixion. 
'All which Things arc related by the Evange- 
llilb, as follows : 

t AND they that tkd laid hold sn JeCus^ 
led him away /oCaiaphas the High Priefty where 
ithe Scribes and the Elders were affcmbled ; 
'who, after having examined Tome Witnefles 
[from whofc Evidence nothing criminal could 
P 4 be 

• Ch. xxii. 31, 32. f Mat. xxvi. 57. Mur. xiv. 53. 

E 218 ] 

be made out againft him, at length adjured him 
by the living Gcd to tell tbem^ IVbetber be was 
the Chrifl, tbe Hon of God. To him Jefus faith, 
^bou bajl /aid. Tben tbe Higb Prieji rejii bis. 
Cloatbsj faying. He batb fpoken Blafpbewy^ 
What farther Need bave we cf Witneffes f Bi', 
bald now you bave beard bis BJafpbetir^ ; Wb^ 
tbink ye ? Tbey anfwared and f aid. He is guilty 
of Death. Iben did tbey [pit in bis Face, and 
buffeted binty and otbers fmote bim mtk.jht 
Palms cf tbeir Hands, faying. Prophecy to. us, 
tbott Chri^, wko is bf that fmote thee. - . 

ANB when they had bound him, ib^ k4 
bim away to Pontius Pilate, tbe (Roman) Gih 
vermry who, overcome by the Clamours^ of 
a tumultuous Multitude, at laft delivered liim 
to be crucified, after having declared hitn in- 
nocent five feveral Times, and «idcavoured 
in vain to prevail upop the J^oi -to-let him 
go free, or to be contented with his having 
fcourged him. • Then tbe Soldiers ofthtGever' 
nor took Jefus into tbe common Hall, and gather- 
ed to bim tbe whole Band af Soldiers ; and 
they gripped bim, and put on bim a Scarlet 

f Milt, xxvii. 2-. 

[ 219 1 

R.ehe i and when they had flatted a Crown of 
Thorns^ they put it upon his Headi and a Reed in 
his Eight Hand, And they bowed the Knee before 
him, and mocked him, faying^ Hail King of the 
Jews. And they fpit upon him, and took the 
Robe off from him, and put bis own Raiment on 
him, and led him away to crucify him. 

The Words in which many of thefe Par- 
ticulars were foretold, are thefe. * Behold, we 
go up to Jerufalem, and the Son of Man fhall 
he bitrayed to the Chief Priefts, and to the 
Scribes, and they fhall condemn him to Death, 
And fhall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, 
MndJof ffourg^, and to crucify him. -^ In St. 
Mfrk'rX, is, /They [the Gentiles] fl>all mock him, 
and fi^ fieurge him, and ft>all fpit upon Urn, 
and fiMiU Mill Mm. || In St. Luke, For he fhall 
he ddivittd. to the Gentiles, and fhall be mock- 
ed^ andv^tfully entrecUed, and fpit on, and 
thty fhiil fcotarge htm and put him to Death: 
Of his Soffei-ings from the Elders and Chief 
Friefts Jib ffoke in thefe Words: % From that- 

li- .' , ;,■. lime 

• Mat. XX. iS. t Ch. ix. 34. II Cli. xviii. 32. 
\ Mat. xvL 2e. 

[ 220 J 

Time forth hegaH Jefus to jhew to the DifcipUf 
bo-w be muji go to Jerufalem, and fuffer mart) 
Things of the Elders and Chief PrieJiSy and 
Scribes^ and be killed^ &c. 


5. H I s Cruciftxion and Death are mcntt' 
oned in every one of the laft cited Paffagcs, 
and in nnany others up and down the Evan- 
gelifts, either in exprefs Words, or in Fi- 
gures and Allufions, which I think it is not 
neceflkry to infert, no more than the Rela- 
tion of thofe Events, which arc too well 
known to be difputed. 


One Proof however of his Death I fhal^l 
here beg leave to mention, becaufe it has nc 
been ntiuch attended to by common Reader 
St. John^ Chap. xix. ver. 33, 34, after havinj 
related tliat the Soldiers brake the Legs of tbi 
two Thieves^ who were crucified with Jefus^ 
adds. But when they came to Jefus, and fai 
that he was dead already^ they brake not hi 
Legs i but one of the Soldiers with a Spear pietcei 
bis Side, and forthwith came thereout Bloo 
atid IVater j and be that faw it, bare Record)^ 
i^c. Upon thefe Words Beza makes the fol- 

[ 221 ] 

lowing Obfervation. Artiong the Reafona 
that induced St. J&hn to affert this Fafb with 
fo much Emphafis, this ought not to fa^ 
paffcd over, which Erafmus alio touches up- 
on ; natndv, that by this Wound the Death 
of Cbrt^ is fully proved. For the Water 
flowing out of that Wound in the Side, was 
an Indication of the Spear's have penetrated 
the Pericardium, in which that Water is 
lodged, and which being wounded, every 
Animalmuft necefTarily die immediately. This 
Faft therefore was inferted to obviate the 
Calumnies of the Enemies of the Truth, whd 
might otherwife pretend that Jefus was takeri 
down from theCrofs before he was dead, and 
thence call in queftion the Reality of his Re- 
furre^ion from the Dead. 

6. Of his Rifing from the Dead I nttA 
not here again produce the Proofs, having 
fet them forth fo copioudy in all the pre- 
ceding Parts of this Difcourfe -, but concern- 
ing the Evidence of his rifing precifely ort 
the third Day^ I think it proper here to add 
m Obfervation or two. That he did rtot rife 


[ 222 ] 

before .the tlilrd Day, is evident from what 
St. Matthew relates of the Watch or Guard 
being fet at the Door of the Sepulchre. The 
Paffage is this : * Now the next Day^ that fol- 
lowed the Day of the Preparation^ the Chief 
Priefls and Pharifees came tipgether to Pilate, 
faying^ Sir, we remember that that Deceiver faid^ 
wbiiji be was yet aUve, After three Days Iwill 
rife again : Command therefore that the Sepulchre 
he made fure until the third Day, leji his Dif- 
ciples come by Night and Jleal him away^ and 
fay to the People^ be is ri fen from the Dead j/o 
the lafi Error Jball be worfe than tbejirfi, &c. 
From thefe Words I obferve, ift. That the 
Watch or Guard was fet at the Sepulchre the 
next Day after the Death and Burial of Chrift. 
2d]y, It is moft probable this was done 
what we call, the Evening of that Day ; h 
caufe that was a High-day^ not only a Sahbaiby 
but the Paffsveri and it can hardly be imagin: 
ed that the Chief Priefls, and efpecially 
Pharifees, who pretended to greater StricHinc 
and Purity than any other Se(5b of the Jews> 
ihould, before the Religious Duties of t] 
Day were over, defile themfelves by goiOj 

• Chap, xxvii. 63. 


[ 223 1 

to Tilate j for that they were very fcrupulous 
upon that Point appears from what * St. John 
fays of their not entering into the Hall of Judg- 
ment (the Pratorium, where Pilate*s Tribu- 
nal was) the Day before, Is/i they Jhsuld be 
defiled^ and fo kept from eating the Paffover. 
And if it fliould be faid, that the Pafchal 
Lamb being always eaten in the Night, all 
their Scruples upon that Account were over, 
and they at Liberty to go to Pilate in the 
Morning, or at what other Time they pleaf- 
cd i I anfwer, that allowing the Objeflion, 
it is ill II farther to be confidered that this was 
the Sabbath Day j and can it be fuppoJed that 
the Pharifees, who cenfured J ejus for healings 
and his Bifdpks for plucking and eating the 
Ears of Com on the Sabbath Day^ would pro- 
fane that Day, and defile thcmfelves, not only 
by going to Pilate, but with the Soldiers to the 
Sepulchre of ChriJ^^ and fetting a Seal upon 
the Door of the Sepulchre, before the Religi^ 
ous Duties of that folemn Day were paft ? 
efpecially as they were under no kind of Ne- 
ceffity of doing it before the Evening ; 
though it was highly expedient for them net 


• Ch. xviii, 28. 

t ^^^ 1 
to delay it beyond that Time. 
Points I ihall now explain. 

Both whicb 

JESUS had faid, whilft he was yet alive, 
that he fhould rife again from the Dead on 
the third Day ; which Prophecy would have 
been equally falfified by his riling on the 
firft, or fecond, as on the fourth. If his Body 
therefore was not in the Sepulchre at the Clofi 
of the fecond Day^ the Chief Pricfts and Pha- 
rifees would gain their Point, and might 
have aflerted boldly, that he was an Impol"- 
tor i from whence it will follow, that it was 
time enough for them to vifit the Sepulchre 
at the Clofe of the fec&nd Day. On the other 
hand, as he had declared he fhould rife on 
the third Dajt it was neccflary for them, (if 
they apprehended what they gave out, that 
his Difciples would come and ileal him away) 
to guard againft any fuch Attempt on that 
Day, and far that Day only. And, as the third 
Day began from the Evening or Shutting- in 
of the fecond, according to the Way of com- 
puting ufed among the Jezvs, it was as ne- 
ccflary for them not to delay vifit ing the Se- 
pulchre, and fetting their Guard, till after the 


[ 425 I 

Beginning of that third Day -, for if they had 
come to the Sepulchre, though ever fo (hort 
a Time after the third Day was begun^ and had 
found the Body mifling, they could not from 
thence have proved him an Impoftor. And ac- 
cordingly St. Matthew tells us they went thi- 
ther on the faond Day, which was the Sabbath j 
•nd though the going to Pilate, and with the 
Roman Soldiers, to the Sepulchre, and feal- 
ing up the Stone, was undoubtedly a Profana- 
tion of the Sabbath, in the Eyes of the cere- 
monious Pharifees, yet might they excufe 
themfelves to their Confciences, or (what feems 
to have been of greater Confequence in their 
Opinions) to the World, by pleading the Ne- 
ceflity of doing it that Day. And furcly no- 
thing could have carried them out on fuch a 
Bufinefs, on fuch a Day, but the urgent Ne- 
KdHty of doing it then, or net at all And 
9$ I have Ihewn above, that this urgent Ne- 
ceflity could not take place till the Clofe of 
the fecond Day^ and juft, though but one Mo- 
ment, before the Beginning of the third •, it 
will follow, from what hatli been faid, that 
1^ the Eftimation of the High Priefts and 
Pharifees, the Day on which tliey fet their 

2 Guard 

[ 225 1 

Guard was the fecond Day : and the nexi Dsf 
coQfequently was the third', to the End of 
which they requefted Pilate to command that 
the Sepulchre might be made fure. Here 
then we have a Proof,, fumilhed by the Mur- 
derers and Blafphemers of Cbriji thcmfclves, 
that he was not rifen before the tliird Day ; 
for it is to be taken for granted, that before 
they fealed up the Sepulchre, and fet the 
Guard, they had infpedcd it, and fecn that 
the Body was ftill there. Hence alfb we are 
enabled to anfwer the unlearned Cavils that 
have been raifed upon thefe Exprefllons, three 
Days and three Nights^ and after three Days. 
For it is plain that the Chief Priefts and Pha- 
rifees, by their going to the Sepulchre on the 
Sabbath Day, underftood that Day to be the 
fecond ; and it is as plain by their fetting the 
Guard from that Time, and the Reafon given 
to Pilate for their fo doing, viz. left the Dif 
ciples fhould come in the Night, and fleal him 
away^ that they conftrued that Day, which 
was juft then beginning, to be the Day li- 
mited by Chrift for his Rifing from the Dead, 
/. e. the third Day. ' For had they taken thefe 
Words of our Saviour, ^he Son of Man fltall 


( 22; ] 

Be thrie Days and three Nights in the Heart df 
the Earthy in their ftrift literal Senfe, they 
need not have been in fuch haftc to fet thdr 
Guard ; fince, according to that Interpreta- 
tion, there were yet two Z)a)'jand two Nights 
to come J neither, for the fame Reafon, had 
^they any Occafion to apprehend, ill Confe" 
f^quences from the Difciples coming that Night 
and dealing away the Body of their Mafter. 
So that, unlefs it be fuppofed that the Chief 
Priefts and Pharifees, the moft learned Sedt 
among the Jews, did not underftand the Mean- 
ing of a Phrafe in their oWn Language j or that 
they were fo impious or impolitick as to pro- 
fane the Sabbath and defile themfelves without 
any Occafion *, and fo fenfelefs and imperti- 
nent as to afk a Guard of Pilate for watching 
the Sepulchre that Night and Day, to prevent 
the Difciptes fteallng away the Body of Chri^ 
the Night or the Day following •, unlefs, I fay, 
thefe ftrange Suppofitions be admitted, we 
may fairly conclude, that in the Language, 
and to the Underftanding of the Jews^ three 
Days and three Nights^ and after three Days^ 
were equivalent to three Days, or in three 
; rofe on the third 



[ 228 ] 

the Teftimony of the Angels, and his o\fn 
Appearances to the Women, to Simon, and 
jO the two Difciples on the Way to Etnmausy 
which all happened on that Day, arc clcar_ 
and fufficJent Proofs. 



The Prediiflions of ChriJ}, relating to 
miraculous Event, are many •, fome of whicl 
only I Ihall here fet down, for Brevity's fake. 

* JND as ihey [the three Difciples] came 
down, from the Mountain [where Chrifi had been 
transfigured] Jefus charged them, faying^ feil 
the Vifion to no Man^ until the Son of Man be 
rifen again from the Dead, 

f B Ut after I am rifeny I will go before ;'«•] 
into Galilee. 

\FROM that Time forth began Jefus it 
fhew to his Difciples^ bow that be muft go it 
Jerufalem, andfuffer many Things of the Elders 
and Chief Prlefis and Scribes^ and be killedy and 
be raifed again the thit d De^. 


*Mat. xviii. 9. f Chap, xxvi.32. t Chap, xvi, ai. I 

* BEHOLD, we go up to Jtrufalem, and 
the Son of Ma7i Jhall be bettayed to the Chief 
Prisjh^ and to the Scribes ^ and they Jhall con- 
demn him to Deaih^ and Jhall deliver him to the 
GentileSf to mock, and to fcottrgti and to cru ify 
hiniy and the third Day he Jhall rife again. 

I SHALL defer what Remarks I have to 
make upon thefe Prediflions, and their Ac- 
compUlhmenr, till I come to confi Jer the Pro- 
phecies contained in the Writings of Mofes^ 
and the Prophets, and the Pfalms, relating to 
the Sufferings, and Death, and Refurreftion 
oiChriJi } for thofe only belong to the prefent 

y 1^. Athly, The fourth Evidence appealed 
to by our Saviour, was the Teftimony of the 
Scriptures J in which are contained, not only 
the Promifes of a Meffiah* and Saviour of the 
World, but the Marks and Defcriptions^by 
which he was to be known. Of thefe 
there are many, and thofe fo various, fo 
j/cemingly incompatible in one and Che fame 
0^2 Perfoni 

* Matth. XX. 1 8, 19. 

( 230 ] 

Pcrfon, and exhibited under fuch a 
of Types and Figures, that as it was abfurd 
for a meer Mortal to pretend to anfwer the 
Charaftcr of the Mefliah in all Points, fo was 
it difficult to thofe, who by fome Expreffions 
of the Prophets were filled with the idea of a 
glorious, powerful, and triumphant Deliverer, 
to underftand the Intimation given in others 
of his Sufferings and Death. But this Difficulty 
proceeds rather from the Prejudices and Blind- 
nefs of the Interpreters, than from any Degree* 
of Obfcurity in the "latter more than in the 
former. His Sufferings and Death, and his 
offering himfelf up as a Sacrifice for Siri, are 
as plainly let forth in the Writings of the 
Prophets, and in the Types of the MofaicdCt- 
remonies, as his Power and his Pricfthood : 
And if the Jews, and even the Difciplcs, pof- 
feffed with the like vain and carnal Imagina- 
tions, turned their Views and Expe&ations to 
the one, and over-looked the other, it was 
owing to their miftaking the Nature of his 
Kingdom, and the Entl and Dcfign of his 
Prieftly Office. This, I doubt not, n'^ight be 
made appear by comparing the fcveral Types 
and Prophecies togetlier, but would carry nie 


[ 231 ] 

too far from my prefentPurpofe, which 155 only 
to Ihew, chat the Sufferings, and Death, and 
Relurredion of Cbrijl^ were foretold in the 
Types and Predidions contained in the Books 
ol Mofes^ in the Prepbsis^ and in the Pfalms; 
and to derive from thence another Proof in 
favour of the Refurrcdlion. 

The firfl: Prophecy relating to this Sub- 
jc(ft in the Books of Mofssy and the firft in- 
deed that was ever given to Man, is that re- 
corded in the third Chapter of GeneJtSy and the 
15th Vcrfe, in thefe Words, /4nd i will put En- 
mity between thee [the Serpent] and the IVoman^ 
and between thy Seed and her Seed. It jhall 
bruise thy Head^ and thoujhalt bruife bis Heel, 


Upon this Prophecy, I (hall beg leave to 
quote a Paffage out of the prcfent Bifliop of 
Salijhury*s moft admirable Dtfcourfes, Of the 
Ufe and Intent of Prophecy in the feveral Ages 
of thelVorld^ Difc. HI. p. S7 '—''*' Let us con- 
** fider the Hiftory of M?/«, as we fhould do 
" any other ancient Eafiern Hiftory ot the 
•* like Antiquity : Suppofe for Inftance, that 
*♦ (his Account of the Fall had been preferved 
r\ « " m 

[ 23* ] , 
<< to us out of Sancboniatbo's Pbamcian Hl^ 
»*/ ftory : We (hould in that Cafe be at a Lofs 
«* perhaps to account for every Manner of 
*' Reprefentation^ for every Figure and Ex- 
** frejfton in the Story ; but we ftiould fooa 
" agree that all thefc Difficulties were impu- 
^* table to the Manner and Cujioms of his^g-tf 
^* and Country -, and fhould fliew more Re- 
•* fpeft to fo venerable a Piece of Jntifuity^ 
*« than to <:harge it with Want -of Senfe^ be- 
** caufe we did not underftand every minute 
•* Circumftance : We fhould likewife agree, 
^' that there were evidently /(?«f'Pflr/*«if con- 
*^ cerned in the Story -, the MdMy the Wo- 
^.' maUi the Perji^n repfcfented by the Serpent^ 
^* and Gfl^ Pifagree we could not abouttheir 
^V fevcral Parts. The Serpent is evidently the 
" Tempter ; the Mm and the W^nuu^- are the 
^* 0/^«^j i GV the yuJge of all thytt. The 
^" Puniftiments inflidbed on the ManmAWth 
»' «;/?» have no Obfcurity in them-,- sttM as to 
" the Serpent's Sentence, we fhould think it 
" reafonable to, give it fuch a Senfe as-the 
^* wliole Series of ^c Story requires, 

*^ *Tis no unreafonable Thing furelyto 
^* demand the fapie Equity of you in inter- 

!' prcting 

[233 ] 
*« putting the Senfe of Mofes, as you would 
•' certainly ufe towards any other ancient Wri- 
*• tcr. And if the fame Equity be allowed, 
** this plain Fa£i undeniably arifes from the 
♦' Hiftory ; That Man was tempted to Difo- 
** bedience, and did difobey, and forfeited 
•* all Title to Happinefs, and to Life itfelf i 
*• That God judged him and the Deceiver like- 
'* wife under the Form of a Serpent We re- 
** quire no more ; and will proceed upon this 
** Faift to eonfider this Prophecy before ut. 

^<Thb Prophecy is Part of the Sen- 
«* tef»te paffed upon the Deceiver : The 
** Words ire thefe : I v>iUput Enmity between 
**^ thee 'mid the Womany and between thy Seed 
'* and her Seed: It Jhatt bruife thy Head, and 
**tbmjbalf bruife his Heel i Gen. iii. 15. 
*' Chriftiih Writers apply this to our bleffed 
*• SalFtour, emphatically ftiled hcrft the Seed of 
*•■ ^fFtnum, and who came in the Fulnefs 
** ofTinle ta bruife the Serpent* s Head, by de- 
*' ftroying'the Works of the Devi], and re- 
*• ftoring thofe to the Liberty of the Sons of 
** God, who were held under the Bondage 
" and Captivity of Sin. You'll fay, What 
CL4 " un- 

[ 234 ] 

" unreafonable Liberty of Interpretation ii 

'* this ? Tell us by what Rules of Language 

" the Seed of the fVoman is made to denote 

" one particular Perfon^ and by what Art you 

** difcover the Myftery of Cbriji's miraculous 

'* Conception and Birth in this common E>x- 

" prefllon? Tell us likewifey how bruifing 

**.the Serpent's Head comes to fignifythc 

** deftroying the Power of Sin, and the 

"Redemption of Mankind by CBriftf Tis 

"no Wonder to hear fuch Qucffi6i&,"fr<5m> 

* * thofe who Idok no farther thah t<j tiie 

*' third Chapter ofCeke^s, to fee theGl^rid 

" of the Chriftian Application. As the Pro- 

" phecy ftands there, nothing appears to point 

" out this particular Meaning •, much lefsto 

*• confine this Prophecy to it. But bf this 

" hereafter. Let us for the prefefit hy aflde 

" all our own Notions, and go back to the 

" State a|Ki Condition of Things, as they Wtfrc 

" at the Time of tjie Delivery of this Pro- 

*'phecy^ ^d fee (if haply we may difcover 

«* it) what God intended to difcover >t that 

"Time by this Prophecy, and what wp thay 

" reafonably fuppofc our firft Parents undcr- 

** ftood it to me^n. 

^* They 

[ ^zs ] 

** They were now in a State of Sin, 
** (landing before God to receive Sentence for 
** their Difbbedicnce» and had Reafon to ex- 
** pefit a full Execution of the Penalty threat- 
*' ened. In the Day tbm eateji thencf then jhah 
*• Jurely dk. But God came in Mercy as well 
•* as Judgment, purpoOng not only to punilh, 
•* but to reftorc Man. The Judgment is aw- 
•• ful and fcvere ; the Woman is doom'd ta 
*• Sorrow in Conception \ the Man to Sorrow 
" and Travail all the Days of his Life; the 
** Ground is curfed for his Sake -, and the 
'* End of the Judgment is. Da/? tbQu arty and 
*', to Duji tboujhali return. Had they been left 
** thqs, they might have continued in their 
** Labour and Sorrow for their appointed 
*' sfimc, and at laft returned to Duft, with- 
** rC^i^.-any well-grounded Hope or Conh 
** dence in God : They muft have lookRd xip-^' 
*' on themfelves as rejedled by their Makers 
'* delivered up to Trouble and Sorrow in this 
• *V World, .and as having no Hope in any 
" other. Upon this Foot, 1 conceive, there 
** , could have been no Religion left in the 
B ** World ; for a Senfe of Religion, without 
■ " Hope, 

r *3^ ] 

** Hope, IS a State of Phrcnzy and Diftnc- 
*' tion, void of all Inducements to Lovb and 
'< Obedience, or any thing elfe that is Fraiie- 
" worthy. If therefore God intended to pre-' 
** ferve them as Objeds of Mercy, it ins 
** atifolutely neceffiiry to communicatey^ mub 
*\H9pe to them,. as might be a ratmal 
^* Fqitndafm for their future Endeavours^ 
V reconcile theoifelves to him by ai^ibetter' 
f '. Pbedience. This leems to kt^frkiarj 
tV Iii^niclpf) of thisfiribdivine.PiopbecyiMod 
", i^ vas wcftpry to the State «£'thft Woild, 
f»jand...rfie Condition of Hfliplon^Mtrliich 
.'^. cpuld not poflibly have been; fupported 
.*.\ «itlu)ut the Communication of fiichjiopes. 
,f' The Prophecy is excellently r^pt<4« to 
,*\ thi&Purpofe, and manifcftly conveyed, iiich 
*,' . ^Qpes to our firft Parents. Fw Jet, im con- 
*^ fi^er, m whaf Senfe we may fuppp^^chem to 
**^vwdprftand this Prophecy. Now, th?f i>uft 
" pecclJ&rUy: upiderftand the Prophecy, either 
"accpfdjpg to the literal Meaning ^f the 
*' Wor^s, or according to fuch Meaning as 
** the whoje Circumftance of thtt Tranfeftion, 
*• .9f which they arc a Part, does require. 
'* If we.fuppofe them to underftand-ihe 
. *c Words 

[ »37 3 
*♦ Words literally, and that God meant them 
** fo to he underftood, this Paflage muft ap^ 
** pear ridiciilous. Do byt imagine that you 
** fee Gfid comingto judge the Offenders \ Adam 
** and Bve before him in the utmofi Dijirefs-, 
** that you hear God inflifting Pains^ arfd 
♦* Sorrow, and Miferyj and Death upon the 
" firft of. Human Race ; and that in the 
♦' midft of all this Scene of Woe and great 
** Calamity^ you hear God foretelling with 
** great St>kmmty a very trivial Accident, that 
** fhould fometimes happen in the World ; 
*** That'Scijients would be apt tb bite Men 
•"bjff did Heels, and that Meij would' be apt 
-^*t6 revenge thcmfclrcs by ftriking thi^rh on 
♦^ tlwi'Hfcad. What has thU^rip to do with 
♦•'thfe'Ctf/S" 'cf Mankind, with the Corruption 
*<-of^ tfed natural znd tnoral Wofld, and the 
'** itJUin of all the Gloty ahd Uappinefs of the 
** Creatiori ?' "Great Comfort it was to Adam, 
" ddubtrlcft, after telling him th^t his Days 
•«« Ihould be (hort and flill of Mifery, and 
•'" bis ' End without Hope, to let him know, 
" that he Ihould now and then knock ^ 
'* Snake on the Head, but. not even that, 
>* without paying dear for his poor Vi<5lory, 

• «* for 


t '3S J 

" for the Snake fliould often bice him by 
*' the Heel, j^dam^ furely, could not un- 
** dcrftand the Prophecy in this Senfe, tho' 
"^ iomcof his Sons have fo underftoodit; 
*' a plain Indication how much more fome 
*' Men are concern'd to maintain a literal 
" Interpretation of Scripture, than they are 
**• to make it fpeak common Senfe. Leaving 
*• this therefore as abfolutely abfurd and ridl- 
" cuious, let us confider what Meaning the Cir- 
*' cumftances of the Tranfaftion do ncceffdrily 
•* fix to the Words of this Prophecy, yldam 
" tempted by his Wife, and Ihe by the Ser-^ 
*• pent, had fallen from their Obedience, and , 
*' were now in the Prefence of God cxpeft- 
" ing Judgment. They knew full well at I 
*' this Juncture, that their Fall was thei 
*' ViSlory of the Serpent^ whom by Expe- 
** rience they found to be an Enemy to God 
** and to Man ; to Man, whom he had ruin- 
** ed by reducing him to Sin -, to God, the 
" nobleft Work of whofe Creation he had| 
** defaced. It could not therefore but be 
" ibme Comfort to them to hear the Serpent 
** firft condemned, and to fee that however 
" he had prevailed againft them, he had 

" gained 



[ 239 ] 
gained no Viilory over their Maker, whii 
** was able to affert his own Honour, and 
•* to punifli this great Author of Iniquity. 
*' By this Method of God's Proceeding they 
•* were fecured from thinking that there was 
'* any evil Being equal to the Creator in Power 
y and Dominion. An Opinion which gain- 
** ed Ground in After-times thro' the Prc- 
■** valency of Evil ; and is, where it does 
■* prevail, deftrudive of all true Religiorr. 
if*'TheCondemnati{in therefore of the Serpent 
.*« was the Maintenance of God*s Supremacy -, 
** and that it was lb under flood, we have, if 
*' I miftake nor» a very antient Teflimony 
.^* in the Book of Jol> : PFith Gsd is Strenpb 
*" and IVifdom^ the Deceived and the Deceiver 
•'* are bis : i.e. equally fubjeft to his Com- 
"•^'inandi Job xn. \6. The Belief of God*s 
**'fupreine Dominion, which is the Founda- 
•** tion of all Religion, being thus preferved, 
'** it was flill necefiary to give them fuch 
■" Hopes as might make them capable of Re- 
•* Jigion toward God. Thefe Hopes they 
,*«.ipould not but conceive, whjen they heard 
*' from the Mouth of God that the Serpent's 
wVidlory was not a compleat Viftory over 

*' even 







t ^40 ] 

even themfelves ; that they and their Pof^ 
terity fhoiild bb enabled to conteft his Em- 
pire ; and though they were to fuffcr much 
in the Struggle, yet finally they flieuld 
prevail and bruile the Serpent's Head, and 
deliver themfelves from his Power and Do- 
minion over them. What now could they 
conceive this Conqucft over the Serpent to 
mean ? Is it-iiot natural to expcft that we 
fliall recover that by Viftory, which Wfe 
loft by being defeated ? They knew that 
the Enemy had fubdued them by Sin j 
could they then conceive Hopes of Vidory 
otherwife than by Righteoufnefs ? They loft 
thro* Sin the Happinefs of their Creatiorf; 
could they expeft lefs from the Return 
of Righteoufnefs than the Recovety of the 
Bleflings forfeited ? What elfe but this could 
they exped ? For the certain Knowledge 
they had of their Lofs when the Serpent 
prevailed, could not but lead them to ^ 
clear Knowledge of what they fliould re- 
gain by prevailing againft the Serpent. The 
Language of this Prophecy is indeed in 
part Metaphorical, but 'tis a great Miftake 
to think that all Metaphors are of uti- 

" certain 

[ HI 1 

" Certain Signification ; for the Defign and 
*' Scope of the Speaker, with the Circtim* 
** ftanccs attend ing» create a fixed and detef- 
*' minace Senfe. Were it otherwife, there 
" would be no Certainty in any Language \ 
** all Languages, the Eajlern more efpecially, 
[" abounding in Metaphors. 

" Let us now look back to our Subjed", 
and fee what Application w6 are to make 
of this Inftance. 

** This Prophecy was to our firfl: Parents 
but very obfcure ; it was, in the Phrafe of 
" St, Pelef-y but a Light jhining in a dark 
** flau J all that they could certainly con- 
** elude from it was, that their Cafe was not 
*' dclperate ^ that fome Remedy, that fome 
*' Deliverance from the Evil they were un- 
" der, would in Time appear j but whrn^ or 
*' where, or by what Means, they could not 
*' underftand : Their own Sentence, which 
" returned them back again to the Duft of 
" the Earth, made it difficult to apprehend 
*^ what this Viftory over the Serpent Ihould 
" fignify, or how they, who were fhortly to 



I 2427 

" be Dull and Afhes, Ihould be t\^t better 

** for it. But after all that can be urged V[ 

*' on this Head to fct out the Obfcurity 

** this Promife, I would aflc one Queftion : 

" Was not this Promife or Prophecy, tho* 

** furrounded with all this Obfcurityj a Foun- 

** dation for Religion, and Tri;ft and Confi- 

" dcnce towards God after the Fall, in Hopes 

•* of Deliverance from the Evils introduced 

" by Difobedience ? If it was, it fuliy art- 

•' fwered the Ncceffity of their Cafe, to wh'oni 

" it was given, and manifefted to them all 

" that God intended to make manifeft' 

•* They could have had towards God no 

** Religion, without Tome Hopes of Mercy : 

" It was neceJTary therefore to convey fuch 

*^ Hopes ; but to tell them how thcfe Hopes 

" Ihould be accompliflied, at what Time 

*' and Manner precifely, was not necefiary 

•* to their Religion. And what is now 

" to be objefted againfl: this Prophecy ? 

" It is very obfctire you fay j fo it is ; but 

** 'tis obfcure in the Points, which God did 

** not intend to explain at that Time, and 

** which were not necefiary then to be known. 

*' You fee a plain Reafon for giving this iM 

*' Prophc- ' 

C 243 1 

■' this Prophecy, and as far as the Reafon for 
' giving the Prophecy extends, fo far the Pro- 
* phecy is very plain : *Tis obfcure only where 
'• there is no Reafon why it (hould be plain; 
' which furely is a Fault eafily to be forgiven, 
'* and very far from being a proper Subject 
" for Complaint. 

•* But if thit Prophecy conveyed to our 
'* fird: Parents only a general Hope and £r- 
'* pe^t^tion of Pardon and Reftoration, and 
'* was intended by God to convey no more 
** to tbem, how came we their Pofteritytofind 
** fo much more in this Promife than we fup- 
** pofe them to find ? How is it that we prc- 
*• tend to difcover Chrift in this Prophecy, ;to 
f * fee \tk it the Myftery of his Birth, his Suffer- 
** ingSy and his final Triumph oyer all the 
" Powers of Darknefs? By what new Light 
*' do ^e difcern all thefe Secrets ? By what 
** Art do we unfold them ? 

•* 'T I s no Wonder to me, that fuch as come 

•• to the Examination of the Prophecies ap- 

•* plied to Chrift^ expefting to find in each^of 

** them fome cx^refs Chara&er ^4. Mark .of 

^' R " *'CbriJf, 

[ 244 ] 

** Chr'iji, plainJy to be underftood as fuch an* 
** tecedently to his Coming, Ihould aOc chefc, 
" or any other the like QuefUons ; or that 
•* cheArgumentfrora antient Prophecy, fliould 
** appear fo light and trivial to thofe who know 
" no better Ufe of it. 

" KNOWN unto God are alibis Worlii 
^^^ from the Beginning \ and whatever Degree of 
" Light he thought fit to communicate to our 
*' firft Parents, or to their Children in After- 
•' times, there is no doubt but that Rt had'i 
** perfeft Knowledge at all Times of all' the 
** Methods by which he intended to rcfcucand 
** reftore Mankind ; and therefore all thcNo- 
♦' tices given by him to Mankind of his in- 
♦* tended Salvation, muft correfpond to the 
** great Event, whenever the Fulnefe of Time 
** fliall make it manifeft. No Reafbri can be 
•* given why God fhould at all Times', or at 
" any Time clearly opfen the Secrets of 
*' Providence to Men; it depends meerlyuj 
*' on his good Pleafure to do it in what Tit 
** and in what Manner he thinks proper, l^u 
** there is a neccflary Reafon to be given why 
**all fuch Notices as God thinks fit to give 

" fliould 


^[245 1 
anfvvcr exactly in due Time to the 
** Completion of the great Defign: It is ab- 
" Jurd therefore to complain of the antient 
*' Prophecies for being obrcure ; for it is chal- 
'* icnging God for not telling us more of his 
•' Secrets. But if we pretend that God has 
•* ac length manifcfted to us by the Re- 
?'velation of the Gofpel the Method of his 
^ Salvation, it is neceflary for us to fliew that 
^ all the Notices of this Salvation given to 
H the old World do correfpond to the Things 
S'j which wc have fcen and heard with our Eyes. 
fth The Argument from Prophecy therefore is 
ff not to be formed in this Manner : Jll the 
if 4wtint Prophecies have exfrejiy pointed cut 
I Sf and cbaraSerixed Chrift Jefus. But it muft 
' " be formed in this Manner : All the Notices 
',* which God gave the Fathers of bis intend- 
fj^ed Salvation, are perfectly anfwered by the 
ff Ccming of Chrift. He never promifed or 
'* cr^ged his Word in any Particular relating 
*f to the common Salvation, but what he has 
** fully made good by fending his Son to our 
*' Redemption. Let us try thefe Methods 
^,-«pon the Prophecy before us. If you dc- 
'l^inand that we (hould (hew you c priori Chrift- 
R 2 " fefiis 





^fuj fet fortli in this Prophecy, and that 
God had limited himfcif by this Promifc 
to convey the Bleflings intended by fending 
his own Son in the Flefh, and by no other 
Means whatever, you demand what I can- 
not Ihew, nor do 1 know who can. But if 
yoa enquire whether this Prophecy, in the 
obvious and moll natural Meaning of it, in 
that Senle in wliich our firft Parents, and 
their Children after, might eafily underftand 
it, has been verified by tlie Coming of 
Cbrift^ I conceive it may be made as clear as 
the Sun at Noon-day, that all the Expec- 
tation raifed by this Prophecy, has .been 
completely anfwcred by the Redemption 
wrought by Jefus Chrifi. And what have 
you to defire more than to fee a Prophecy 
fulfilled exaftly ? If you infift that the Pro- 
phecy ftiould have been more exprefs, you 
muft demand of God why he gave you no 
more Light', but you ought at leaft to fuf- 
pend this Demand till you have a Reafon 
to Ihew for it. 

'' I KNOW that this Prophecy is urged far- 
** ther, and that Chriflian Writers ai^gue from 

C 247 ] 

« the EKpreffions of it to fliew that Chrift is 
** therein particularly foretold : He properly 
"is the Seed of a Woman in a Senfe in which 
•*' ho other ever was j his Sufferings were well 
•' prdigiired by the hrtdjing of the HeeJ^ his 
*« ' comf>lete Viftory oVer Sin and Death by 
" bfiiifii^ the Serpent* s Head. When Unbe- 
•• lievers hear fuch Reafonings, they think 
** thenilelvesintitled to laugh } but their Scofn 
^* 't)e to ihemfelves. We readily allow that the 
*• Eitpreffions do not imply necc0arily this 
*• &iifc : We allow farther, that there is no 
'**" Abtxarance that our firft Parents underflnod 
"^ dlna^in this Senfe, or that God intended 
** theyfliould founderftand them: But fincc 
** tUs Prophecy has been plainly fulfilled in 
■** CbHftf and by the Event appropriated to 
■^ hittthtif ; I would fain know how it comes 
*'*^ tdlsb Cooceived to be fo ridiculous a thing 
'i^* in oSi, 1*0 fuppofe that God, to whom the 
'•" whole Event was known from the Begin- 
** ning*, Ihould make choice of fuch Ex- 
R 3 .. preflions, 

• Remember the former Things of oU', for I em God, 
/mdthet-e u none elfe \ lam Godj and there is none like me ; 
ittlariitg the End from the Beginning, and from antitnt 
TisHes the Things that are not yet done^ fyi^gt My Cou^tl 
ttttiftti^^ andtifiill d» aUmj fkafiire. Urn. jAtU 9, 10. 










[ 248 ] 

preflions, as naturally conTcyed fo much 
Knowledge as he intended to convey to our 
iirfl. IVents, and yet Should appear in the 
Fulncfs of Time to hare been peculiarly 
adapted to the Event, which he from the 
Beginning faw, and wliich he intended the 
World (hould one Day fee j and which 
when they Ihould fee, they n>ight the more 
cafily acknowledge to be the Work of his 
Hand, by the fecret Evidence which he had 
inclofed from the Days of old in the Words 
of Prophecy. However the Wit of Mao 
may defpife this Method, yet there is no- 
thing in it unbecoming the Wifdom of 
God, And when we fee this to be the Cafe, 
not only in this Inftance, but in many other 
Prophecies of the Old Tcftament, ic is not 
without Reafon we conclude, that under the 
Obfcurity of antient Prophecy there was an 
Evidence of God's Truth kept in Refervc, 
to be made inanife|l in due Time." 


The exquifite and mafterly Senfe, Clcar- 
oefs and Force of Reafon, which is fo confpi- 


The IVorks of the Lor J are done in Jutfgment fnm the Btr 
gimivg i and from the Time be made them, be iij^afti tb* 
Parti fbereof. fcclus. xvi. 36, 

[ 249 1 

cuous in this Paflage, that every common Rea- 
der muft perceive, and every judicious one ad- 
mire it i ^nd the Pertinency of it to the pre- 
fent Subjed, will, I doubt not, fufficicntly 
atone for the Length of the Quotation- 

In all the Books o'i Mo[es I find no other 
Prophecy but this, relating to the Death and 
Sufferings ofCbri^ -, I fhall therefore, accord- 
ing to the Method pointed out in the Words 
of our Saviour, proceed in the next Place to 
the Prophets; and firft produce one out of 
Ifaiab^ whofe Application to the Mefllah the 
moft obftinate Enemies of the Gofpel have not 
been able to deny. 

Isaiah, Ch. liii. Who bath believed pur Re- 
port ? And to whom is the Arm of the Lord re- 
^ileaied? For be Jhall grow up before him as a 
tender Planty and as a Root out of a dry Ground: 
He hath no Form nor Comelinefs, and when we 
fhallfee bim^ there is m Beauty that we fhould 
de/tre him. " He is defpifed and rejeSled of Men^ 
*• a Man of Sorrows ^and acquaintedwith Griefs** 
and we bid as it were our Faces from him. He 
'was defpifid, and zee efteemed him not. Surely be 
R 4- bath 

bath horni hf 'Griefs, iiid tinr^id'ou^' Sbhvwi': 

Tea we ' M ejieem him fltidcigrfy''fmttett''ofGod 

and affiiStedr ■ But' hi te<2/ wbtm(ied' fair our 

Tran^e^bnsihewas'hniifcdfor out ikipHties : 

The Cbaftifetrunt of ottr'^ttue m^ upoH btAi, aiid 

with bis Stripes we are beded. Ml we Hke Sheep 

have gone aftra^: We bt^e ttifned dviiy 'cHis to 

bilown Way^ and the Lord bath laid on hint the 

Iniquity of 'us all. Be was bpprefied aitd'ie wan 

afflifted, yet be " opened not his Mouth. He is 

*'* hrought^-as a Lamb to the Slaiigbl&r, tindksa 

•'• Sheep hefori her Shearers is dumb^ fo br'openid 

*♦ not his Mouth." He was taken frim>* Brifin 

4ind fronts "Judgment ; And- who JhaU diclareins 

Generation ? ■ For ** he was'^ut off out of tfh 

•* Land of the Living •," for the Tranjgreffm of 

wy People he was ftricken. ** And he made 

" his Grave with the JVicked^ and with' th« 

•^^ iRich in his Death j becaufe be had doncnof^io- 

'^'lence, neither Was any Deceit in his- Mouth." 

Tet it pleafed the Lord to bruife him, he hath put 

'bim to Grief : fFhen thou Jhali make his Soul an 

Offering for Sin, be JhaU fee bis Seed, bejhall 

prolong bis Days, and the Pleafure of the Lori 

JhaU profper in bis Hands. He JhaU Jee of the 

* The Margin of the Bibl^ has it. He luas fain avy 
hjDifirtJs tttidjudgment. . 

*rre!o4^^'y, hi^k -^vlr: pxdjhallh^jktisfiei-:- By ■ his 

F4i3('^^bArfi>aii Jf€^ i^ir Imquities-^^ Therefvffe ^fll 
J dimd^J^ma P9rti<inwith4be-Cr^i.i aitd Be 
Jkail di44$^th€>Spofl-v^btheStr«ngyi heaufe he bis SoulitiffoDestbi ** and he tvas 
•S jumbind "pUb^^he TrAnjgregort^^* and hi 
hjiird4he $m«f mafty, aKd *" made Intifceffimfs^ 
^f. iberXranfgrffers" \ • "" - • . ■: •^■'• 

..-.,;•■ ..,.>■;. ... . ,r . . _ -.^ ■••.■'\: 

.1'*..^ .impoflrble for any One, wbois ;the 
Jcaft .acquainted with the Hiftory of Cbrtfi,noc 
to •. pereeive- many Circu mftances of his Life, 
hisv8u^ings and his Deaths plainly poiAced 
42iiil vCbis Prophecy -, and indeed fo apparently 
\and fo completely was it fulfilled inCbrift, 
that the later Rabbins, to avoid the Conciu- 
S^ons'Vlath.the Chriftiaui might draw from 
thiSv«od other Pr^hecifts in favour of the Gof- 
pttl^vtave invented a Diftinft^ottof a double 
Meffias V- *' one * who was to redeem u?, and 
: 5* fl&Dther Dvho was to fufferfor us j for they 
',* \(ay, thalt there are two feveral Perfons pro- 
:. ♦' mifed under the Name of the Meflias.i one 
♦* of the T/ibe of Ephmm, the other of the 

• " Tribe 

» Sec Ptar/ofi on the Creed, p. 185. 

[ 252 1 

** Tribe oljudah-, one the Son of Jofeph^ the 
*' other the Son of David •, the one to pre- 
** ccde» fight, and I'uffcr Death j the other to- 
** follow, conquer, reign, and never to die." 
But Bifhop Pearfon^ from whom I have bor-* 
rowed this Remark, has clearly fhewed this] 
Diftindion to be not only falfe in itfcif, but 
advantageous to the Chrillian Faith, as admit- 'j 
ting a lufFering Meflias to be foretold by th< 
Prophets •, and has alfo proved, * that the an- 
tient Rabbins did undcrftand this Fifty- third' I 
Chapter of Ifmab to be a Defcription of the 
Meflias, without any Intimation of a doubk 
Meflias, an Invention introduced by the mo-1 
dern Jwoj, to favour their rain Expedbtion*'.^ 
of A temporal Prince and Deliverer. 

For what is farther to be confidcrwl out ol 
the other Prophecies, and efpecially the Pfalms^ 
relating to this Subjed, I cannot do better than 
to give it to the Reader in the Words of the | 
fame Bifliop Pearfon^ whofc Obfervations upon J 
the feveral Articles concerning the Sufferings,' 
t?r. of Jefus, I would wilh him to confidcr. 


• PearfoK oil the Creed, p. 57. 

[ 253 ] 
** t\A L L which {the Predi<5liQns of hii 
[Sufferings, and particularly this Fifty-third 
lapter of Ijaiaby compared with his Life] 
if we look upon in the . Grofs, we muft 
acknowledge it fulfilled in Him [Jef^(S^ 
** to the higheft Degree imaginable, thai he 
** was a Man of Sorrows and acquainted with 
^* Grief. But if we compare the particular 
f.^;iPredidions with the hiftorical Pafiages of 
I** his Suiferings, if we join the Prophets and 
Evangelifts together, it will mofi: manifeftly 
'^* appear the Meffias was to fuffer nothing 
^* which Chrijl hath not fuffered. If Zacbary 
fay, f 7 hey weighed for my Price thirty Pieces 
*;' a/ Siher \ St. Matthew X will fhew, that Jn- 
" das fold Jefus at the fame Rate -, for the Chief 
" Priefts covenanted with him for thirty Pieces 
** of Siher. If Ifaiah fty, f| ^bat be was 
** wounded ; if Zacbary^ § they jhall look upotf 
' y me whom they have pierced ; i f the Prophet 
V David yet more particularly, :: they pierced 
•* wy Hands and my Feet ; the Evangelifts wiH 
** /hew how he was fattened to the Crofs, and 
♦* Jefus himfclf ** the Print of the Nails, if 
** the Pfalmiji tell us, they Ihould tt ^^"g^ ^'''« 

" to 

• Pfor/on on the Creed, p. 88. f Zach. xi. 12. 

X Mat.xrvi. 15. li If. liii. 5. S Zach-xU. 10. 

Pf. xxij. 1 6. 


oan XX. 

jj. f -f pr. wciu 7, 

C 2543 

" to S€orn^ and Jbake their Head^ fyfi^St H^ 
** trujied in the Lord that be would deliver him j 
•* let him deliver himy feeing he delighted in him ; 
•' St. Matthew will dcfcribe the lame Aftion, 
*' and the fame Expreflions : For * they that 
** paffed iy reviled him, waggir^ their Heads, 
•' ^faying. He trujted in God, let him deliver 
*' him now. if he will haive him j for befaid, I 
" am the Son of God. Let Pavid fay, f J^ 
-" God, my God, wly baf^ thou forfahen me? 
" aa^ the Soa of David will Ihew m whofe 
" Pcrfon the Father fpoke it, EM, Eli, lama. 
" fak^bani ? Let Ifaiab foretell, § He was 
'* numbered with the Traxjgrejfors, and you 
" Ihall find him t crucified between two Thieves, 
^"^ one on his Right-hand, the other on his Left. 
" Read in the Pfalmifl, U In my Thirji they 
" gave me Vinegar to drink ; and you ihall 
" find in the Evangelift, ** Jefus, that the 
^*^^ Scripture might be fulfilled, faid, I thirji: And 
" they took a Spunge, and filled it with Vinegar, 
'* and put it on a Reed, and gave him to drink. 
** Read farther, yet, i-f They part my Garments 
** ammg ibem, and cafi Lots upon my Vefture i 


•Mat. xxvil. 39, 43. +Pf. xxii. i. Mat. xxvii. 46. 
§ If. liii, 12. % Mark XV, 27. UPC Ixix. ti. 

•* John jdx. 28. Mat. xxvii. 48, ff Pf, jodi. 18. 

[ '^55 1 

*■ and to fulfill the Predi(5lion, the SoIdTierx 
** fhall make good theDlftinftion, f JVho took 
** bis Garments^ and made four Paris , to every 
*' Soldier a Part, and aJfo his Coat : Now the 
" Coat was without Seam, woven from the 
" Top throughout. They faid therefore among 
" themfehes. Let us not rend it, ha caji Lots 
'* for it, whofe it fhal! be. Laftly, let the 
'^'Prophets teach us, |1 that hefhall he brought 
*■*- like a Lamb to the Slaughter, and he cut off 
'* out of the Land of the Living \ all the E- 
" vangelijls will declare how like a Lamb he 
•' fufFered, and the very Jews will acknow- 
*' Jedge that he was cut off.'* 


T H E s E Inftances, I imagine, arefufficient 
to ihew, that according to the Prophets, thus 
it heboved Chriji to fufer, and to die, TJiat 
his Burial alfo, and his Refurredion, were in 
like manner foretold, will appear by the fol- 
lowing Paflages. 

ISAIAH, in the above-quoted Chapter, 
"Ver. 9. fpeaks of his Burial in thefe Words, 
iAnd be made his Grave with the Wickedt and 


t John xix. 23, 24. Q If. Uii. 7, 8. 

[ 256 ] 

"^tvith the Rich in his Death y the circumftaniial 
Accomplifhment of which is too remarkable 
not to be taken notice of. 


♦The Power of Life and Death had bem 
taken from the Jetvs and lodged in the Hands 
of the Roman Governor^ from- the Time that 
jiuguftus annexed Jtided to the Province of 
Syria % which was done fome Years after the 
Birth of Chrifi, The Chief Priefts therefore 
and Rulers of the Jews were obliged to ap- 
ply to Pontius Pilate^ not only to put Jefus lo 
Death* but for Leave to take down his Body 
and thofe of the two Malefaiflors executed with 
him, that they might not remain upon the Crofs 
en the Sabbath-day^ For among the Ramans^ 
(y/kh whom Crucifixion was the tifuaJ capital 
PiHiifliment for Slaves, Robbers, dfc. under 
the Degree of Roman Citizens) it was cUf- 
tomary to let the Carcafs hang ofi thfe Crbtk 
till it was either confumed by Time, or 6t^ 
Toured by Birds and Beafts. Upon a Peti- 
tion however of the executed Perfon's Friends 
or Relations, Leave to bury them was feldofli 
tir'- never refufed j and hence Pilate witbout 

• See Feaffen on tJie Cretd, Article 4. 

[ '^Sl ] 

any DifRcuIty yielded to the Application of 
the Jewi for taking down the Bodies, and 
gave PermiOion to Jofeph of Arimathaa to 
bury that of Jifus. What became of the 
Bodies of the two Thieves after they were 
.taken down from the Crofs is not mentioned 
by any of the Evangelifts. That they were 
buried is almoft certain \ becaufe not only the 
-Cuftom of the Jm^J, but the exprefs Words of 
\^9fes -j- required. If a Man have commtted a 
Sin worthy of Deaths and he he -put to Death, and 
Jhou hang him on a Tree, his Body fhall not rt' 
•main all Night upon the Tree, but thoujhalt in 
cTty wife bury him that Lay, that thy Land be 
■it6t defiled. Which Precept was doubtlefs the 
Reafon of their petitioning Pilate to have the 
Bodies taken from the Crofs that Day, enforced 
by the additional Confidcration of the parti- 
cular Solemnity and Sanftity of the Pafehal 
Sabbath then immediately enfuing. And that 
they were buried in or near the Place of Cru- 
cifixion is, I think, moil probable for the fol- 
lowing Rcafons. Firft, The Place where they 
[jwere executed was called Golgotha^ i. t. * a 
)jPlace of a Skull, a Name in all likelihood 

+ De«. Xxi. 22» 23. ♦ MattL xxvii. 33. 

[ 258 ] 
•derived to it from the Number of Skulls^ 
which (if it was the ufual Place of Execution, 
as ^rom this Indance it is mofl reafonable to 
conclude it was) might frequently have been 
found there, either fallen from Bodies left tp 
putrify on the Crofs, or turnedi up by the 
opening the Ground for fuch Malefafbors ap 
the Governor permitted to be buried. Second- 
ly, The Pafchal Sabbath * was drawing oa 
apace. For as among the Jews the Day was 
always reckoned to commence from the Even- 
ing, fo, for the greater Caution, were t(ipy 
accuftomed to begin the Sabbatical Re^ frof^ 
all kind of Work an Hour before Sun-fetj 
but on this Day, which was the Prep^i^'ofi 
of the PaiTover, the holy Hours (if I may it) 
fpeak) began flill earlier ; becaufe the J| Pafchal , 
Lambs were always flain betwe^ the ninih 
and eleventh Hours, within which Spape 
of Time the whole Multitude of Jews re- 
paired to the Temple J, where alone the PaflV . 
over was killed, and having there offered the 
Blood and Entrails of the Pafchal Viftinjs, 
they brought back the remaining Carcafs tQ 


• Grotius, ad ver. 58. 27. Mat. Q Ibid. xxvi. Mat. i. 
X Lamy Diflert. de Pafcb. 

s^9 ] 
"i^t it at their own Homes, accord ln|^ 
the Mofaical Inftitucion. The Jews could 
lot then be much prciTcd in Time, for the 
linth Hour was begun before our Saviour ex- 
pired, and the Soldiers coming after that Time 
to the two Makfadors, found them not yet 
dead \ and therefore by a cruel kin4 of Mercy 
to put an End to a painful Life, and to dif- 
patch them the more fpeedily, broke their 
Legs, the Coup ds Grace obtained for thofe 
miferable Wretches of the Roman Governor 
by the Jews^ and intended likewife for him, 
who, though innocent, and delivered up by 
I their Malice to that infamous and horrid Death, 
^Lyec, with a Benevolence and Generofity un- 
^fcparallelled, interceded for them even upon the 
" Crofs, in thefe companionate Terms, Father^ 
^ * forgive tbem^ f<,r they know not what they do I 
^fti^ow as Jefus, and confequently the two 
^EThieves, did not expire till after the ninth 
' Hour, as the Jews were obliged to repair 
to the Temple before the eleventh Hour, at 
i the Expiration of which the Sabbatical Reft 
^ from all kinds of Work began i and as they 
H were folicitous that the Bodies fhould be ta- 
B, S ken 

* Luke xxiii 34. 

[ 26oJ 
ken down and buried before the Commence 
mcnt of that high and folemn Day j it is 
moft likely they buried them at or near tht 
Place where they were crucified ; becaufe i 
they had not Time to carry them to any greafeH 
Diftance •, becaufe Golgotha, from its Name, 
feems to have been a Place of Burial for thofc 
■who liad been executed there •, and becaufe 
the Want of Time is the very Reafon given 
in the Evangelift for laying the Body ot 
Jefus in the Sepulchre o^jojeph of Arimathtt. 
which was near adjoining, as St. John te 
us in thefe Words : * Nt/w in the Pln€e m 
he was crucijiid there was a Garden^ and in l 
Garden a ntwSepukhre, wherebt was never Mt 
^t laid. There laid they 7<?/?/j therefore becaui 
of the Jews Preparation, for the Sepulchre wi 
nigh at Hand. Here then we may fee and 
admire the exaft Completion of this famous 
Prophecy of Ifaiah : He made his Grave with 
the IFickedi and with the Rich in bis Ikathi 
He was buried like the fVieked Companion! 
cf his Death under the general Leave onnii 
cd to the Jews for taking down their Bodirt 
from the Crofs j and was like rhem burkd 


• Chap. xix. 41, 42. 

F In^or near the Place of Execution. But herfc 
the Di(lin«Stion forefcen and foretold m^nf- 
hundrcd Years before, took place in favour of 
JtfuSj who, though numifered with the I'ranf' 
grejfors, had done no Violence, neither was tbers 
any Deceit in his Mouth : For Jofepb of jlri- 
mathaa ♦, a rich Man^ and an honourable Coun- 
fdltr^ and Nicodcmus -f, a Man of the Pha- 
rifees, a Ruier of the Jews, a Mafier of IfraeJi 
confpired X to make hit Grave with the Rich, 
by vorapping his Body in Linen- clothes^ with a 
mixture of Myrrh and Aloes, about an hundred 
Pound IViight, and laying it in a new Sepulchre 
hewed Of hollowed into a Rock, which Jofepb 
of Arimath^a had caufed to be made for hi» 
own Life V Circumftances which evidently 
ihew^ that he was not only buried by the 
Rich, but like the Rkh alfo according to the 

VTHfi Words of David ^ foretelling the Re- 

furreftion of Chriji, together with Sc. Peter's 

Comment upon them, I fhall infert intire a$ 

6 2 they 

I.* Mat. xxfii. 57. Mark xv. 43. f Joh* xijc. ^9i 4f • 
% Id. liii. 9« 1; ifal. xvi. 9, Sec. 

[ 262 ] 

'ihey ftand in the Second Chapter of the 

the 25th and following Vcrfes. ^ 

FOR David fpeaketh concerning bim, I forefa-w 
the Lord alw^'s before my Face ; for be is on 
my Right-hand, that I fhould not be rncved : 
therefore did my Heart rejoice, and my Tongue 
was glad ; moreover alfo my Flejh fhall reft in 
Hope, becaufe thou wilt not leave my Soul in Hell, 
neither wilt thou fuffer thy Holy One to fee Cor- 
ruption. Thou haji made known to me the Ways 
cf Life. Thou haft made me full of Joy witw^ 
thy Countenance. Men and Brethren, let me 
freely fpeak to you of the Patriarch David, that 
he is both dead and buried, and his Sepulchre 
is with us to this Day ', therefore being a Pre* 
phet, and knowing that Cod hadfworn with m 
Oath to him, that of the Fruit of bis JLoinS, 
according to the Flefis, he would raife up Chrift 
to fit upon his Throne \ he feeing this befon, 
fpake of the RefurreSlion of ChrifV, that his 
Soul was not left in Hell, neither bis Flefb did 
fee Corruption. 



The Apoftle's Reafoning was very weiJun- 
derftood by the JewSy and fo convincing, that 


[ 2^3 3 

* three iboufand Souls were that Day added to 

the Church, and baptized into the Faith of 

Chrijf. His Argument Hands thus. You 

acknowledge David to be a Prophet, who 

under his own Perfon often fpakc of the 

McIIiah. To the Mefliah therefore belong 

^hefe. Words J Thou Jhalt not leave my Soul 

[Life] in Hell [Hades, the Grave i] neither Jhalt 

■\tboufuffer thy Holy One to fee Corruption ; 

becaufe they are by no means applicable to 

Davidy who it is not pretended ever rofe 

from, ^he Dead j on the contrary, he , was 

buried, and his Body remained aild putriRed 

in^ his Sepulchre, which is with us even to this 

Day, But by DiviAe Illumination he forc- 

faw that the Meffiah, or Chriji, who according 

to the Fl^ vr2is to defcend from hitn, Ihould 

be raifed . up from the Dead tojt upon his 

Throne, i. e* to reign like him over the People 

of .God i and therefore he foretold the Rc- 

furreftion of Chrijt in Words moft exaftly 

fulfilled in Jefus^ who rofe alive out of the 

Grave in fo fhort a Time after his Death, that 

be faw no Ccrruption^ whereof, adds he, aw 

are ff^itnsjfes. 

S 3 CoN- 

• Afts ii, ,4 1 . tPW. xvi. 1 1 . Sec Ifhithj on this Paflige. 

[ *6+ ) 

Concerning thefe Words no other Qucf" 
tion can be raifed, than whether they relate to 
the Meffiah j for to David moft certainly they 
can never be applied. If they relate t6 the 
Meffiah, then was Jefus the Meffiah; for in his 
Refurredion were they accompUlhed ; and 
doubtlefs the three thoufand Jews, wh6 were 
converted by the Preaching of Petery acknow- 
ledged both the one and the other of tfaefe 
Propoficions. And indeed, by the Manner ifi 
which thefe Words of the Pf»lmifi wert lirged 
by St. P&ter^ and afterw^s by ♦ St. P/w/, it 
feems to have been by them taken for gratnted, 
that as they were not applicable to Davidithtf 
muft be underftood of the Meffiah, whom 
therefore, according to MoJeSj the Prophets, 
und the Pfnlmift, it behoved to fuffcr, to dic^ 
to be buried.^and to rife again from the Dead, 
|U the feveral Paflfagcs above-cited dearly Ihew. 

Bbsidfs the cxprefs Words of Prophecy, 
there were feveral Predidions of another Kind, 
©f the Sufferings, Death, and Rcfurre(5Hon of 
Chrijiy held forth in Types and Figures ; fuch 
as thofe twQ mentioned by oqr Saviour, an4 

[ 265 3 
Hpplied to Jbimfclf i * As Mofes^ fays be, lifted 
up ihe Serpent in the Wildernefs, even fo muji the 
Son of Man he lifted up : And again, As Jonas 
was three Days and three Nights in the Whale's 
Belly ^fp fifoll the Son of Man be three Days and 
tbrfe Nights in the Heart of the Earth : f The 
Pafchal Lamh, aJUuded to by St. Paul in thefc 
Words, ChrifimrPaJfoverisJain; the waved 
Sheaf diuded to in like manner by the fame 
Apoftie, I Cor. xv, 20, 2 ^.Rflm. xi. 1 6. and many 
others. I &aU not here inquire how far, and V^ 
what Cafe», an Argument from Types and Fi- 
gures may be admitted, but flxall content my- 
{elf;with quoting a Paflage relating to thisPo^nt 
dK of the incomparaHe Difcourfes of Bifhop 
Sherlock 9 upon Prophecy, as follows : 


Another Quezon, proper to be 
** cenBdered with refpe<5t to the State of Re- 
** Ugion under the Jewi/b EKfpenfation, is this : 
^ How far the Religion of the Jews was pre- 
*' paratory to that new Difpenfation, which 
*' was in due Time to be revealed, inAccom* 
■^ plilhmcnt of the Promife made to all Na* 
S 4 ** tionp. 

<* John iil. 14. Numb. xxi. 9. Matt. xii. 4S. Jonas i. 
. .17. apd ii. 10. I Cox. V. 7. -f See Lamy^s Diffi fie 

: Pafch. »nd Pear/on upon the Cjipeed. | Pa^. 144, 

{ z66] 

♦• tions. Now if Abraham and his Poftcrity 
•* were chofcn, not mtrely for their own 
♦* Sakes, or out of any partial Views and 
** Regards towards them, but to be In{bu< 
•• ments in the Hand of God for bringing 
*' about his great Defigns in the World ; if 
** the temporal Government was given for 
** the fake of the evcrlafting Covenant, and to 
*' be fubfervicnt to the Intsodudion of it, 'tis 
** highly probable, that all the Parts of the 
'* Jewift> Difpenfation were adapted to fcnre 
•* ^he fame End j and that the Law founded 
'* on the temporal Covenant, was intended, 
♦* as the temporal Covenant itfclf was, to pre- 
♦' pare the Way to better Promifes. If this, 
" upon the whole, appears to be a rcafonable 
** Suppofition, then have we a Foundation to 
♦* inquire intp the Meaning of the Law, notr 
•* merely as it is a literal Command to the 
** Jewf^ but as containing the Figure and 
** Image of good Things to come. It can 
** hardly be fyppofed, that Ggd, intending 
*^ finally to fave the World by Chrift, and the 
*• Preaching of the Gofpei, Ihould give an ini- 
** termediate Law, which had no Refpcft nir 
«' Rcla,tion to the Covenant, which he intend- 

1 267 1 

«* ed to eftabUfh for ever. And whoever will 
** be at the Pains to confider ferioufly the 
♦* whole Adminiftration of Providence toge- 
•• ther, from the Beginning to the End, may 
** fee perhaps more Reafon than he imagines, 
♦* to allow of Types and Figures in the 
'» Jemfi) Law. 

** To proceed then : The Jtvoijh Difpen- 
*' fation not conveying to all Nations the 
♦* Bleffing promifed through Abraham*^ Seed, 
** but being only the Adminiftration of the 
** Hopes and Expe<5tations, created by the 
*^ Promife of God •, in this refpeft it ftood 
" intirely upon the Word of Prophecy ; for 
**futcrre Hopes and Expeflations from God 
<' can have no other real Foundation, Inaf- 
♦* much then as the Jetzijh Religion did vicr 
*f=tually contain the Hopes of the Gofpel, the 
♦' Religion itf(?lf was a Prophecy, ^r." 

That the Jewijh Rabbins, and the Fa- 
thers of the Chriftian Church, as well as our 
Saviour and his Apoftles, underftood many 
Things in the Law of Mofes^ in the hiftorical 
Books of the OldTeftament, in the Prophets 
aipd the Pfalms, to be Types and Shadows of 


[ 268 3 
Things to come, is very certain } and if the^tvo 
former carried their Conceits upon this Head 
&rther than Reafon or Senfe could allow them 
to do. Types and Figures are not upon that 
Pretence. to be wholly rejefted ; efpecially as 
many Precepts and Ceremonies in the AUtfiue 
Inftitution, may very well be accouniEsd for by 
fnppofmg them intended as Images and Sha- 
dows of Things to come, and can but 11! be 
reconciled to the Wifdom of the Lawgiver 
without fuch a SolmioQ. And if fuch Types 
be once admitted,. it will be no difficuk Matter 
to fhew that they were fulfilled in Cfo^ Ji- 
fuSf as the great Antitype to which they ^ 

§. 9. Whoever takes an attentive View of 
the Predidions relating to the Meffiah *, con- 
tained in the Writings of Mofeji the Tropbets^ 
and the Pfalmifi, will perceive the giwrt: Scheme 
of Providence in the Deliverance of Mankind 
from the Power of Sin and Death, opening by 
Degrees, in a Succeffion of Prophecies thro* 
the feveral Ages of the World ; each of which, 
in proportion as the Accomplifbment.ofthe 


• Sec Bp. $krlacPs Difc. on thcUfc and Intent of P?«n 
fh«cy, tff. ' 

[2^9 1 

wonderful aiu) gracious Purpofe of God ad* 
▼anced, grew more explicit and particular } 
till they came at laft to point out the vcryTimcs 
and Perfon of the cxpeded Deliverer. Thus 
the Promife of Redemption to Mankind, 
which was given to our firfb Parents in very 
general and obfcure Words, » The Seed tf the 
Woman fijall bruife the Serpen f*s Head; import- 
ing, that fome of their Defcendants fhoujd 
▼anquifh their great Enemy, was renewed to 
Jhrabam in clearer Terms, and limited to his 
Pefccndants thro* IfattCt f /« % Seedjhall all 
She NatUns tfthe Earth hekleffed-, then to Jacob 
Che younger of the two Sons of Ifaac \ and after- 
wards t» Juitth and his Children ; and laftly to 
the Family of n David, who was of the Tribe of 
JiMf. The particular Stock, from which this 
firaatdi^f Righteoufnefs and Immortality was 
to proceed, being thus limited and fettled, 
God was pleafed in the next Place, to bring 
into -a nearer and more diftinft View, the lorig- 
pfomifed Seed ; declaring by his Prophets the 
^recife Time of his Coming, the Place, and 
miracutaus Maivner of his Birth, and fo many 
WOijderfijl Particulars of his Life, Vis Suffer- 

• Gen. m. j^. + Gen. xxii. 18. Jh. ?fxvii. %q. 

xJiJ?. I. \ 2 Sam. !. 12. 


[ 270 ] 

ings, and his Death ; that by fuch chara(fleri- 
i\k&[ Marks and Notices, he might, when he 
Ihould come, be readily and plainly known. 
Thefe Prophecies, fome of them at Icaft, were 
not only at the Time of their Delivery, but 
even to that of their Accompli(hment» voiy 
dark and obfcurej but that Obfcurity proceed- 
ed not \'o much from the Terms ia which they 
were exprelTcd, as from the Things foretold 1 
which were fo feemingly inconfiftcnt, that no 
human Wifdom could reconcile them with 
each other. For as they fometimcs reprefented 
the MefTiah under theChafafter of z DeHveretf. 
a. Prince vohofe throne JhOUld endure for ever, tkfi 
Dejire of all NationSy the Holy One^ &c. fo at 
other times they fpake of him as a Man if 
Sorrows^ and acquainted with Griefs, as defpift 
and rejeSied of Men ; as affii£fedy fmitten, wound- 
edt brutfed and fcourged-i numbered with the 
ITranfgreJforSy cut off out of the Land of the 
Living, and making his Grave isDith the Wicked^ 
and yet, with the Rich in his Death. So much 
however of thefc Prophecies was at all Times 
"^Clear, that from them the 7«w, to whoi 
they were delivered, vrere encouraged to tit 
peft a Redeemer to come at a certain limited! 
Time i and fo exactly were they able to com' 




L »/* J 

pure the Period prefixed by the Prophet Da- 
niel, that at the Birth of Chrijl there was a ge- 
neral Expeftation among the Jews^ which from 
them fpread into other Nations, of a great 
King being about that Time to be born in 
Ju^a. The Place alfo of liis Birth, and the 
Stock from which he was to fpring, were as 
clearly itndcrftood : But the Jews^ too much 
•attached to the temporal Covenant^ proud of 
being the chofen and peculiar People of God« 
and, from that Pride, not comprehending the 
full Extent of the Promifc made to yibraham^ 
that in bis SeedttaM the Nations of the Earth 
jhoulA beblejfed^ expefted a temporal DeUverer, 
a King of the Jews only» confidered ftill as a 
feparate and diftinft Nation. The JewSy they 
—^imagined, wcxe alone to be redeemed, and that 
■from their temporal Enemies, and under their 
J^efliah were to reign for ever over the other 
Kings and Nations of the Earth : And from 
,this Imagination, than which nothing could be 
more contrary to the cxprefs Promifes made 
to Abrabami nor more injurious to the Cha- 
racter of that God, whofe Mercy is univerfally 
6'ver all bis fVork'y proceeded their Blind nefs 
and Backwardncfs in feeing and believing all 

2 that 

1 272 ] 

that the Prophets had fpokcn, and their Indig- 
nation againft JfftiSt for afiuming the TirJe, 
without aficriing, what they efleemed to be, 
the Kingdom of the Mcffiah, the Throne of 
David. With the fame Prejudice* were the 
Difciplcs and Apofttes thcmfclves fo ftrongly 
prepoffcfTcd, that when he told them of his 
SufFeringj and Death, • Peter rebuked biwy fay 
ritgt Be it far from tbee Lord^ this fball not he 
unto Thet. Jtfus however fuffered and died, 
and roic again from the Dead, as he bad fore 
tokl i and notwithdanding kis Sufferings, (till 
claimed to be the Mefliah, nay, and even 
founded his Claim upon thofe very Sufferings, 
aflerting* that according to the Prophets, tbuf 
it bihovtd the Mejfiah to fuffer. To die Prorij 
phcts i»e therelbre fends them for their Coii<il 
vidlion, and for the removing thofe Preju^ 
dices, which, as long as they fubfUled, muft 
have kept them effediually from ever acknow*- 
ledging his Claim, unlefs they would renounc«[^ 
thofe Scriptures upon whofe Authority al 
their Expedations of a Mefllah were grounded*^ 
For if the Prophets fpake only of a vidlorioui 
triumphant Redeemer of Jfrael^ a King whi 

% ihoMJ^M 

* Matt. xvi. 22. 

r ^n ]' 

fltoulci never die, it Is certain Jefus could not 
be that Redeemer \ for he was opprefled and 
afflided, and inftead of delivering the Jews^ 
was himfelf delivered up to their Enemies, and 
by them put to Death. What the Prophets 
have written about the Sufferings, &€. of the 
Mefliah, we have juft now feen ; and cannot, 
I think, but acknowledge their Prediftions lo 
be very clear and exprefs, and to have been 
moil circumftamially accompliflied in Cbriji 
Jefus -, and perhaps ro us, who are not blinded 
with the vain Imaginations of the Jews^ it may 
feem Matter of Wonder that the Apoftles 
Ihoiiid fo long and fo obftinately (hut their 
Eyes againft fo firong a Light. The Truth 
19, they were unwilling to give up the pleaf- 
ing and flattering Expeftations of a temporal 
Kingdom, which they undcrftood to be plain- 
ly fpoken of by the Prophets, and knew to be 
incompatible with a fiiffering, dying MefTiah, 
By expounding therefore in Mofrs and all the 
Prophets the Things concerning Himfelf^ and kf 
opening their UnderJtanJings, that they might un- 
anderftand the Scripture^ Je/us at length brought 
them to perceive that the Kingdom of the Mef- 
iia-h was not a tenaporal, but a fpiritual and 


C ^7+ ] 

eternal Kingdom j that the Redemption pro-* 
mii'cd to Adam and tbe Patriarchs, ivas nc 
the Redemption of the Children of Ifrael on?j 
from their carnal Enemies and Oppreffors,i 
(an Event in which the Firll Father of the 
World, and even the Patriarchs themfelvesi^j 
could have little or no Intereft) but the Re-i*] 
demption of all Mankind from the Power and^j 
Penalty of Sin -, to be effe^ed on the one 
hand by Cbrifi's fulfilling all Righteoufnefsy the 
original Covenant, upon which Happincfs and*] 
Immortality was ftipulated to Adam ; and OHlj 
the othe r, by his offering up bis Soul a Sacn-* 
fee for Sitt, 1. e. paying the Penalty of DeathJ 
which all Sinners, all Mankind had incurred }^ 
paying it not as a Debtor, for he xvas xuithou 
6in, but as ?l Surety .^ who willingly and free]) 
took upon himfdl to rnake good the Failing^l 
and difcharge the Obligations of others. Ol 
this Plan the Death of Chriji was a neceflUrj 
Part, and fo was his Refurredlion from th«^ 
Dead j by which, having vanquifti'd that E- 
nemy, who brought Death and Sin into the 
World, he was put into PolVcflion oi' tl 
Throne, which was to endure for ever \ and wa 
like David, appointed by God to reign, not 


[ 275 1 
over the Jtwijh Nation exclufive of the reft of 
Mankind, but over all thofe of every Nation 
of the World, who ihould, like the Jews^ make 
themfelves the People of God, by entering into 
a Covenant. with him to keep his Command- 
ments ^ the fole Tenure by which the Children 
of Ifrael became originally the People of God; 
over whom, as fuch, God, their legal, theh* 
conftitutional King, if I may fo fpeak, {^xBarnd 
as a Ruler under him, and promifed to conti- 
nue that delegated vicarial Sceptre of Righte* 
oufncis4n his Pofterity for ever. Of all thefe 
Poit^k there are frequent Intimations ill thd 
Books pf Mifss^ in the Prophets^ and in the* 
Pfibitt : By a fair and unprejudiced Eieami-i- 
nation of which, the Difcipks and Apoftlest 
might, bQ certainly convinced, that according 
to thfi.^bemeofthe Redemption of Mankind^ 
promifed to jidamdsi^ thePatriarchs, as well ai- 
by the ii^prefs Words of Prophecy, the Mef-^ 
fiah was to die and rife again from the Dead;^ 
And as on the one Part, had the Scripture* ■ 
been ^nt upon the latter of thefe tw^Artkles^ 
they had, firom the Teftimony of their ow» 
Senfes, idc. fufficient Proofs of Cbrifi*% being 
ciien frooa tl^ Dead y foj on the oth^r, fcon 
T the 

[ 2;6 ] 

the exad Accomplifliment of all die Predit 
tions relating to his Life, his Sufferings, his 
Death and Burial, they might, without any 
farther Evidence, than that of his Body's 
ing no where to be found, have infallibly Cq14 
ieded from the Scriptures only, that he wa 
rifen from the Dead. And therefore, when 
all thefe Teftimonies concurred to prove the 
Rcrurrc<5tion, how was it pofllblc for them 
10 with- hold their Affent ? 

The Prophecies of Jefus himfclf concern 
Jng his rifing from the Dead on the third Dij 
were another Proof of the fame Kind, upc 
which they might as reafonabiy and as certaia-j 
ly depend, as upon that grounded on the Pre 
did-ions of Mofes and the Prophets. Mofes 
foretold that the Meffiah fliould be a Proph^i 
and they had been convinced that Jejm was 
one in the largeft Senfe of that Word, by many 
Inftances, which had faUcn under their own 
Obfervation, thofe particularly relating to his 
Paflion and Crucifixion, molt of the minute 
and extraordinary Circumftances of which he 
had acquainted them with before they came to 
pafs. Such as the Treachery of Judas, the 


C '^n ] 

Def^idn of his Difciples, /^ft^'s difowning 
hilil tfirfecj the Infults and Aiaufes \xi Under- 
wttit fl-dm the Chief Priefts arid Elders, and 
dui' criiet- Mockery of the Romn Soldiers. 
The aoBi Correfpondence of eacH of thefe 
Events with their feveral PredidHons, afford- 
ed the flrongeft Prefumptioh imaginable in , 
farour of the Refurre6lion, as it was in like 
xlianfrter foretold by him, of whofe Prefcience 
they had juft then received fo many convincing 
Proofs i elpecially as feme of the predifted 
Events %cre of fuch a Nature as not to be 
ibrdein, but by that Eye, which penetrates 
into 'theintttoft Receffes of the Heart of Man, . 
and ijneth out all his Thoughts even before 
they krift conceived. For although the Chief 
Priefts artd Pharifefes had for fome time fought 
bow ih^ might put him to Death ♦, yet they 
h*l tefdl^fed againft doing it on the Feajl-day 
for Ftdr'df the Peopk^y ^ho but A vefy fexv ' 
.Days befort had in a fort of triumphal Procef- 
fion attended his Entry into Jerufakm^ cutting 
ifrtoH Byancb'is ofPalm^ftrewing them before hm\ 
f^eaSing their'Garfnents in thePf^ay, and crying 
• T 2 Hofannaby 

■ •'Matt.'xxvi. f Mark xi. 8, 9, 

E 278 } 
iiofanmhi Meffed is be that cbmetb in the Na$^ 
€f the Lird. Yet on the Peaft^derf was he piit 
to Death, at the Inftance of the Chief J^ricfts 
^nd Phatifccs ; and by th6 Clamours of thfe 
very People, againft the Inclmation' and En- 
deavours of Pilate, in whom the Powe^ of life 
and Death refided ; and who, as his Jtidge» 
declared him innocent, again and again' ^ itid. 
when he gave him up to be crucified, ♦'/»«& 
Water and wajhed his Hands before the Multi- 
tttde, failing, 1 am innocent of the Blood efihis 
jttfi Perfon\ fee ye to it. This fudden' Change 
in the Counfels of the Chief Pricfts^^iri Ae 
Hearts of the Multitude, and in the Manners 
of Pontius Pilate^ f who was a Man of a 
haughty, rough, untradtable, and implacable 
Spirit, who fo far from having any Complai- 
fance for the Jewijh Nation, or Regard for 
their Cuftoms or Religion, had all along treat- 
ed them with the moft cruel and tyrannical 
infolence, and who more than once had con- 
temptuoufly afted in dired Oppofition to 
their moft juft and reafonable Demands •, a 
Change, I fay, fo fudden, from one Extreme 


• Mat. xxvii. 24! f Ptarfon on the Creed, p. 196. 

( 279 ] 

to, aifother, could not with, any Certainty be 

pii^viouny deduced from the Con&deration of 

the iiiftabitity of human Counfels, And the 

jp-kkleneO of the Mind of Man. . The fame 

.^hing may be f^d concerning the Defertion 

J)f -his Diiciples, and P^/«-*s dtfowning him 

^diricc, each ,of which Events came to pafs 

>vithin a few Hours after they were foretold, 

.}S«jd> within the very Time prefixed i contrary 

Eo.their exprefs and confident Declarations, 

jchat tho* they *^fl«/i die with binty they would 

^never deny [renounce] him, made at the Time 

^jand.upon the Occaiion of this very Prophecy. 

j^,[<^4f1K>this the inhuman Abufes, Infblts, and 

. Mockery he endured from the Chief Priefts, 

<,i^d from the Roman Soldiers } fgr thefe furely, 

..TirerenQ ufual Part of the Punilhment inflift- 

:,-ed<upoa7 Criminals; the moft Hagidous of 

iWhomare feldom treated with more Severity 

.'; than their Sentence requires y efpecially when 

,. that Seatence extends to taking away their 

■ , JLivesby a lingering and painful Death. And 

.^ our Saviour's Cafe undoubtedly defervcd more 

,. than ordinary CompafHon, efpecially from 

, ihe Roman Soldiers, as he had been pro- 

T 3 nounced 

[ 280 ] 

nounce4 innocenC' by: thA.:S^man,'Qf^q^m 
liimielf, and. avaa. known to h^fy,q:'i^c^jaii^ 
to -the Envy, and Malice of the. .Jef^f.rl^hefS" 
ibre thit: JeftiSf who foretold ail tb^f.exlpr 
ordinary P^ticuiars, wa& endued with f^ s^l- 
prefcient Spirit of God, the DiCcif^es cou|4 
have no Reafon to doubt i and confequcndy 
could have as Uitle Catife to call his Refuriec- 
tion in QueQ:ion, which he had foirej^cg An4 
foretold by the (kme divine Spirit^-., from 
whom no Event, how remote or uncondmon 
foever, can be concealed,, and who can .never 
deceive or Jye. And therefore the Apoftl^ 
€ven without tlie Teftimony of thole who 
had feen him after he was rifen, without the 
Authority of the Scriptures foretelling his 
Refurredion, and without the infallibly Proofs* 
t)f his being alive after his Pa0ion, which 
they themfelves received from feeing him, 
handling him, and converfing with him, might 
and ought to have believed that he was rifen 
from the Dead, upon the fingie Evidence of 
his having predided it, joined to that of his 
Body's^ being no where to be found ; aa St. 
y,ohn in Fa^ did, and was therefore pro- 
nounced bklTed by our Saviour himfelf, in 
- thefe 

[ aSi ] 

tftbfe W^rds- l^k«a to Se. Tkimas upon the 
Obi^tJth of hiv : refQAng to believe without 
tfte Atteft^bn of Ills iSenfes ; yivwwjj ^<<:tf«/# 
^'i&otf 'i'/i/' 'fem n^ thwi baft bdi&vtd-, bhjfei 
art tkey who have not feen, and yet have he^ 
JS^tA. "llpoii which more he^eafcer. • 

*■ I SDAlL htni reft the Caufe, aijd dofcthc 
Evidtnc* af the RefurreAion of Jefus\ fyicc 
Ul IS mat\ifeft that the . Apoftles, iffho were to 
be Witheffes of- this great Event, and Pi:eachT 
ers of the Gofpel to all the World, had qo 
£h>ii1a<: or Scruple left- concerning his being 
ireally ■(«. t. bodily) rifen frorili the Dead, after 
hit appearing to St. Th&mas j * for they went 
^toGt^e^ to a Mountam where Je/us ha4 
appoimed tiem^ in Obedience to his Command, 
aadin Eacpedation of meeting liiiA there ao 
COidii^ to his Fcomife, where when tbeyfam 
iim.ith^ vwrjhipd him *, from thence they 
Fecaro^l again to Jerufalem, and cpntinued in, 
that Ciiy iQjObedienceco anodier -^ Command, 
waiting for the Frftmife of the Fatbery which 
within a iew Days ^fter was made good to 
^^ by the coming of the Holy Ghoft. Up- 
T 4 on 

•vMftth. ntyiii. 16, 17. f A£U i. 4. ii. <f. 

[ 282. I 

on thefc two Po^t;? I bfg JL(?avc ijcf^iay) a, (pifj 
Words, fpr, the better- undgr^^odiog;. fq^ 
Paflages relsuing to tbero irL:Bt,,Matf^iiev^^ 
Luke, and tl)c ^j. of .thft ApoiHw. . ,'^ •,,,,* 

§. 20. All the Males .amoflg the Jewsm^tt, 
by the Law of Mofes *, commanded to rep^ 
thfice every Year to Jerufakm, to .appetif\,9&}!i 
is exprcffed, before the Lord^;,viz.a!i ihcthrqc 
great Feafls \ the Pafibver, called alfo-thc f«ail 
of unleavened Bread, the Fcaft of Wpeki, 
named Pentecoft, and the Feail of Tabernades, 
Each of thefe Solemnities lafted. .a. .MihoJp 
Week. The Apoftles therefore, and DifcipIeS) 
who had come up to Jerufakm from Galilee, 
their native Country, not merely to. attend 
upon their Matter, but in Obedience to the 
above-cited Law of Mofes, to keep the Paff- 
over, continued, as they were obliged to do, 
at Jerufakm^ till the End of that Feftival. 
And there Jefus appeared to them a fecond 
Time^ (eight Days after his firft Appearance,) 
-j- St. 'Thomas being with them. The next Ap- 
pearance of Chriji to any Number of his Dif- 


* Exod. xxiii. 17. Dent, xvi. t6. f John «. i6. 

C 29^ ] 

that Jefusfidwed-iimfelf to biJ JbifapleSf after 
that be was rifm from the Bead % j from whepce 
it is evident, tharthe Appearance on a Mountain 
in GdHike mentioned by St. Matthew^ was fob- 
fcqaent to this fpokeh of by St. John^ and was 
aiffijln a difFefent Place, on a Mountain, where- 
it^ lattief was by the Sea 6i Tiberias. Three 
Reafoiifs ihay' be aflign*d for our Saviour's 
meeting his Difciples in Galilee. Galilee was 
the' Country in which he had refided above 
thirty 'Years, from his Infancy to the Time 
when he firft began to preach the Kingdom 
of -Gbd : There did he firft begiri to declare 
and evidence' his Miffion by Miracles, and in 
the Cities of thdt Region did he perform the 
greateft Part of his mighty Works j fo that 
hemuft ncceffarily have been more known 
and have had more Followers in that Country, 
thaii in any other Region of Judea. And 
therefore, one Reafon for his fhewing himfelf 
in' Gdlilet' after he was rifen from the Dead 
feems to have been, that, where he was per- 
fonally known to fo many People, he might 

X Johnxjci. 14. , 

have the greater Number of competent 
nefles to his Rcfurreftion. Accordingljr, St. 
Paul taWs us he was Teen of above five hun- 
cTred Brethren al ftnce, which therefore in 
all Probability happened at tlic Mountain in 
QalileCy where St, Mi^thtrjo fays, J^f^i ap- 
pointed his Difcipks to meet him, as I have 
obferved once before, zdly, Galilee was alfo 
the Dative Country of the greateft Parr, if not 
of all the Apoftles and Difciples. Thete they 
dwelt and fupported thcmfelves and FamiVies> 
fome of them at kail, by mean and laborious 
Occupations. So ftrait and fo neceffitous 
Condition of Life muft needs have render'd 
long Abfence from their own Homes highlit 
inconvenient to them at that Time efpecially>..J 
when the Barley- Harveft, which always fel|| 
out about the Time of the Paffover, was cithei 
begun, or upon the Point of beginning. Assj 
foon therefore as the Pafchal Solemnity was,] 
over, which detained them neceffarily atj^-j 
rujiikm for a wjiole Week, it was natural toi 
fuppofe that they would return into Galilee. 
Upon which Suppofition our Saviour, before ^ 
his Death, promiftd, after he was rifen, hi 
would go hefort them inta Galilee ; which re- 

[ ^.S5 1 

matkable ExpreJlMsn was again made * ufe of 
by the Angei after his Refurceiftion j who bade 
the Women tell his Diieiples, that he [Jefus] 
would go kfore tbon into Calikey i. e. would be 
in Galilee before them, and would meet them 
there. Chrifi indeed, afterwards, commands 
them by the fame Women to go into Galilee^ 
adding a Proniifcj that they fhould fee him. 
But this Command mufl not be gnderflood 
to imply a Sufpicion, tiiat witliout thefe per- 
emptory Orders of their Mallcr» they would 
have continued at Jerufalem^ where, after the 
Feftival was over, they had nothing to do. It 
ought, Father to be taken as a Confirmation of 
his Promife of meeting them in Galilee, and a 
flrongE,ncouragement to them to depend up- 
on the Performance of it in the due Place 
and Scafon, The I'imc of <;beir entering 
upon the Apoflolical Oifice, of preaching the 
Gofpel to all the Worlds was not yet come s 
I neither were they yet fu lly prepared or quali- 
jiied for that important Work j which, after 
tthey had once undertaken it, was to be not 
jonly the fole Employment of their Lives, but 
the Occafioo of their leaving their Fathers, 

• Matt. xvi. 7, 

r[ r2S6 i] 

thdt Children, their Country^ and their 
Friends, to travel up and down the World, 
cxpofed to Hardships, Dangers, Perfccution, 
smd Death, in unknown and remote Corners 
of. the Earth, Of all which their Mafter had 
frequently forewarned tiiem before his Death, 
and particularly in that affe^ionate Difcourfe 
,hc held to them the Night in which he was be- 
trayed. To prepare thcni therefore by De- 
grees for a 5tate of fo much ; Affliftion and 
Mortification, and to give them an Oppotti^' 
nity of feeing and providing in the belt Man- 
ner they were able, for their Relations and 
Families, to whom they were foon to bid 
Adieu for ever s their gracious Lord, who 
l^new how to indulge, becaufc he had him- 
felf felt, the Alfe^ions and loErmities of 
human Nature j and who, ♦ by recommending 
his Mother, even from the Crofs, to the 
Care of his beloved Difciple, had taught theni, 
what Regards were due to thofe tender Ties of 
Nature, not only permitted them to return in- 
to Galilee, but promifed to meet them there, 
and did in fa<5t meet them there, not only oncCi 
but feveral times ; as may be inferred from! 
a} whaij 

• John TOK, 26, 27. 

[^87 ] 

vrhat St. Luke fays of his having (hewn hlmfelF 
to thdm * for forty Days after his Paffiem, com- 
fjarcd with what St. John fays of his Appear- 
ance by the Lake of Tiberias^ which he ejc- 
prefly calls the third ^ime that Chrijl Qiewed 
himfelf to his Difciples after his Refurreiftion. 
After this St. Ms//i'm> fpeaks of another Ap- 
pcarance in Galilee^ on a Mount aiity where, adds 
^■he, Jifus hud appointed his Difciples. When 
this Appointment was made, there is no Inti- 
"mation given in any of the Evangelifts. If it 
[•was not at the Appearance at the Lake of T/- 
^*iferias, which there is no Reafon to imagine 
[lit was, St. John faying nothing of any fuch 
Tatter, it was probably at feme other Appear- 
ance in Galilee^ between this laft and that 
mentioned by St. Matthew. And as there wis 
a great Number of Brethren prefent upon thit 
Occafion, it is rational to conclude, that tinnre- 
Jy Notice was given, as well of the Day, ks 
of the Place of Meeting. But however this 
might have been, I am perfuaded that the 
greatcftPart of the Appearances of Cbrifl for 
the forty Days after bis Pafllon were in Galilk, 
fincc the Rcafons that required the Apoftles 


[ 2B8 ] 

to return thither, were as ftrong for their con- 
tinuing there, till the Approach of the Fcaft 
of Weeks or PenUcofi fhould call them back 
to JerufaUm. 

Another Reafon for meeting his Difcipks 
in Galilee^ and for concluding that the Appear- 
ances mentioned irt the j^^s were chiefly in 
that Country, dhd that there were many of 
them, may be deduced from what • St. Luh 
tells us of the Subjefls upon which our Sa* 
viour fpoke to his Difciples on thcfe Occa-' 
fions, viz. Of things pertaining to the King^'i 
dotn of God. Before they fct out upon thd« 
great Work of preaching the Kingdom of 
God to all the World, it was neccflary that< 
they fhould be fully inftru6led in the Do<5trines' 
they were to preach, and in the feveral Func-i 
tions of the Apoftolical Office: That they* 
ftiould thoroughly underftand the Tntentioni"^ 
of their Mafler, and have fo me View of the 
Means and Afliftances by which they Ihoulc 
be enabled to perform a Talk fo apparentl/l 
above their Abilities, and fomc Hopes and 
Encouragement to fupport them under the- 
-^ ProlpeA 

• A£ts. Chap. i. 3. 

|p|f»(|)^ . 6C ,U]u^ :P^ficu]^e»: and Dm^n 
tkn^^^vs jpvfji CO caqjeft in propagtitiiig thfr 
G0l^dL . In ordfii' to all this, ifiany tnyecihite 
Prejudices relating to the Law of A^/ts tftid 
the Jewifli Nation were to be rooted out 5 
the Scheme of GiA in the univerfai Redentp- 
tion «f Mankind was to be laid open td 
thetS: \ many human Afiedtions, Reluftancfis> 
ai)d Terrors, were to be fubdued, and their 
Etearts to be fortified with Courage and Con* 
ftancy, a Difregard and Contempt of Hard- 
ihipSj 'Pcrilfi^ Pain and Death. To thefe it- 
veral>Purpores nothing could more conduce 
than frequent Vifits from their Lord ; whole 
R^vrrt&kn (of which every Appearance was 
a jErefl^ Proof ) was an unqueftionable Evi- 
dence of Ws Power J whofe every Appearance 
was aninftance of his Affection andCondefcen^' 
fion to them» and of his Fidelity in perform- 
ing the Fromife he had made before his Paf- 
(ion of comiing to them again after his Death, 
and. being with them for a littU while before, 
he went to his Father^ and whofe Fidelity 
and Exadiicfs in thus performing his Pro- 
mife, was an infallible Earnefl: andSecurity for 
the Coming of that Comforter who was to 
. I , fuppjy 

[ 220] 

fiipply his Place, to guide ^em into aU Tfjittk 
to bring to their Remembrance ve^atever,. be b^ 
fpoken to them, to enable tbemtoAo^ fft^^ 
fForks than he had ^one, and to fi^ their 
Hearts with that Joy^ which it Jhould net bei» 
the Power of Man to take from them. 
this the Weight and Authority derived to his 
Precepts and Inftruflions from their being de- 
livered by himfelf in Perfon ; and the great 
Meafure of Strength accruing to dieir Faith 
from their having frequently before their Eyes 
the Captain of their Salvation, who after hsiving 
fought with the Powers of Darknefs, and tri- 
umphed over Sin and Death, was to Jit down 
thenceforth at the Right-hand of God, invefted 
with the Power of affifting thofe, who ftiould 
fight under his Banner, and rewarding their 
Toils, their Sufferings, and their Death, with 
a Crown of immortal Life. And if nothing 
could more effeftually bring about all thcfe 
great Effects than Chrijl*s frequently meeting 
his Apoftles, it will evidently appear that no 
Place could be more proper for thofe Meet- 
ings than Galilee -, if we confider, that the 
Apoftles having their Habitations in that 
Country, might refide there without anySuf- 


{ 2^1 ] 

1 affembk without iny Fear of th4 
Perfecutors and Murderers of their Mafter,the 
Chief Priefls and the Roman Governor : * For 
Galikc was under the Jurifdiftion of Herod. 
'hercas had they remained in Jerufakm, and 
tontinued to aflemble frequently togetherj 
'hile the' Report of their Mafter's being 
rtfen from the Dead was frefh and in every 
Jody's Mouth, the Chief Priefts and El- 
mers, "whofe Hatred or Apprehenfions of 
UJits Cbr\li were not extinguifhed by his 
Jlood, as appears by their pcrfecuting and 
lurdering his Followers long after ; thefe 
iRulers of the Jews^ I fay, would undoubt- 
Ljtdly have given fuch Interruptions to thofe 
'Meetings, and thrown fuch Obftacles in the 
"Way, as muft have necefficated our Lord to 
intcrpofe his miraculous Power to prevent 
or remove them. Now as all thcfe Inconve- 
niences might be avoided by our Saviour** 
meeting his Difciples in Galihty it is more 
agreeable to the Wifdom of God^ {which 
as -f Mr. Lock obfcrves, is not ujually at /be 
Expeme of Miracles^ hut only in Cafes that 
require them) to fuppofe thefe frequent Meet- 
tj ings 

* Ltike xx'm. 7. -t Reaf. of Chrift. p. 508, Fel. Edit. 

Ings to have been in G alike rather than !l^^^ 
'JeruJaltMy and more analogous to the Pro- 
ceeding of OUT Lord himfclf, who being in j 
Danger from the Scribes and Pharifees, re- | 
frained from appearing publickly in Jerufakm 
for fome Time before the Hour appointed 
for his Sufferings and Death was come, and 
walked in Galilee, as St. John * tells us, for be 
vjouldnot walk in Jewry, becaufetbe ]f9f%fovgbt 
to kill him. From thefe Confiderations I think 
it clear, that all the Appearances of Chrijt to 
his Difciples, from that to St. 'Thomas menti- 
oned in St. John, to that iaft in JerufaJcm^ on 
the Day of his Afcending, mentioned by St. 
Luke both in his Gofpel and in the ASls, were 
in G'alilee : From whence when the Apoftles 
returned afterwards to Jerufalemy they wefe 
covered from the Apprehenfion of giving any ^ 
Umbrage by refiding there, for the :(hort Space 
to come between their Return and the Time ^ 
of their entering upon their Apollolical Office, ^ 

by the Obligation they were under, in cdm 

tnon with the reft of their Brethren the Jews^^ 
to repair to that City for tjie Celebration o^M 
the Feaft of f Weeks, called alfo Pentecoft =: 

• John vli. I. A£b u. i, &c. 




r 293 1 

[Cpoti the moft folemn Day of which FeliiVal 
they were, according to the Promile of their 
Mailer, filled with the Holy Ghoft, and en- 
dued with Power from above to defy all Dan- 
ger, and furmount all Oppofition in preaching 
the Gofpel of Cbriji, 

And hence we learn, that all the latter Part 
of the 2/^h. Chapter of St: Zwi^'s Gofpel, from 
the 4-9th Verfe to the End inclufivcj relates to 
what happened at Jtrufaltm^ iic. after the Re- 
turn of the Apoftks from Galilee : Of whofe 
Departure into QaliUe after the Refurreftion 
of Cbrifi^ or of his Promife of going thither be- 
fore them, this Evangeiift having not thought 
it to his Purpofe to make any mention, thought 
it as necdlefs to fay any thing of their leaving 
Jerufalan \ fmce the Scene of their laft Appear- 
aoce, as well as of the former related by him, 
was in that City 5 and fince to thofe, who by 
any other Means fliould come to be acquaint- 
cd with the whole Hiftory of our Saviour, 
there would be no Danger of confounding 
thofe two Appearances. As to thofe who fhould 
happen to meet with no other Account but Ins 
Gofpel, (if fuch a Thing could be fuppofed) 
U 2 no 

[ 294 ] 

!io great Damage could arife from thdr miPI 
taking them to be one and the fame. 

§. 21. By this long and fcrupulous Exami* 
iiation of the fcveral Partjculars> which confti- 
tute the Evidences of the Refurreftion, I have, 
endeavoured to fhew» that never were there a\ 
FaHs that could better abide the *Tefi, And if 
have in any Degree fucceeded in my Endea^ 
vours, I fhalJ ntither repent my own Labouf,! 
nor apologize to the Reader for having dwc 
fo long upon this Subjefl : Since the Concl 
fion that will inevitably follow from this Pr 
polition is, that never was there a Fa^ m 
fully proved than the RefurreSfion of Jefu 
Chrifi. For befides the Teftimony of fom 
who may be fuppofed to have had no Prej 
dices either for, or againfl the Refurrecflion, I^ 
mean the Roman Soldiers^ who reported that 
his Sepulchre was miraculoufly opened by an 
Angel, or a Divinity, (for fo they mUft have 
ftiledthat Coeieftial Apparition :) And befides 
the Teftimony of others, who were apparently] 
prepoflelTed with Notions contrary to the Be 
lief Cbriji*s being rifen from the Dead, -:and 
yet affirmed chat they were not only told by 



[ ^95 ] 

Angels that he was rifen, but that they them- 
felves had feen him, talked with him, and 
handled him : Befides this human Teflimony, 
I fay, which confidering all the Circumftances 
attending it* muft be allowed to have been 
fuiBcient to prove any Event, that was not 
cither impoffible or improbable in the higheft 
Degree, there were (as it was reafonable to 
expcdt there fliould be) other Evidences as cx- 
fctraordioary and miraculous as the RefiirreG- 
tion itfelf. Of this Kind are the Predidlions 
contained in the Writings of Mofes^ the Pro- 
phets y and the PfalmiJ}, fetting forth the De- 
fign and Purpofe of God to redeem Mankind 
by the Righteoufnefs, Sufferings, Death and 
Rcfurrcdion of the Seed of the Woman. With- 
out theRefurre£lion, this great Scheme of Di- 
fc vine Mercy had been uncomplete -, by That it 
was perfefted, and the Triumph over Death 
added to That over Sin •, the Meffiah thereby 
accompliihing all that the Scriptures foretold 
of his Glory and Power. When therefore 
one Part of the Promiit-s relating to Jefus had 
been fo cxaftly made good in his Life and 
Death, it is reafonable to conclude, that God did 
not fail to fulfil the others in his Rcfurre<flion. 



[ 296 ]' 

In the fame Clafs of Evidence may alfo 
be ranked the Prophecies of Jefus himfeJ^ 
relating to his rifmg from the Dead, which 
coming from one, whofe other Prcdidions 
(of which there had been many) had been al- 
ways accomplifh*d, dcfcrved to be credited no 
Icfs than the others, and were not only ve- 
rified by the Event itfclf. but confirmed by 
other fubfequent Events, foretold likewifc by 
him before his Pafllon, and linked with and 
depending upon that great Proof of his Di" 
vine Power. Such, for Inftance, were his meet* 
ing his Difciples in Galilef, his being wit^ji 
them a little while before he went to his Fa- 
ther, his Afcenfion into Heaven, and his fend- 
ing to them the promifed Comforter^ with all 
the glorious Faculties and Powers they r^eiv* 
cd upon his Coming. With fo various, fq 
aftoniHiing, fo well-connedcd and irrefragable 
a Chain of Evidence, is this important Articla 
of the Refurredion bound up and fortified. 

{i« But all thefe Proofs were not exhibited t< 
all the Jews, for not to all the People was Jc 
fus (hrdi:H alive after his Pafllon, but to Wit- 

[ 29^7 ] 
nejfes chofen before of God i to Us (faith St.Peter) 

^ivhif did eat and drink with him after that he 
arofe from the Dead *. That Chrift made 
Choice of a feleft Number of Difciples, and 
particularly of Twelve, ( who were called 
ApolUes) to be Witnefles of the great Adions 
of his Life, and efpecially of his Refurredtion, 
^nd Preachers of his Gofpel to all the World, 

w\^ ^ Thing too well known to need any Proof, 
To qualify them for this double Office, he not 
only, upon mar.y Occafions both before and 

»«ftcr his Crucifixion, difcourfed to them in 
particular of the Ihings pertaining to the King- 
dom of God^ and poured upon them all the va- 
Irious Gifts of the Holy Spirit, but gave them 
tvery kind of Evidence of his being rifen 
»from the Dead, which the moft Scrupulous 
■"and Sceptical could imagine or require \ fJjevi}- 
ingbimfelf alive to them by many infallible Proofs^ 
fuch as eating and drinking with them» t^c. 
for forty Days after bis PaJJion. And indeed, 
it is highly expedient that Thofe, upon whofe 
Teftimony and Credit the Truth of any Fact 
is to be eftabli filed, {hould have the ful left and 
moft unexceptionable Evidence of it, that can 


*Afts 35.41, 


[ 295] 

be hzd% becaufe^.their having had* aii pofiilidffi 
^^eans of Infonnation;.:ii]itjft needs ^digre^ 
Weight «nd AuChofiiTf to. their, iDepo&tidi^^. 
Hence dien wc eaay learn the -Reafdh olwf ^ 
Saviour's appearing 'ib often toi his-Diftii^, 
after hiB itB^rFe&iX>n, of his vequiriiTgth€Ai> 
td handle" him, aftd fed that It 4ra^ he Jihnfelft » 
pf'his ikdng and -drfnking 'wljh- thtfm^;=of: 
hi« refwring them to the'ScriptuttSj to hi»- 
of^ Predii^lions, and to the TcftimiDhf of 
thofe to Whoin hii had appeared, btfbrtite 
fatrie'to them i and laftly,' c^ hi4 fttisf^flHg-^ 
the' iJrtreafdnable Scniples efSt^ThdtfAh-i^^f^- 
being dne of the chofch Witrieffe^i (6ti^ df ^ 
the Twelve) it was proper lie fiioihld hA^^h ' 
equal Knowledge of the Faft hfc was to Mi^': 
with his bther Bi-cthren the Apoftles. ' 'PhUt ' 
this'peifeft Knowledge of the Things - tfcejr " 
were to give Teftimony to, was 'rtdseidai^^fbf 
thofe, who were ordained to be Ap6fi:lc»i"l» ' 
farther evident fi-om the following Words' of 
St* Peter -, who after the Afcenfion of our 
Lord, propofing to the reft of the Difcipfcs to 
fill up the Vacancy made by the Tranfgreffion 
and Death oi Judas y by eledling one to t^i 
" • • ■-.-■■ ■ ■ -^ ■ .^' ■■ 

[ 299 ] 
irt with them in their Minifiry and j^pcjlk^^- 
Jhip, defcribcs the Qualifications rcquifite in an" 
Apoftle, by limititng' their' Choice in chef*^*" 
Words : Wherifore of ihefe Men^ that havtMt^ 
compamed loitb us all the ^{methat the Lcr/f. 
Jcfus went in and out among fi ns, kegimingfrem 
the Baptifm of John, unto thai fame Bay that - 
he was taken up from «;, muft one be ordained tad 
be Witnefs with Us of his RefurreSiion. Hencci ^ 
alio it is plain, that all thefe infallible Proofs 
were not vouchsafed by Chrifi to his Difcipies^j 
merely out of a particular Favour and Regards j 
to them, that they might believe and bcfaved^jj 
but with a farther View, that othcs aUo,^ 
through their Tcftimony founded on the com^sj^ 
pleatcft and exafteft Information, might like*^^ 
wife believe and be favcd. The Reproof of 
Chrift to St. Thomas^ for not believing without , 
the Attcftation of his Senfes, implied in the . 
Blefling pronounced by him on Thofe, wh^j 
halving notfeen bad yet believed, is a clear Ar- v 
gument, that our Saviour thought his Difci-^g 
pies had fuflicient Caufe to believe he was » 
rifen from , the Dead, even before lie Iheweda 
himfelf to them. And that thq- had fo in 
fa(5t, IJiave aboveendeaYouied to prove; and 




[ 300 ] 
that St. John did believe, before he faw Iiis 
Mailer, he himfelf alTures us. Had Chriji 
theretbre intended nothing more, than to bring 
his Difcipks to a Belief of his Refurrcftion, 
he might have left them to the Tcftimony of 
the Roman Soldiers j to that of the Women ♦, 
to the Writings of Mofes and the Prophets j 
to his own Predidions j to the State of the 
Sepulchre, and that wonderful Circumftanco 
of his Body*s being no where to be found j to 
^1 this Evidence he might, I fay, have left 
them, withotit appearing to them himfc 
and left them without Excufe, had they 
continued faithlefs and unbelieving, 
though the Apoftles had upon this Eviden 
believed their Maftcr to be rifen from t 
Dead -, yet, without thofe other infallible P 
rnentioncd by St, Luke^ they would certai 
liave not been lb wel! qualified for Witncfli 
of the Refurrc(5lion to all the World j that 
to fay, the Reafons upon which they believ 
would not have appeared fo convincing. The 
Heathens would not have admitted the Tefti- 
Tnpny of Mofes and the Prophets j of whoAfl 
Writings they knew nothing, and of whole ' 
Divine Authority they had no Proof, Aud as 

[ SOI ] 
tlieDepofitions of the Women j btfides that 
they were Strangers to their Charaders, they 
might, from Chr/Ji's appearing to fbeWf with 
fome Colour have demanded why he did not 
■bpear likewUe to thofe, whom he cpmmiflion- 
^d to preach his Gofpel, and to be Witnefles 
of his Refurredion. But when, on the con- 
trary, the Apollles could tell them that they 
themfelves had Icen Cbriftf had handled him, 
Bjp and drank with him, and converfed 
ifrith him for forty Days after that he wa$ 
rifen from the Dead, they could not but 
allow them to have had tlie fulleft Evir 
dence of the Rcfurredion, fyppofing what 
they (old them to be true •, and of this, the 
Purity <^ their Doftrine, the Holinefs of their 
Lives, their Courage and Conftancy in defy- 
ing «od undergoing all Kinds of Hardfhips, 
Dangers, Pain and Death, in advancing .a 
Caufe, which every worldly Intereft obliged 
them to deferr, joined to the Atteftation of the 
Holy Spirit, working with theniy and conJirniif\g 
(hi fVord with Signs foUomng^ were fuch At- 
^urances as no other Man could give of ^i^ 


[ 302 1 

From what has beea faid, it may appear, 
how little Ground there is for the Cavils that , 
have been raifed upon our Lord's forbidding 
Marj Magdalene to touch him ; and upon his 


rifen to the 

not (hewing himfcll 
'Jewst to the Chief Pricfts and Elders, to the 
Scribes and Pharifees : The one of which has 
been interpreted as a Refufal to Mary Magda- 
lene, of the neceiTary Evidence of his being 
rifen from the Dead j and the other as a Breach 
of the Promife, implied in thefc Words,* 
evil and adulterous Generation feeketb after 
Sign, and there Jball be no Sign given to ity but the 
Sign, of the Prophet Jonas j for at Jonas Wi 
three Days and three Nights in the fVbal^s Belt) 
fojhall the Son of Many &c. In which (it is 
faid) Chriji promifed to appear, after he wai 
rifen, to that evil and adulterous Generation^ that 
is, to the Jews, &c. as contra-diftinguiihed 
from his Difciples and Apoftles. That Cbriji 
promifed by thefe Words to give that tvil 
Generation fuflicient Proof of his rifing from 
•the Grave after having lain in it three Days, I 
readily allow •, but that he promifed to ajfesr 



• Mattv xii. 39, 40. 

I 3o§ 1 

to them, I abfolutely deny, and think it im* 

poflible to prove he did, from the above-cited 

PaiTage. Of his riOng again from the Grave 

on the third Day, the Jews had the Teftimony 

of the Prophets, of the Fred ift ions of Chrift 

himfelf, the Evidence of the iJowtf» Soldiers, 

of his Body*s being no where to be found, of 

the Women and Difciples, and ApoftJcs, to 

whom he had appeared «, and who, before the 

Sanhedrim^ bore Witnefs to his Refurredion, 

and having jufl before wrought a Miracle upon 

a * lame Man, declared that they had done it 

" in the Name of Jefits of Nazareth, wbonty 

fay they, ye crucified^ whom God raifedfrom the 

Dead. This furely was Evidence fufficient to 

convince any reafonable and unprejudiced Per- 

fon j and confequently, to acquit our Lord of 

the Promife of giving that evil Generation fatif- 

fadtory Proofs of his being rifen from the Dead. 

To the Evidence vouchfafed by Cbrtjiy cither 

out of Favour to thofe, who had forfaken all 

and foUowed him ; or to thofe, whom he had 

chofen to be Witnejfes of him to all the JVorldy 

they certainly could have no juft Pretenfions ; 

who, inftcad of being his Difciples, had re- 


A^s ir. 10. 



[ 304 ] 

jcclcd ills Do<5trine, and put him to Death at 
an Impollor and Blafphemcr; and inftcad of I 
(hewing any Difpofition to embrace or propa- 
gate his Gofpel, oppofed it with all thcif 
Power ; and by Threats and Punifhments, for-^ 
bade his Apoftles to preach any more in his 
Name. That Mary Magdalene was convinced 
that it was Jefus who appeared to her, I have 
already fliewn very fully ', and that was aJi tliat 
was neceffary for her fingle felf \ fuppofing 
therefore that fhe never had afterwards the Per* 
mifilon of touching or embracing her Mafter ; 
(which by the way cannot be proved^ neither 
had ihe» nor any one t\{t Reafon to complain 
or cavil, fince neither heir own Faith, nor that 
of any other Peribn, depended upon her having 
that Proof of the Refurre6tion oi Cbrtft ; fer 
fhe was not an Apofihy not one of the choftn 
IVilneffes. And it is very remarkable, that 
none of the Apoftles, either in preaching to 
the unconverted J^wj or Gentiks^ or in their 
Epiftles to the Church, ever majcc any Men- 
tion of the Appearances of Cbrifi to the Wo- 
men : And the Evangelifts feem to have it- 
Jated them only upon account of their being 
conneded with other more important Parts oi 

[ 305 ] 

^the Hillory of the Refurreftion. The Truth 
is, the Teftimony of the Women, though of 
great Weight with the Apoftles, and with 
thofe who received it from their own Mouths* 
was but fccond-hand Hear-fay Evidence to 
thofe, who had it only from the Apoftles Re- 
port i who» for that Reafon, infifted always 
upon their having themfclves feen their Mafter, 
nfter that be was rifen from the Dead j a Cir- 
cumftance, as far as I can recoUeft, not omitted 
by any of them, in their Arguments upon the 
Refurreftion of Jefui \ as may be feen in the 
Paffages of Scripture that give any particular 
■Account of thofe Difcourfes. And thus * St. 
Vaul in his Epiftle to the Corinthians^ after 
enumerating many Appearances of Chriji to 
ilhe Twelve Apoftles, and others, clofes all 
with faying, And laft of all he was feen of me alfo. 
So much Care did they take to give reafonable 
Evidence for the reafonable Faith they re- 

§.22. All that has hitheflo been faid relates 
chiefly to the Proofs of the Refurreftion of 


• I Cor. XV. 8, 

[ 3o6 ] 
Jefus drifts as they were laid before the A- 
poftles, thofc cbofen JVitneJfes of that great, and 
fldonifhing Event. And I hope^ upfmafe^ { 
rious and attentive View of the fair and un- 
impofing Manner in which thofe Prbofs ynst . 
offered to their Confideratioh, and of ibe^ 
Number and Certainty of the Fads upon which^ 
they were grounded, every judicious and can* 
did Inquirer after Trutli will allow, that^ te 
the Apoftles at leaft, the Refurredion of Ji^r 
was moft fully and tnoft unexceptipnably ptov- . 
ed» I (hall now proceed to lay before the Rea- 
der feme Arguments (for I cannot enter into' 
all) that may induce us, who live at fo remote 
a Diftance of Time from that Age of Evidence 
and Miracles, to believe that Cbriji rofe from 
the Dead. 

-The firft and principal Argument, is the 
Tellimony of thofe chofen Witnefles, tranf- 
mitted down in Writings, cither pehn'd by 
thcmfelves, or authorifed by- their InfpcAibn 
and Approbation. 

The fecond, is the Exigence of the Gfarl- ) 
ft Ian Religion. 

2 Bl^OK* ' 

t 307 j 

' j^ E r o R E we adimt the TeJ^imohir of thefb 
ri^/bf ^/i»^ contained in the Qoffels, the 
d0s^ the E01es, and ^c ReyejattMfSj it-may^ 
be|>roper to confider, in the iirft Place, what 
Kcaafons there are for our believing this Tclli- 
miHiy to be genuine } or in other Words, be- 
iieidng them to be the Authors of thofe Books, 
which are now received under their Names : 
And in the next Place, what Arguments can 
be ofifered to induce us to give Credit to this 
Teffimonf , fuppofing it genuine. 

To prove the Apoftles * and £vangelifts to 

be the Authors of thofe Scriptures, which are 

now received under their Names, we have the 

concurrent Atteftation of all the earlieft Wri>- 

X ters 

• I ufe thcfe two Words Afbpts and tvaiigelifis in thit 
ftace, to «lenot« and diftinguifli the Authors of the fcur 
Gofpek, tKe A£b, and the Epifiles, k^c. though they might 
■n havb been ctnn^ltended undier the gien^ral Term A,'0- 
filest by which Tide not only the Twelve, {o called by 
Cfrrj^ hinlfdf, bat Mathias afterwards and Paul, and all 
the (eventy otfeventy-two Difciples, are nMintiaaed by Ibme 
of the Fathers. Of this laft Number were the Evangelilh 
Mark atad Like (as Dr. Whitby has ihiewn from Origen and 
Efipbammt) lad as fuch were qualified by their own pferfa- 
iMl Knowledge of moll of the Fads, and by the Inf^- 
tion of the Holy Ghoft, to write their GofpeU, without tbo 
InJi^eaidn of the two great Apoftles Putr itiid PomU which 
yet (as we a^ told by fome of the Fathers) was a farther 
AoAority ipven tb them, and fuch as would have fafficed 
tW diey had not been themfeives particularly infpired. 

[ 308 ] 
tcrs o( the Church, deduced by an uninterrupt* 
ed arid uncontrolled Tradition, from the very 
Times cf the Apoftles. "Which is fuch an. Au- 
thentication of thcfe facred Records, as is not 
to be overturned by bare Prefumptions, and t 
{urmife4 and unproved Charge of Forgery. 
But for the Proofs of this PropoGtion, I ihail 
refer the Reader to the • Difcourfcs of tljofe 
learned Men, who have treated more pfrticu; 
larly lipon this Subjed:, and fhall dontent my' 
felf with offering in Support of thofe Proofs 
the following Confiderations -,. m which I Ihail 
endeavour to Ihew, ift, the Probability of the 
Apoftles having left in Writing the Evidences 
and Doftrines of the Religion they preached, 
and of their Difciples having prelerved and 
tranfmitted thofe Writings to PoUerky: 2dly, 
The Improbability of any Books forge(jI in the 
Names of the Apoftles efcaping Detedion. 

Firji, If the Precepts and Examples of 
Jefus Chriji and his Apoftles were .to be the 
Rules, by which all thofe,- who in fucceed,- 
ing Ages fliould believe in him,- were requir- 
ed to govern themfelves, it feems moft con4 


toons upon the GorpeUAdb, ^c. Seealfo V;iba£i i 
la Kehgton Chrthtnnt^ Tom. II. 


C 309 1 

nant tOf the Wifdom of God^ becaufe agreeable 
to what he himfclf pradtis'd when he gave the . 
iJem O the Tfraetites, to commit thofe Rules of 
tdilvatidn to Writing, radier than to the unfur« 
and treacherous Conveyance of oral Tradition \ 
^hich cannot with any Safety be depended upon 
JRJf fcarce fo much as one or two Generations. 
It Is therefore highly reafona;ble to fuppofe that 
the lathe Spirit, wliich incited and enabled the 
Ajioftles to. preach the Gofpel, and bear Wit- 
liefs to the Reruirre6lion oijefus Chriji in every 
mtion of the known World, fhould lik«;w:ire 
Incite and "enable them to deliver down to Po- 
feity, Th a Method the leaft liable to Uncer- 
tainty' and Error, that Teftimony, and thofe 
Ifrecepts, upon which the Faith and Praftice 
of After-Tiines were to be eftabliflied, cfpe- 
dslly Wh^n it is (in the fecond Place) confi'« 
dered, that all Revelation (Revelation I mean 
of the Doctrines and Syftem of the Gofpel) 
ira3 confined to the Apoftles, and cohfequently 
ended with them. The Power of working 
Miracles, fpeaking with other Tongues, caft- 
ing out unclean Spirits, ^c, was frequently, 
if not univerfally given to the firft Converts 
to Chnftianity j and fome of thefe Gifts were 
contixm^ . for mahy Generations in the 
X 2 Church. 

t 3-^0 3 Be 

Church. But to the Apoftles only was o\tf 
Saviour pleafed to reveal his "Will. Ac- 
cordingly in the Epiftles of * St. Paul wc 
fee that thofe Chriftians, who were endowed 
with many and various Gifts of the Hoi/ Spi- 
rit, flood however in need of the InftrufUins 
and Directions of that Apoftle, in many Points 
both of Faith and Praftice ; and the earlicft 
Writers after the Apoftles, tho* poflefled them- 
felves of many of thofe miraculous Powers, 
inftead of pretending to immediate Revela- 
tion, have upon all ^Occafions recourfe to the 
holy Scriptures, which they acknowledge to 
have been written by the Affiftance of tht di- 
vine Spirit, as to that Fountain, from whence 
alone they could derive the Waters of Life : 
Both which Appeals, as well that made to the 
Apoftles by their Cotemporaries, as thofe 
made by fucceeding Chriftians to the Scrip- 
tures, would have been unneceflary, had they, 
like the Apoftles, been taught all Things by 
Revelation, and been guided into all Truth by 
the Holy Spirit. 

This being the Cafe with thofe Chri- 
ftians who were converted to the Faith by the 
l^. Preaching 

• See'paJticularly the Epiftles to the CaHntbiam. 


[ 511 ] 

^Preaching of the Apoftlcs themfdves-, and 
"^wrho were to tranfmic to fuccceding Ages 
that Gofpel, upon which, according to 
, their Belief, the Salvation of Mankind de- 
pended i is it not natural to imagine they 
would take the moft effeftual Means to fupply 
thofe Defefts, which they were fenfible of in 
themfelves *, and to guard againft thofe Errors, 
which through the Imbecillity of the human 
Mind they had fallen into, even while the 

Voices of the Apoftles ftill founded in their 
Ears, and to which their Pofterity muft of 
necefllty be ftill more liable ? And what more 
efFeftual Means could they purfue, than either 

' io obtain in Writing from the Apoftles them- 
ifSves, the Evidence and Doiftrines of the 
Chrlftian Faith j or, which amounted to much 
the fame Thing, to write them down from 
their Mouths, or under their Infpedlion and 
Approbation ; or laftly, to tranfcribe from 
their own Memories what they could recoiled 
of the Doftrines and Inftruftions of the A- 
poftles? Of thefe three Methods, the two 
fir ft were unqueftionably the beft ; the laft was 
fubjeft to many Imperfedions and Miftakes : 
For tho* our Saviour promifcd to enable his 

' Apoftles by the Holy Spirit, to call to Mind 

X 2 'ivbat' 

[ si»3 

whatever he had /aid unto them, I do not fiodi 
chat the Memories of thofe who heard the 
Apoftles, were ever aflifted in the like miracu- 
lous Manner. If the Apoftles therefore had 
not, either from their Care for the Houfbold of 
Faith, or from the Su^eftions of the Holy 
Spirit, tranfmitted the Proofs and Doftrmcs 
of the Gofpel to Pofterity in one of the two 
firft-mentioned Ways, it is to be prefumed 
they would have been called upon to do it by 
thofe, who looked upon tbem as Teachen 
commiflloned and infpired by the Spirit of 
Truth, and who alone had the Words ofetemci 
Life. And if neither of thofe two defirable 
Things could have been obtained, Recourfe 
would undoubtedly have been had to the laft. 
And indeed it is evident, from St. Luk^^ Pre- 
face to. his Gofpel, that many Writings of tWs 
Kind were current among the Chriftians of 
thofe Times : None of which, that I know 
of, having come down to us, it is to be pre- 
fumed they were fuperfeded by Writings of 
greater Authority -, that is to fay. Writings 
cither pen'd by the Apoftles themfelves, or 
authorifed by their Infpeflion and Approba- 
tion ; becaufe this feems to be the beft Ac- 
count that can be given for the difierept Fate 
' ' ' ' ' that 

C 313 3 

that hath attended thefe feveral Writings ; the 
former having difappeared and died foon after 
their Birth j and the latter having furvivcd 
now almoll feventecn Centuries, in the fame 
Degree of Efteem and Veneration, with 
which they were at firft received by the Con* 
verts of the Apoftolick Age : For that the 
Difference between thefe Writings was made 
in that Age is very probable -, ift, Becaufe 
thofe very Cotemporaries of the Apoftles ftood 
fhemfeives in need of their Inft;ru<5lions, Ad- 
monidons, and Exhortations for their own 
Diredion and Encouragement: And 2dly, 
for the Convidion of the next Age, who were 
to receive the Gofpel from their Hands, they 
wanted the Teftimony and Authority of thofe 
Perfons, to whom the Fads upon which their 
Faith depended, were the moft compleatly 
proved j and who alone, in Matters of Doc- 
trine, vftvt guided int 9 all 1'rutb by the infalli- 
ble Spirit of God. For by their own Evidence, 
they could prove no more than what fell with- 
in the Compafs of their own Knowledge, 
which could extend no farther than to what 
they had themfelves feen of the Apoftles, or 
heard from their Mouths : And this Evidence 
X 4 of 

of theirs could acquire no farther Authority 
by having been committed to Writing. The 
Apofilei alone could prove, what they only knew, 
and were the only authentick Preachers of thofe 
Podtrines, which they alone received from 
Cbrifij or after his Afcenfibn from the Holy 
Spirit. Thc^r Suoceflbrs, befides bearing Tcf- 
timony to their Charadlers, and giving Evi- 
dence perhaps of fpme collateral Pafts which 
h?d fallen under their own Obfbrvations, could 
dp no more than %f}ltnejs their Depofitiomylhat 
is, that thefe and thefe were t|ie Fa^s, and 
thefe and thefe were the Bo5Mnes delivered 
by the Apoftles. If the Apoftles therefore, 
either from the fecret Inftigation of the Ho}) 
Chojl, or from their paternal Care and Affec- 
tion for the Houjhold of Faith, or at the Re- 
queft of their Children in Chriji Jefus^ did com- 
mit to Writing the Proofs and Doctrines of 
the Chriftian Religion (as it is reafonable to 
fuppofe they did) it is as reafonable to con- 
clude, that, what they either writ or approv- 
ed, muft neceflarily have been preferred to all 
other Writings wjiatever. 

And as the Writings of the Apoftles muft, 
for the Reafons al)Ove-nientioned, have been 

C ZH ] 
of great Weight and Importance to the Chri- 
(Hans of their Times -, and of ftill greater to 
thofc of the fucceeding Ag^s, who could not 
like their Predeceffors, upon any Occafion, 
have reccurfe to the living and infallible O- 
racles of God ; it is natural to imagine that 
the Pelfons, in whofe Hands thofe facred and 
invaluable Treafures were depofited, would 
preferve and guard them with the utmoft Fi- 
delity and Care ; Would impart Copies of 
them to fuch of their Brethren, who could not 
have Accefs tothe Originals ; and would, from 
the fame Principle of Ghriftian Benevolence 
^d Fidelity, fee that thofe Copies were tran- 
fcribed with all that Exaftnefs, which human 
Nature, ever liable to Slips and Errors, wai 
cap^le of. The fame Care under the fame 
Allowances^ it is to be fuppofed would be alio 
taken by thpfe who ftiould tranflate them into 
the feveral I^anguages fpokcn by Chriftians of 
different Nations, who did not underftand 
fhat in which the Apoftles wrote. 

These feveral Steps appear to me fo na- 
tural and obvious, that I cannot but think any 
Set of reafonableand honeftMen could not fail 
©f malting them, under the fame Circum- 


[ 3i6 3 

ftances, as attended the firft Preachers and 
Converts of Chriftianity. And from hence 
arifes a ftrong Prefumption in favour of thpfe 
Accounts which inform us, — That the Apof- 
tles and Evangelifts were the genuine Authors 
ofthofe Writings, which are now received 
under their Names. — That, altho* many, even 
in the Apoftles Times, bad taken in Hand, as 
St. Luke expreffes it, to fet forth in order a 
Declaration of thofe Things which were mofifure- 
hf believed amongft Chriftians, even as they deli- 
luered them, who were Eye-witnejfes and Mini- 
fters of the Word ; and although fome Years 
after the Deaths of the Apoftles, many Gof- 
pels, Epiftles, Cffr. appeared, which were a- 
fcribed to Them, to the Virgin Mary, and even 
to Jefus Chriji himfelf \ yet thofe only, which 
we now account Canonical, were admitted as 
fuch, from the very earlieft Ages of Chriftia- 
nity. — That thefe Canonical Books were pre- 
fcrved and kept, with the- moft fcrupulous 
and religious Care, by the feveral Churches 
or Societies of Chriftians ; who did not, and 
indeed upon their Principles could not, pre- 
fume to add to them, or to take from them the 
leaft Tittle. — That Copies of them were im- 
mediately difperfed throughout the whole 


C 31? ] 
Chriftian World j the Apojttes (faith Irenausy 
Lib. 3. 1. I .) firji preaching the Gofpd^ and af- 
terwards, by the Will of God, delivering it to us 
in the Scriptures, to be thenceforward the Pillar and 
Foundation of our Faith. And the fir ft Succeffors 
of the Apoftles, (as Eufebius informs us, Hifl. 
Ecclef. Lib. iii. C. ^y.) leaving their Countries^ 
preached to them who bad not heard of the 
Chriftian Faith, and then delivered to them, as 
the Foundation of their Faith, the Writings of 
the Holy Evangelifts.—rThat the Originals of the 
Epiftles were ftill preferved in the refpedive 
Churches to which they were direftcd in the 
Tinne of Tertullian, who writing to the Here- 
ticks of his Age, viz. of the third Century, 
bids them go to the Apoftolical Churches, where 
the autbentick Epiftles of the Apoftks{{ai\th. he) are 
ftill recited.— ThiX. laftly, Tranflations of thefe 
Scriptures were made fo early as to precede the 
general Admiffion of fome Parts of them,which 
were afterwards received as genuine ; the ^- 
riac Verfion for Inftance being fo ancient, that 
it leaves out the fecond Epiftle of Peter, the 
fecond and third Epiftles of John, and the 
Revelations, as being for a Time controverted 
in fome of the Eaftern Churches j which hy 

C 318 1 

the way fhews how fcrupulous the firfl Chri- 
ilians were about admitting into the Canon of 
Scripture, Writings which, though bearing 
tlie NarfJes of the Apoftlcs, ind received by 
fome Churches as genuine, we're yet quefttolKd 
and fufpeded by others. To all which we 
liiay add ftiU farther, that thefe feveral- Ac- 
counts relating merely to Fafls, tend only 
to eftablilh another Fa6l,' viz. That the Ap6- 
i^les and Evangelifts did compofe the Gofpels^ 
Epiftles, 6ff . afcribed to them. Which' Fad 
IS capable of being proved by 'the 'fame kifid 
of ]£vidence as any other Faft of the' faihfc 
Nature.— That the Evidences of this Fa6t can- 
not be overturned, but upon" fach Principles 
as will equally fubvert the Proofs of iail Fafts, 
that exifted at any great Diftance of Time 
from the prefent.— -That we ought therefore 
either to admit this Faft, or rejeft all thofe 
without Diftindion, which ftand only upon the 
Credit of Hiftories and Records •, of the Truth 
of any of which, we can have no ftronger Af- 
lurances than we have of the Authenticity of 
th^fe Holy Writings. 

* The Reader who is inclined to fee the Ajxihorities^ 
upon which thefe feveral Articles were foonded, ma/cQQ- 
fu/c f/'^Jj/Vs Preface to the Gofpels, ^c.^ , "^^ 

t 319 ] 

§.23. The next Point to be confidered is, 
thclmprobabilityof any Books forged in the 
Names of the Apoftles efcaping Deteftion. 

The Reafons given under the foregoing 
Article, to Ihew the Probability of the Apo- 
ftles having left in Writing the Evidences and 
Do<5lrines of Chriftianity, and of their JDifci- 
plcs having preferred and tranfmitted thofe 
Writings to their Succeflbrs, will lead us to 
difcover the Improbability of any Books 
forged in the Names of the Apoftles efcaping 
Detedlion. For if it was neceflary for the 
Chriftians, even of the Apoftolick Age, to 
have in Writing the Diredions and Inftrufti- 
ons' of the Apoftles in many Points both of 
Faith and Praftiee, as is evident it was from 
almoft all the Epiftles, it was as neceflary for 
them to be aflured, that what was delivered 
to them in the Name of an Apoftle, was cer- 
tainly of his inditing. And this was to be 
known many Ways •, for furely we may have 
undoubted Proofs of fuch a one*s being the 
Author of fuch a Book or Letter, without 
having feen him write it with his own Hand, 
or having heard from his own Mouth that he 


[ 320 J 

wrote it. Ibe Jpofiles (faith Irenaus) iavi^ 
frft preached the Gofpelj dtWoereditafr^pafdrds 
to us in tU Scriptures. Now> as we hav^^tio 
Reafon to believe, from any Accbwit^- that 
can be depended upon, that any of thofe ftiled 
Apoftles, befidcs the * fix whofc Work% ' itt 
now have, ipft any thing in Writing, if 'thefe 
Words of Iraneus he taken to rdate to the 
whole Number of the Apoftles, it will feildw 
from them that even thofe Apoftfcs, whtt'wriSte 
nothing thcmfclves, did yet deliver to thar 
Children in Cbrift fuch Parts 6f the ScM^tilffe^ 
as had come to their Hands. In whidlfOfc 
thofe Scriptures, thus delivered and recom- 
mended by an Apoftle, muft have been allow- 
ed to have the fame Authority, as if they had 
been written by that Apoftle himfeif ; fincc 
He, as well as his Brethren who wrote them, 
was under the Infpiration and Guidance of 
that Holy Spirit, who, according to the Pro- 
mife of Chri/tf was to lead them into all Truth -, 
and therefore could not be ignorant whether 
the Matters contained in thofe Scriptures were 
true or falfe. But if the general Term Jpo- 


* There fix are M^tthew^ John, Feitr, Paul, JmtH 
and Judt; Mark and Luke, Uiopgh fuppofed with good 
R.eafon to be of the Number of the feventy-two D'ifciples, 
were not Apoftle*, in the ftrifi and limited Senfe of that 

[ 321 ] 

Jiles be limited to fuch of them only, as com- 
pofed the Writings, called by Irenaus the Scrip- 
tures. i the Meaning of his Words will be, that 
the Aperies, when they had preached the 
Gofpel, (r. e. the whole Syftctn of Fafts and 
Doftrines, which it was necefi&ry for Chri- 
(HaDS to know and believe) committed it to 
Writing for the Ufc of the Churches^ to fcr^'fc 
thenceforward, as he exprefles it, for thePr/- 
lar and Foundation of their Faith in Cbrift 
Jefus. Thofe Churches therefore were the 
jprpper -Evidences to prove the Apoftles to be 
the Authors of thofe Writings, which they 
received from them. And the Teftimony they 
gave to that Ma;tter of Faft, as, on the one 
hand, it does not appear to have been HaSle to 
any Suipicion of Fraud ; fo, on the other, it 
feemsei^jally free from any Probability of Er* 
rpr,.. or ^ifinformation. For they muft have 
had ceirtain Knowledge of the Charadter and 
CfRdit oC the Perfons whd delivered thofe 
Writings to them in the Name of any of the 
Apoftles *, and many other indubitable 

. Pfoofs, 

•iThus Tychicus, mentioned by St, Paul in his Epiftle 

to the E^ejutnst as ient by him,,. and moft probably the 

JBeai^ ofthit Eptfile^ and (^tha^ to the C«bffiamit where 

he is al^inditidaed as fent to them by that ApoMe, toge- 

' ' th«r 

f Chap. iv. 7, 8, 9. 

f 5»2 ) 

Etaofs, bcr'" "^"'"la/aiui internal^ ^^ ^^WWI 
t^M^m of ch... -. aggcnuiue, or to <M|||l[f^ 
tlie.Fallhoodi if (hey were not. ADoiwi0|| 
f(>r Inftance, the Epiflks whi^h now paTs un;\| 
der the Name of 3t. PmK to h^ve beo) re 
celved during his Life by the Churchips (^ 
which they were dire<5ted \ there arc in, all o| 
them many CircumftaiKes^ by wiiich tliej 
might certainly have known him to \>c. t\w A u, J 
thor. Theie Circumftances the K. . 
l^as either received or wrote any Letters t., IVi- J 
finels to or from his Acquaintance and ITrieads 
may eailly fuggeft to himfelf, and may, jfc eafU} 
«iiicover tlicm upon perufing thofe F 
But ic will, nay it muft be faid by thoic, vmiOi 
t^py thefe Scriptures to have beep written by^ 
the Apollles, whofe Names they bear, fhat 
they were forged after their Depths, and con-^j 
fequently could not have been received by the J 
Churches during their Lives. This, doubtlefs,J 
Infidels will fay, (for what elfe can they ^re-ij 
tend?) But I am at a Lofs to think how they^ , 
can fupport their Afiertion,fince not orly thq 


rl^er with Oitifimns ; Tjchicus^ I fay, find Onef.mvs wer/1 
cloubtlcfs nble to give fuch Prooft of St. /*/»i»/*s being'tfcr ' 
Author of thofe two Epiftlcs, as the Chrillians > l th&fe I 
Nations muft have been fatis lied with, coold it befuppofcd^' 
that they wanted otJier Reafons to convince them of it \ 
but this Suppofition, I believe, no one will think it rca« 
fouablc to make. 

f m 1 

TcftiHiohy of a!! the earlieft Writers of the 
Church, but common Scnfe itfelf is againft 
jlbem. For can kbc imagined that the Coritf 
ihianSt for Example, would have received as 
genuine an Epiftle, not dcliver'd to them till 
after the Death of the Apoftle -whofc Name it 
nc't and yet appearing from many Circum- 
tances therein mentioned, to have been writ- 
fn feveral Years before-, unlefs fuch an extra- 
rdinary Delay was very fatisfaftorily accounc- 
fbr ? Is it not to be prcfumed, that in a 
latter of fuch Importance, not only to them- 
tlvcs, but to all Chriftians, they woul 1 have 
demanded of the Perfon, who Hrft produced 
How he came by it ? How he knew it 
jas written by St. Paul, and addrels*d to 
'hem ? Why it was not fent at the Time it 
ras written, efpecially as it was evident, upoh 
ic Face of the Epiftle itfelf, that it was ^rii" 
rn upoh Occafion of fome Difturbances and 
^Irregularities crept into that Church, and in 
tfwer to fome QVrcftions propofed to that 
Apoftle, which required a fpeedy Rcfbrnlafion 
and Reply ? Thefe Queftlons and many more, 
l^^hich the Particulars referred to in theEpiftk 
lil have fuggefted, the Corinthians would in 
y Common 


f 324 ] 

common Prudcace have afl:eci > and ifrtlic 
Impollor could not (as it is 03 oft reafonabJe 
to conclude he could not), return a fatisfaftory 
Anfwcr Co thofe Queftions.; can we beiiev^ 
iht Corhiibians would have admitted, upon! 
tere Word, or even upon probable Prefumj 
tibns, anEpTftle, which, if they acknowkdj 
cd it tv) have been written by St. Pauly th< 
muft thenceforward have regarded as the ii 
fallible Rule of their Faith and Pradtice? Tl 
is fuppofing that the firft Chriftians (as ihei 
candid Adverfarics arc indeed apt to fuppofa 
afted with much kfs Wifdom and Ci| 
cumfpeftion, than any Men would now 
\xpon any momentous Affair in ordinary Lli 
And let it not be forgotten that Chriftianity,i 
its firft Appearance in the World, very decpl 
affeifled the Temporal Concerns of its Prpfci 
fbrs." The Profefllon of Chriftianity did nc 
then, as it does now in ifome Parts of the 
World, entitle Men to, and qualify them for 
Honour and Preferments, ChrijftLins, upoii 
barely confcfllng themfelves fucb, were many 
Times, without any Crime ;d!edgt:d, put im- 
mediately to Death i all the Advant^qj they 
reapt from a Life of Faith and Virtue, were 

c 325 J 

the Pbac^of a qiiiet ^oh(ciehce Here, and the 
H6pc& pf a blefled Immbrcarrty Hereafter. The 
j^ofeiffihg Chriftianiry therefore' ^as a Matter 
of Teinpdral bcliberatibn; And why is it 
ittore'hsafbn^ble to imagine tliat the People of 
thofe 'Ages Would give up all their worldly 
Viev(rs'a'n'dlnterefts, without being convinced 
thtt it i^sr worth their while to do it^ than it 
i^'tQitnaglne'thair'a Man in his Senfes, either 
of tliis dr'aiiiy paftAge, would without 'a ya- 
IdaSfe 06Mieiaiion furrender his Eiliate hx> a 
Sfri£r(gcr, M leave Kimfelf a Beggar ? I fay 
diiis'tcft^ie People, who fcem to confidar all 
tS^Iriittitive C)i^:iftians, either as Fools or 
^Qikves, 'Snthvifiaflis or Impoftors.v without 
bdiing itt>le io aOlgn any Redbn for their Op^. 
liicK' ;;bttl: 'that there have been. Fools and 
KJniftfei, 'Ehthufiafts and Impofbors, among 
ite' Pilolfeflbrs of all Religions whatfocver.^ 
But iti^cr to prove a Man a Fool, or afi 
EnthuBso^ )t^r embracing this or that Religion^ 
itxriil beireicflary to (hew in the firft Place*, 
thaciffi tbbk up his Faith without duly exa- 
min^ the Principles or Fsk^s, upon which it 
ii founded, that his Faith was not properly de- 
^tSK^bkirdm thbfe Fa^s or Principles, or thac 
•■■■ y 2 thofe 


thofc Principles and Fad:s were in chemrdyes 
abfurd and talfc. Thcfc Points, I fay,are.not 
to be prefumeel^ but proved. And with reg; 

40 theQucllion now under Gonfideratioa» Ufj' 
lefs it is pioved by pofitivc and undenial 
Evidence, that the Scriptures upon which tl 
Chriftians, who livtd immedij^tely after 
* iTimes of the Apoftles, built their Faith, we;cc 
cither forged or falfificd(that 13, forged inpajrt) 

'it cannot, I apprehend, be fairly condud 
that they a<ftsd like Fools or Madmen^ in far* 
fakifrg all, and taking up the Crofs of fbrh 
Let this Point be onct proved^ ^d it wUlrt 
dily be allowed that they took up^eirF'ai 

li without due Examination t f?ncG .it iSTuflt 
.lowned that if we, at this Diftaace, arq ,^ 
rfto difcovcr the Forgery, they, who ii.vcdjt 
v.the very Time when thofe Wrirings fiiii an- 
.'^|)earcd, could not have wanted the Means,, of 
"'"'ideteding it, had they tlipught proper 10 m^kcj 
Ufe of them. For as it, is «vident.fxoiXi,the( 
^^Teftimonies of the oldcft- Chrifl;ian..^ritefs, 
'i lome of whom lived • very, nt^s ;the^ . j4pje$.,^of 
•■■^he Apoftks tliemfclves, that thefe Scripturts 1 
- iivcre cited, read, and generally receive^ as 
■ ^genuine by the Chriilians of their Age, and 
1 . - even 

[ 327 ] 

even before, they mufl'have been forged, either 

rntheXife-time of the Apoflles, or very foon 

after their Deaths. That they were forged and 

nerally received as autheniick, while the 

poftlcs were yet living ; no body, I imagine, 

Vill venture to afTert, who considers the many 

Gircumftances and Fa^s therein related, con* 

cerning the Apoftles themfclves, and number- 

iefs other Peop!^ then living -, any one of 

which being falfifted, muft have utterly dc- 

■ftroycd the Pretence of their having been 

compofed by an Apoftle, whom fome ot tbofe 

Scriptures affirmed to have been under tl^i 

Guidance and Infpiration of the Spirit of Truth. 

*lf they Were forged and piiblillbed foon after 

''ihe Deaths of the Apoftles, there was ftill 

^reat Danger of the Fraud's being dete<5Ved, 

■^IfTiot by many living Wicnefles, yet by. fuch 

"If Traditidn of Fafts and Do^rints, whether 

^ral or written, as, if it had been found toclafli 

^^^ith that fuppofcd Gofpel or Epiilie, muft 

^Ihavc rendered its Authenticity fufpededi un- 

•^^tfs fapporttd by better Evidence than the-barc 

Name of an Apoftle prefixed to it. And if it 

''could be fuppofed that the bare Name of an 

Apoftle was, in thofe Times, of Weight fuffi- 




(f 3*8 01 

cknt to eiUbU(h the Authority of any, Wfitr, 
iog, though othci^il.^ li<>bl^ to Sufpicion \ 
hpw CJicpfr it tu ^fs Ehac thofc cuoQinglmpof' 
t9f% who wrote the ,Goipcl&^fj^/<3Ti and, 
Lukct did not puWifli them urdcr the vciera-«j. 
ble arid <ill-faivf^J;i tying Namts of the Apo^lrtM 
II" thcfe ijcriptures th^refiye were forged ^^hJi 
puWiihed in cithe/of the above-mcntionedPc'i| 
riods (and for the Reafons before given, 
Forgery could not have been of » laftcc-Pate^l 
U'is highly improbable, chat the Irnpc^ro^i 
ftiould have ffcaped Detedionj ^nd had i^ 
been dete<^ed, it is equally improbable, tha^fj 
Chriftiarts, who ilaked their All upon tlw Trutlt < 
of the Gofpel, Ihould receive as genuine, and; 
acknowledge as -divinciy inspired, Wpiingi^ 
-which were Mown or even fufptiScd to b& 
^Mged. But it will perhaps be urged-, that 
tht Cheat was difcoyercd and known only bya, 
f^w of the wifcr SoTti who for the Advancac 
mentofa goodCawfci thinking it at leaft.a 
venid Sin, a Fraud, which might even be 
ftiled^wxj, to impofe upon their weaker Brtt 
thren, recommended to them, under the Name 
6f an Apoftle, a religious Treatiie, which tend- 
ed'dnly to improve their Piety, and flrengthen 


rii^V^faklv. • fitifc this Sufpiti^^t' ipi^ttt. 
as grouiWIefsand iitiprobable as any ^fCteetog^J 
m^ii if It be confidered, that the AbtfKdrs, ^s-" 
welt as the Authors of the Forg^f y, muft haVfe' 
been Chriftians -, (ChfifliiansI mean', as coritfa-i- 
^iftinguifhed (rom-y&wSy Heathens and Here- 
ticks,) and Men df Gbpacities and' Knowledge'* 
— foperior to the Vulgar. As Chriftiart^ they^ 
Bcbuld not, in thofe Ages of Perfeeution, hav^ 
ainy worldly Intereft in promoting the Cauf^ 
<jf Chriftianity, and therefore could K^Ve no 
Motive to induce them to impolc upon theif^ 
Bretliren, but aPerfuafion that it was lawftrf 
at "Icaft to do E'Cily that Good might come on ii ? 
A Prindplc, which as Men of Parts anti- 
Knowledge, they could not but be fcnfible wa$ 
miwot-thy of a Difcipic of the Lord of Trutlr 
tod' Rigfeteoufnefs i and which is exprefsly 
condemned in the Epiftle to the Rom^au *^ 
which- Kpiftle therefore cannot be fuppofed t^ 
have been forged by Men, who acknowledged 
that Principle, and proceeded upon it. Befidt^'y 
as iar-che greater Number of the Books uf 
Scripture contain Fads,a^ well asiPrec^tfi-and 
Dodtrincs, thcfe Impoftors, .however well- 

intentioned, could not be affurcd that thdr 
Impofhire would not turn more to the Prcju- 
dibe, -than 'lAa vantage of Chriftianity 5 i^nce 
thougkdiey" m ight thj,nkj themfd vc% feoirc in 
the Aoquicfccnce of their weaker Brethren, and 
the Fidelity of their Partners in tlic Fraud, 
tlifcy/hadiReafon to apprehend, the Zeal. and 
AfaitiEJes:qf their open and avow'd Et\emies, 
{^icxtHefls^ jfews^nd Hereticks i who wanting 
neither . the Ivlcans nor IncUoatigo .00: ocainiac 
the Pj;iDciple& xif a Religioiv 3¥hich >yith thcit 
utmpft Power they endeavoured. CQ. iubv^rtg^H 
mightivery probably diiirovcrxheir Impo^lurep™ 
aad cwould ijettainiy . take, every Ad vantage^. ^ 
whict;iikrch>a E>ifcav£ry :caul(i furaifb jthcnii^fl 
with,: Dt. decrying ^ Rcligieoii':whkiblthty 
fnighf theni sv;ith fpme Colour h^ve AiggeAsd^jH 
COCH not bcmainuined without Frawd, This; 
Dafi^er» isrhich wjththe fame Penetration thac 
gabled them to diicover a Cheat diat had pal-.- 
fed upon the Vulgar^ they muft undoubtedly 
liffiTBfarcfecn, would, it may be fuppofed, 
hav<: chackcd their Zeal* and rendered theta. 
f autioqry how they ventured upon an impof' 
tdre* thCi'Succef^ of which was fb yscry preri 

C J3*?1 ] 

itid'i uHz bvnifiz 5rj ion HMrt^ S^n'^ii'^llr 
Snafcfe'thereiare^rro Motive can be affigned'^! 
pfi Force fulftcitnLtO induce any Chriftians of : 
fiwfc Times, cither to contrive orfupport*i3 
Foi^ery of this Kind", "fince had any of thofeJj 
Scriptures atmbuted to the Apoftles, and cgi^ 
ipcciaJIy the Epiftles of St. Peul, been forged i* 
and publiftied fo early, as the Writings of thcA 
mofl: ancient Fathers Ihcw them to have becri-^ 
l^nown andxecaved, it is next to ioipoilibie' 
that the Fraud ibouid have cfcaped Dete<5lion;lj 
and fince the Chriftians of thofc Ages nauft, in,- 
Cpnfequence of Cuch a pete(5lion, have neccf-ir 
farily difowned and rejeifbed thofc Scriptures acts 
f^urious, may we not from their liaving acrw 
knowledged them as authentick, conclude forv 
the feveral Reafons above given, that the A^ 
ftles and Evangelifts were die undoubted Aua^ 
thors of (he Wfitings now received und«(a 
their Names? iiaro 

I' H"i) 
But' allowing the Cliriftiams of thofe earlyij 
Ages to haye been able to difcovcr the g^ 
Duine Works of the Apoftles, from any fpUf^ 
tjpus Writings forged in their Names; and 
allpwipE? thofe Books, now received into the- 

fi. 1 VI . '_ ' Canon 



of the Holy Scriptures, to hare been 
written by thofe Authors, whofe Names they- 
bcar \ ic oniiy be demanded how we at this 
Xime can be aiTured, due, among the great 
Number which have fincc been afcribed to 
tkem, tliey wrote only thefc ? or that in fuch 
aSSucccflaon of Ages tliefe arc come down to 
i>s pure and uncorrupted ? To the firft of ih« 
QHcdions I anfwer, that as the Chriflmns 
thofe early Ages muft be acknowledged for 
c<wnpetent Judges of the Authority of any* 
Books or Writings afcribed to the Apoftlesi 
fuch Book or Writing as they allowed to 
genuine, hath aa indifputable Title m 
Gharader. But to this Title no other Writ 
ings afcribed to the ApoAJH, befide» ihofi 
now received into the Canon of Script\ii'^, 
ptttcnd i fince of moft of them, efpec/il^y -tkl 
felfe GofpeJs, we find no imftntion till the 
fourth Century. 


For an Anfwer to the fccbnd Q^eftion^' 
fhall refer the learned Reader tc?^3r. Whlt^^'i 
Examen Variantium Lefflonum IX MHIH^ ^\ 
liihed at the End of his fecortd Voliim^ 

• gfc7f^iV/ji's Prcfatoiy Difcouric to the four Gofpcla, 

[333 ]- -^ 

Arrndtatfons t» thr N^wfT^fftflAwmv ^We W^ 

wj^ffiif^ I'^itodsoa the €lergyi e#^ the<^hiirch 6f 
i^lDs^^'iaid lb girat a Scre^ivill l>e iof- 
li|||4fk«S«riB* tff thei^ Caifev rinrgraateft Part ' 

n$m(jofec||Qli2, £tith} thae karoed Writer, iitber ' 

V/u v.z "^'iior.-A ■-•'.■ * v-.-, ;■:« .n -.■:..>, 
; 4aQMii»«fi^Ii)<:otofidering.tiM :gi^ Lcngiih^ 

^nmfe wlicibwIaQd -idK^umbot of Copite 4U|4} 
T u tffl Miartiu ttot bji'oje faeoKmndi: of th^ let 
i%l«a'^KMMi*' ^Mlft:ziqiay£rran ihonald«iK«««f! 

9gf^fWhi^h»Vf^ helped to IBwkUv the £1111x6^* 
varioos Readings ; yet confiderio^omthfc lotfaep : 
hand' iho? Number of HcreCcs,' that have 
(ft^ 9^^ (e»ay-: Age ^ChriftiflAicjx^ «U <>f 
'!^tiyd}$9|Stcnd^ toder^tfadr OpmoAsfniai* 
tUt^ctifiiEaipas K^o^fidenRg ajf(b the 'WbtcbtbU , 
P^^/k^^^ and.iiM^m, ithofe airowedi 
^9l^|)ic4. cf the Gofpel^ «rho, as appears from 

[ 3^4 1 

tlicir Writings, were no Strangers to the Scrip- 
cures, it would be a ftill greater Wonder thit 
any material Alteration fliould have been made 
in them & fincc whoever had attempted any 
luch Alteration, whether Chriftian, Hcretick, 
JeWy or Heathen, could not but know it was 
impoflible it fhould cfcapc the OblervatJon 
of fo many Eyes, as were continually pitying, 
though with different Views, into thefe impor- 
tant Writings. And this fcems to me thb 
only Rcafon for their having paflcd uncor- 
rupte<J through the treacherous Hands of tTie 
Church of Romey who had them fo long in 
licr keeping. She was reft rained from altering 
tile Scriptures, by the Fear of being detefted 
by the Eaftcrn Churches, who dJfowned hei 
Authority; and yet there is little Qucftion 
te made that flie would have doneif, had lhft| 
not fallen upon that lets dangerous, though 
.more abfurd Expedient of locking them up 
from the Laity, and afTuming to hcrfelf the 
^ioie Right of expounding thttn r A Right 
which fhV hath alTerted and ' maintained whh 
all the Artifices and Cruelty that'-Ffaud and 
.Tyranny could invent. This Expedient how- 
.eyer| tho* it' hath hitherto -prcrerred" Popery, 


t ^15 1 


Iiajth f^vcd tlie Scriptures, and with them cfe 

ftiaflity.. For confidering the Duration, Ex- 

^Cl^t, and Abfolutenefs of her Power in the 

Weft, had Jhe altered the Text of Scripture, 

according to the Comments fhe had made up- 

cm it, Chriftians (could there have been any 

really fuch at this Time, and in thefe Parts of 

th?. World) muft have been reduced to con- 

.Cend with the Church of Rome, not from the 

Scriptures, but /or the Scriptures themfelves. 

And whatAdvantages Infidelity and Scepticifm 

would have had in the mean time, is eafy, jpD 

^fna^ei-fince they arc bold enough to dlf- 

vpucc even now the Genuincnefs of thofe Scrip- 

. Cures, which the very Perfons, whofe Doc- 

>trines arc the moft oppofite to them, have 

sbecA neceilitated to acknowledge and main- 

ti t- M* ^ AM now to confider what Argu- 
iX^eats can be offered to induce us to give 
•Credit to the Teftimony of the Apoftlcs and 

-Two Qualities are requifite to cftablifh 
the Credit of a Witncfs, viz, a perfcit Know- 

ledge of rlie Faft he give* Tefllmony to ; and 
%>faur«uvd uoblcmiUvxi Cbar36ler. 

After what has been faid in the preced- 
ing Parts of thi»- Difcourfe ocmcernipig the 
Ev^idcnccsof the ReforrcdTofi cf *Jefiis Orri^^ 
it will, I hope^ kn. granted th/it the ApotlJm 
were duly qualified to be Witncfil^s^ in point 
ot Knovviedge of the Fa6t, which ihey are 
hroughc to give Teftimooy cou it remaios 
then that we enquire into dieir iChacac- 
irn» -i^Mvhich may very cWarly be oc^Jc^ed 
rrom the Tenor of their Lives ^Ind Condu^,' 
a$ Pseachers of the Gofpd, and the IHinQr' 
of the Dodtrincs they taught j not to infiil vk ' 
Favour of thera upon the ConcJufion, which ^ 
may be drawn irom their very JSocmicsnot^ 
hav^ing been able to fix upon them any Suin 
or Blcmilh, which they themfeives havi not 
-acknowledged and iamenrecL' ^>^ 

- '5n' * '?"<^ ^^ 

i ^'ifEift Lives thtn, after tlicy had embraced ' 
Chriftianity, were not only irrcprOM:|»biei but ^ 
holy i and their Condu(5t» as Preachers of the- 
Gofpfcj, difmtcrdied, roble, and genetfotis, ia' 
the. mpH exalted Degra^i . fgr^ thcy.dotoonjy v 
>||Wil quitted 



[ 3^T. ]i 
;ir Houfcs, their Lands, their Oo 
cupacions, their Friends, Kindred, Parents, 
Wives and Children, but their Countries alfo, 
every Purfuit, atid every Endearment of Life, 
ia ordt;^. \q propagate, with infinite Labour, 
through innumerable DifficuitieSj and with the 
Mtinoft Dangers, in every Corner of the known 
Woarki, th& Salvation of Mankind j certain 
of meeting, in. ev?fy new Region, with new 
^inemies andOppofcrs •, and yet requiring of 
Bjic^i., who through their Preaching were be- 
cpijjc their Friends and Brethren, nothing- but 
a ber^ Subfiilence; and fometimes laboui*i 
ing. with their owr> Hands, to fave them even 
fi:q.m chat light and reafonable Burthen ^ dif*- 
claiming for themfelves all Authority, Pre-i 
eminence, and Power ; and teaching tluife ig- 
norant and fitperftitious People, who, taking 
them for Gods> would have worfhiped them, 
and facrificed to them, that they were Men 
like themfelves, and Servants of that One 
Qod^.dto whom alone Worlhip was due. 
Would Impoftors, who are moft commonly 
intcrcftcd, vain-glorious and ambitious, have 
«&cd in this Manner ? No certainly j but it 
may be faid, Enthufiafts -wouW. Be it fow^^ 



But how" cSi it be made appear that tli&W 
J)oftles were Enthufiafts ? UCbHJi did not fife 
from the Dead, mofl affuredly he did not 
preach to them tfter his Crucifixkm ! Upol^, 
which Suppofition, I apprehend it will be vert 
difficult to account for their retitrning to their 
Faith in that Matter, whom in his Diftrefs 
they had abandoned and difowned. But ifl 
.Chrrji did rife from the Dead, and did, afr^^ 
Jlis Refurre<ition, converfe with his Apoftles* I 
fuppofe it will be cafily granted, that dni^ 
had fu/ticier^ Reafon for believing in ' hinltiV 
-^nd for afting in Obedience to the Command 
given them by him, to preach the G«fp 
ttliroughout the World, efpccially when the 
found themfelves fo well qualified for that ir 
porranc Commiflion, by the miraculous Fa 
.«s conferred upon them by the Holy Gl 
.and particularly the Gift of Tongues, foapps 
rently and fo wifely calculated to carry on thu 
.great, thatuniverfal Service. If this, I (ay, wa 
the Caie, then furcly the Apoftlcs were no Eii 
thuftafts, fmce they neither believed thcmfelv^ 
without reafonabic Proof, nor pretended 
Inipiration and a divine CommifTion, witi^l 


[339 1 

It. being able to give to others fufficienc 
evidences of both *. 

Of all the admirably pure and truly divine 
Do<5lrines taught by the Apoftles, I ihall con- 
fider only two, as more peculiarly relative tp 
the prefent Argument ; and they are, the Ei'y 
lief of a Judgment, to come, and the Obliga- 
tion of fpeaking Truth. That God vnll judge 
;.lhe World by Je/us Chriji, is a neceffary Article 
^f) the.Chriftian Faith ; and as fuch, is flrrong- 
ly .and frequently inculcated in the Writings 
j)i .the Apoftles and Evangciills, of which it 
■■k-iieedlefs to procure Inftances. And that 
^Khriilians were required by thefe Preachers of 
^^ioUnefs to fpeak Truth upon all Occafions, 
the fojlowing Texts will clearly evince. In 
Epitfi iv. 25. the Apoftle commands that, 
fKfiing away Lyings they fpeak every man Truth 
with, bis Neighbour. And again, Cobjf.'nu^. 
ml one to another. Nay, that even the 
Tan who lyes through Zeal for the Glory of 
rod, is, according to their Eftimation, to 
?e accounted a Sinner, may be inferred from 
Words in Rom. iii. 7, S.s-^^ If the Truth 
Z of 

* See Mr. Lockr^i Chap, on Enlhditfm. 

of God "bath more abounded through my hye unto 
bis Glory ^ u by yet am 1 alfo judged as a Sinner ? 
And not rather as we he Jlanderoujlyreportedy and 
as fame affirm that we fayy Let us do Eiil that 
Good may come ? fVbofe Damnation isjufi. That 
theApoftlcs thcmfelvcs were fully perfuaded 
of the Truth of thofc two Propofitions, no 
body can deny, who will call to mind that 
they chofe to fufFer Pcrfecution and Death it- 
felf, rather than not /peak the Things which 
they bad feen and heard -^ and that, // in this 
Life only they had Hope^ they were of all Men 
the moji miferable. Now, that any Men, who 
firmly believed that God would punifh them 
for fpeaking an Untruth, though for the Ad- 
vancement of a good Caufe, fhould, at the 
Hazard of their Lives, and without any Pro- 
fjpeft of Gain, or Advantage, affert Fa(fls, which 
at the fame time they knew Co be falfe ; (hould, 
for Inftance, affirm, that they faw and con- 
verfed with Jefus Chrijl after his Refurrcflion, 
knowing or believing that he was not rifcn 
From the Dead, and yet expeft to be judged 
hereafter by that very fame fefu^^ Is too im- 
probable to gain Credit with any, but thof<f 
great Believers of Abfurditics the Infidels and 

t S4i J 

IJ. 25. But beildes the many irifailiJalc 
Toketls and Evidences of the .Integrity of 
he Apoftlcs and Evangeliftsj that may be 
oHc^bed fVom their Lives and Doftrinesi there 
re iaifb iti their Writings feveral internal Marks 
f their Veracity : Some! of which I Ihall liovy 
adeaVour to point out, confining myfelf to 
icli Patts of their Writings as belong to the 
refent Bubjeft. 

T ti E Cbntradiflibnis arid Inconfiftenciei 
rbich fome imagine they have difcovered iti 
he feVangclital AcfcoUnts of th» Refurreilioni^ 
laVc been urged as Arguments for fettirig afide 
lie- Authority j and irejefling the Evidence o£ 
'he Gofpcls. But thefe fuppofed Cbnti^dic- 
liofts -having been confldered ih the foregoing. 
Parti of ^his biicoiirfe J and haying, upon a 
cjofe Infpeiftibn, arid compai-ing the feveral 
NairrativeS 'With eath other, been Ihewn to be^ 
Ihadowy iiid imaginary, ariid to lie no deeper 
Uian the Superficies and Surface of the Words : 
We iiried riot be afraid of admitting thefe Jp- 
fiarancei df Intonjijiency', fince frpni them it 
iaay be inferred, to the Advantage of the 
Z 2 Evan- 

*£ 34^ 1 

F-vangc lifts, that they did not write in Co/nert. 
For had they agreed together upon giving m 
Account of the Rcfurrcdion of Ckri/l \ and 
each of them taken, by Allotment, his fcvc- 
ral Portion of that Hiftory^ it is probable 
they would fomewhcre or other have dropt 
fomc Intimations, that tlie Particulars omitted 
by them were fupplied by others ; and that 
fuch and fuch Parts of their Narrations were 
to be connefted with fuch and fuch Fafts, re- 
lated by their Brethren ; or they would have 
diftinguiihed the feveral Incidents by fach 
ftrong and viHble Marks, and Circumftanccs 
of Time and Place, ^c, as might have been 
fufficient at firfl: fight, to difcovcr their Qe- 
der, and keep them from being confoondcd 
with each other : Some, or all of chefe Things^ 
I fay, they would probably have done, had 
they written in Concert. Arvd doubtlefs thejr 
would, nay they muft have written in Con- 
cert, had they endeavoured to impofe upon 
the World a cumingJy-devifed FaHe % and hsd 
they not trufted to the Truth and Notoriety i 
the Fads they related. Truth, like liami 
oftentimes negtefts Appearances. .Hyip<STl 
ffid Impoflurc are always guarded. 

'. vA-Ni 

C 343 ] 

A N D as from chefe feeming Difcordances in 
their Accounts, we may conclude they did not: 
write in Concert, fo from their agreeing in the 
principal and moft material Fafts, we may in- 
fer that they wrote after the Truth. ♦ In JG- 
pbilin and Theodoftus, the two Abbrcviarors of 
Dio CaJJius, may be obferved the like Agree- 
ment and Difagreement j the one taking notice 
of many Particulars, which the other pafles 
over in Silence, and both of them relating the 
chief and moft remarkabk Events. And as 
rfirom their both frequently making ufe of the 
very fame Words and Exprefllons, when they 
fpeak of the fame Thing, it is apparent that 
they both copied from the fame Original •, fo I 
:bcUevc no botly was ever abfurd enough to ima- 
gine that the Particulars mentioned by the one, 
were not taken out o( Dio Cajfms^ merely be- 
caufe they are omitted by the other. And ftill 
more abfurd would it be to fay, as fome have 
lately done of the Evangciifts, that the Fads 
related byThcodoJius are contradided by Xiphilin^ 
b^caufe the latter fays nothing of them. But 
againft the Evangelifts, it fcems, all Kinds of 
Arguments may not only be employed but ap- 
^ Z 3 plauded. 

* Vide Dk) Cftf. Hiil. edit. L«ancI*T. Fol. Hinov. i6o6. 


[ 344 1 

pbuded. The Cafe however of the facred 
Iliilorians is exaflly parallel to that of t^ixk 
two Abbreviators. The latter ej^traded the 
Particulars related in their feveral Abridgments 
from the Hiflory of Dio CaJfmSy as the former 
drew the Materials of their Gpfpels from the 
I^ife of Jefui Ckriji. The two ^^ft tranfcribed 
their Relations from a certain Colle<ftioo of 
Fads contained in one and the fame Hiftory ^ 
the four firfl from a certain Colledion of 
Fads contained in the Life of one and the fame 
Perfon, laid before them by that Spirit,, which 
was to lead them into all Tr4th i. aad why tlip 
Fidelity of the four Traiifcribers ihould. be 
called in Queftion for Reafons which hoM 
equally ftrong againft the two who are not 
fufpeded, I leave thofe to determine who lay 
fuch a Weight upon this Obje^rion, • 

A N OT H E R Mark of the Veracity of the 
Evarigelifts appears in their naming the Time, 
the Scene of Aftion. theAdors, and theWi5- 
nefles, of moft of the Fads -mentioned by 
thfem i which I; (hall give a reniarkaWe In- 
ftance of in one relating to thcprefcnt Subj/ed, 
the Refurredion ; viz. the guarding the Se- 
pulcbi?e 4>f Cbrijl. TJ^ Time, was that of the. 

C 345 ] 
CelebratiGin of the Paffover, the moft folemij 
Fc^val of the Jews ; the Scene was in Jeru- 
'fakmy the Metropolis oijudea-y and at that 
Time crouded with Jews, who came thither 
from all Parts of the Earth to keep the Paff- 
ovcr: The Adlo^s and Witneffes were the 
Chief Priefts and Elders, Pontius Pilate the 
Reman Governor, and the Roman Soldiers who 
jguarded the Sepulchre. Now if the Story of 
guarding the Sepulchre had been falfe, it is 
not to be doubted but the Chief Priefts and 
Elders, who are faid to have obtained the 
Guard, and fealed the Door of the Sepulchre, 
<#ould by fome authentick Ad have cleared 
'themielvei of the Folly and Guilt imputed to 
lAem by the Evangelift, who charges' thfe 
' Chief Priefts 'with having bribed the Sdldiers 
to tell not only a Lye, but an abfurd Lye, that 
carried its own Confutation with it •, the Sol- 
dieritv with- confefiing a Breach of Difcipiline, 
tktt by^iliB military Law was punifhable with 
-Deistb^V' *nd the Governor, with the Sufpicibn 
■ at kaft: of being capable of overlooking ib 
■Winods ACiixne* at the Inftigation of the Chief 
Plij^ J^. All thefo feveral Charges Upon 
t^ i^oA/t Qovernmenc of Judea, might have 
iXfftV atafwered an Acteftation from 

[ 346 r 
tlw Chief Pri efts fctting forth that they ncVic''. 
demanded a Guard to be Art at the Scpulchrr, 
confirmed by the Teftionony of all the Roman 
Officers and Soldiers (many of whom were 
probably at Jerufalem when this Gofpel was 
written) denying that they were ever upon that 
Guard, This not onJy the Reputation of the 
Chief PrieO s, but their avowed Malice to Cbrifi^ 
and Averfion to hisDo<5lrine and Religion re*-: 
quired \ and this, even upon the Suppofition 
of the Story of guarding the Sepulchre being 
true, they would probably have done, had they 
been at Liberty to propagate and invent what 
Lye they pleafed : But that a Guard was ftt 
at the Sepulchre, was in all Likelihood^ fcy r 
the Difperfion and Flight of the Sold icfs into: 
the City, too well known in Jerufalem for • 
them to venture at denying it j for which 
Reafon, as I have before obferved, they were 
obliged to invent a Lye confiftcnt with that 
known Fa^, however abfurd and improbable 
it might appear when it came to be confidered 
and eTcarriined. Now as the Report put intO' : 
the Mouths of the Roman Soldiers by the Chief 
Prlefts and Elders, is no Proof of the Falfe^ 
hood of this Faft, but rather of the contrary, 
fo doesthc naming the Time, the Scene, the 


r 34>i ■ 

A^ftors, and the Witneffes, form" a very tlrong 
Prefumption of its being true, fince no Forgerr- 
of Lyes willingly and wittingly furnifhes ouf^ 
the Means of his own Detedion •, efpecially 
when weconfider that this Story is related by ■ 
that Evangelift-, who is faid to have written-'' 
neareft the Time, and to have compofcd his 
Gofpel for thofe Chriftians who dwelt in Judea, ' 
many ^f whom then living were probably ax 
Jerttfalem when this Thing was done. 

'Th4 {lri(ft Attachment and Regard to/ 
Truth, of all the Evangelifts, is farther ma- } 
nifefted in their relating of themfclvcs and their J! 
firctliren many Things, that in the Opinion*if 
of the World could not but turn much toii 
their Dilhonour and Difcr edit. Such as theki^ 
denying and deferting their Mailer in his Ex-: ■* 
trcmity, and their Dulnefs in not ilnderlland-.l 
ing his Prediftions about his rifing from thefci 
Dead, tho* cxprefied in the plaineft and moft :f. 
intdligibb Words. A Man's Conf<?fIioa ar^j 
gainft himfelf, or his Friends, is generally.g 
pr^fumed to be true. If the Evangelifts thercT^^ 
fore be allowed to be the Authors of thofe ■{ 
Gcifpela,i¥iiich bear their '^^jjom^ pr. if thofq,^ 

.•sm""" :i 


T ■>!!, 

' t'Mt'A. 



[ 348 ] 
Writings arc fuppofed to have been forged by 
fome Friends of Chriftianity, they muft ia 
thefe laftances at lead be acknowledged to re> 
late the Truth, till fame other good Reafon, 
befides that of their Attachment to the Truth, 
can be afllgned for their intjbrting fuch dif* 
graceful and difhonourable Accounts of tbem- 
felves and their Friends. 

But there is nothing that fets the Veracity 
of the facred Writers fo much above allQuefi' 
tion and Sufpicion, as what they tell us^boat 
the low Condition* the Infirmities, the Sul^ 
fcrings, and ihe Death of the great AudKtf 
and Finilher of their Faith, Cbrift^Jefm. He 
hungered, they %, he was poor, fo poor, as 
not to havt where, to lay his Head ; he wepCy 
hid hinjfclf for fear of the Jews.vrhot fougfae 
to kill hira •, and when his Hour drew ni'g/i^ 
he was dejefted, forrowful, excee^t^ forrewful^ 
rjen unto Death : He prayed, that the Gup of 
Affliction, which was then mixing for himi- 
might, if poflible, pafs from him. And tho* 
he vi7& Jirengtbened by an Angel from Heaven, 
yet, being in an Jgony^ he frayed more eam^ly, 
s;^d his- Sweat was as it were great .Drops . pfi 


[ 345 1 

Blifod falling down to- the Grpuni. After thi^, 
lie was feized like a common Matefador, a<- 
bandoned by all his Followers and Friends \ 
Jed bound, firft to Jnms, then to Caiapbas, then 
to Pilate, then to Heradi then back again to 
Pflate ; and laftly, after enduring a t!ioufan4 
Infults and Indignities, af^er having been buf- 
feted, fpit upon, and fcourgpd, was carried to 
fuflfer upon the Crofs the infi^mous and pamful 
Death of offending Slavey, apd the vileft Cri- 
minals.- And yet this hungry, houfelefs, fuf- 
fering, dying 7i?/2^/, is by the fame Writer? 
faid to hare fed a Multitude of many Thou- 
fitada with five Loavesand twoFiihes ; to have, 
€pmmaiided the Fifli of the Sea to provide 
l^ni; Money to pay the Tribute; to have beeii. 
xniAifl;er'd linto by Angels, j to have been o- 
^^d,>by j^e Winds and Seas •, to hav^; hid 
in lufnfejlfi and to have imparted to his Dif^ 
cipleSt Authority over unclean Spirits, rnd 
the<Pc)i^ oi healing all Manner of Dii- 
eifk^i to have raifcd the Dead, by a Touch, 
{l,^on}/4 to have been able to have obuincd 
frpm (5|od^w^om.he called, his Father,an Army, 
of inorc. tha» twelve Legions of Angels -, a 
Jtarc^f Atfiigiait no^ only to have refcued hint^ 


[ 350 ] 

Jrom the Sufferings and Death he deprecated, 
bnt to have acquired him the Empire of the 
World : And laftly, as an Tnftance of his be- 
ing endued with a Power fuperior even to De- 
ftruclion icfelf, he is faid to have rifen from 
the Dead i to have afcended into Heaven, and 
to fit down for ever at the Right-hand of God, ' 
From thefe Accounts it is plain, that the Cha- 
rafter of 'je[us Cbriji^ as drawn up by the 
Evangclifts, is a Mixture of fuch feeming In- 
confiftencies, fo wonderful a Compofition of 
Weaknefs and Power, Humiliation and Glory, 
Humanity and Divinity, that as no mere Mor- ' 
tal could pretend to come up to it, fo the 
'Wit of Mar. would never have conceived and 
propofcd fuch a one for the Founder of any* 
Scft or Religion. The Sufferings and Crols 
of Chrijl were, as St, Paul confeiTes, to ihi 
Jews a Stumbling-Iflccky and Foclijhnefs to tbe 
Greeks. Ihtjews^ it is well known, exp-61- 
fd a temporal Deliverer, an earthly Prince, a' 
■glorious conquering Mefllah i and were there-' 
lore fo fcandatized at the low Condition and 
abjed Fortunes of Jefus^ fo ill-proportioned, 
as they imagined, to the fublime Chara<5ter of 
iJjc Son of God, that upon Account of thoic 
"**^"* humaa 


[ 35» ] 
iuman Blemiihes only, they rcjefted a!I tbe 
miraculous Evidences of his divine Miflion, 
and put hirn to Death as a Blafphemer, for 
taking upon him the Name, without the tem- 
poral Splendor and Power of the Meffiah. That 
the Difciples of J^Jus were tainted with the 
Jike Prejudices with their unbelieving Bre- 
,thren the Jewi^ is very natural to believe, and 
may certainly be colIe£led from the Writings 
of the Evangelifts, from whom we learn, that 
when convinced by his Miracles, his Doc- 
,' trine, and his Life, they had acknowledged 
!m to be the McfTiah, they were fo offended 
what he told them of his Sufferings and 
)eath, that they refufed to believe him j * fl»i 
*eter took him^ and began to rebuke bim, fayin^^ 
Be it far from tbeey Lord^ this Jhall not he unto 
»^ 'The defpicable Condition, the Suffcf- 
gs and Death of Chriji, being admitted,^! 
think it impoflible to give one probable Rea- 
fqn.for fuppofing that the Apoftles and the 
rEvangelifts invented the other more than hu- 
«nan Part of his Charaiften Had he wrought 
|no Miracles, had he not rifen from the Dead, 
L-thcir Religious Prejudices, as they w&rcjews, 


* Matt. xr't. 22. 

t iSi J 
tnuft have wlth-held them for ever from ic* 
knowlcdging him for their Mefllih ; and yet 
it is notorious, that not only they themfclveS 
acknowledged him as fuch, but endeavoured 
to perfuade theit unbelieving Brethren, thai 
God bad made that fame Jefus, whom tbty hai 
irucified, both Lord and Chriji. This was the 
great Article^ the FounJatioa-Stonr, upon 
whicli the whole Superllruiflure of Chriftianicy 
was raifed i and to prove this Article, they 
appealed to his Miracles, as ft) many Evi- 
denced of his diviiie Miffion. But here modern 
Unbelievers {{oi Celfus^ who lived neareft thofej 
Timesi admits all the Miracles of Cbriji, but 
imputtfs them to his Skill in Magick) come irt 
with their Sufpicion's, and pretend to call in 
C2[ueflion. the Accounts given us of the/e Mi- 
racles in the Evangclifts, which, without any 
Proof, they are plcafed to take for Forgeries: m 
Jn Anfwer to "which, (not to infift upon the 
rmpro'hability that any Man, or any Set ot 
Men in their Senfes, fliould venture to appeal 
to their Enemies for the Truth of Fa<5ls, which 
they themfelves knew to be falfe, efpecially 
when thofe Enemies had not only the Mean? 
them, but .the Inclination and 



of deteding 



t 313 ] 
Powct to punifti them for theif tmpofbufes : 
Nottoinfift, I fay, upon this Topick, noif 
upon that which I juft now mentioned of iti 
b:ing impoffible to affign any Motive that 
could, induce them to be piWty of fuch a For- 
gcryi) I fliall only obfervcj that allowing them 
to hat^c been fo' fliamfelefs and fb Wick"ed as tcr 
invent and propagate a Set of Lyfes irt order 
to get Credit to their Matter and his Religion *• 
it is ftrange they Ihould not go one Step far- 
ther, and fupprefs at leaftj if not deny his Irt- 
firmidesi his SafFerings, and his Crucifixion^ 
attd fo remove that Stumbling-block, whicit 
they, cotrld not but kno^ would be the great- 
eft Obftacle to the Advahcem^t of theit Reli-' 
gion^ as well atnong the GentiUi as the J^Si 
But it will be urged pcrhapSj* that his Sufier- 
iftgs and Crucifixion Virerc too pubHck to btf 
denied' i attd fb, fay the Evahgelifts, were 
inoft t)f his Rfiraclcs : And this undoubtedly 
was tlffi Reiafon why they were acknowledged 
By Ciljkr, Taftippofe therefore that the E* 
Vangeliftsi for Fear of being detefted j woultf 
confefi TmthSi which manifeftly prejudiced' 
their ^feitDefign of prftpagatirig the Fajtli iri 
Cbrifi 7<f/w,^ and yet would lidt by the' farite* 


[ 354 } 


wM« xl 

I^far of t)ete^i6h' be reftraincd'frorri^ rcfctj ^ 
Untruths, bccaufe they might imagine them 
10 be advantageous to their Caufe, is no Mark 
of Equity and Candour, but of Partiality and 
Prejudice. But it will pofflbly be f.ud (for 
what will not Iniidch fay? and I will add, 
how ftrange foever it may found, what will 
they not Relieve ?) that the Scriptures were 
forged long after the Events recorded in them, 
and conftrquently long after all the Evidences 
of their Truth or Falfhood were extinft and 
loft. In Anfwer to this it may be again de- 
manded, as in the Cafe of the Evangelifts, how 
came thefc later Forgers to chufe the fufFerini 
crucified Jefus for the Author of their Rel^ 
gion ? And why, fincc they were at Libert 
to fay what they pleafed, without any Appr^ 
henfkon of being difcovered, why, I lay, did. 
they relate fuch Things both of Him and his_^ 
Difciples, as, in the Opinioa of the "Work 
could not fail of difcrediting the Faith 
preached in his Name, and by an Authoril 
pretended to be derived from him and his 
ciples ? But without entering into thefe Cor 
derations, it may be fufficient barely to 
this Charge, till they, who infill upon it, Ihall 


t>9 ,a^lp jto. iiiiike it gppdj by fh^wing eitjier- 
from authentick Teflinqioniesj or cveo proba- 
h\^ ai\d prefumptive ^Jguments, when tKcy 
«ere forced ? by whom ? and to what End ? 
Till they are able to do this, (which I willVen-' 
ture to pronounce will never be) we have a 
Hjght tp infivt for fhe Reafons above givcn^ 
t^^t ,the. Scriptpres of the New Teftament were' 
Wcjtteo by ihpfe whofe Names they bear, and 
tiut all the Fai^s related in them are moft un- 
migftiginably true« 

/^EFORB .1 quit this Subjeft, I cannot for- 
bax taking Notice of one other Mai k of Ih- 
t^iiy' whic^ appears in all the Compofitions' 
of the Sacred Writers, and particularly the 
£!vangeli{^Sj and that is, the rm1ple,'unafre(51;ed/ 
uriortiatiiental, and unoftentatious Manner, Id 
Vrhich they ^deliver Truths fo iiiriport:int and 
rublimc^ and l^^afts fo magnificent and wort' 
derful^ . as are capable', one woulil think, of 
lijghtin^ up a Flame of Oratory^ even in the 
Ailiert and cbideft Breafts. The fpeakofah 
Aii^d defending from Heivferf to foretell the 
miraculous Conception of jefus^ of a othef 
pro-^kimihg' Ks Birch, attended by a MultU 

- .- . , - . - .4* ' fL' ^ -. ■■' '■ .' * *.tMj 

C 35^1 
tud^ of the Hf^'mff Hojkfttti/hg Codiaulfci^ 
itiir Glory M Ged in tbt high^i and mrEarth 
Peacet Good- M^l tewafdi Men .- OF his StvnJj^. 
pearing in the Eaft i of Angch miBiteig to 
him in the Wildcrnefsi of his.Glory:iii'ihe 
Mount i of a Voice twice heard from Hte^cv* 
faying this is mj bekvsd S&h ; of innume^Ii 
Miracles perform'd by hinot and /by hM DiA 
ciples in his Name % of his koowing^^ thS 
Thoughts of Menj of his foretdlitig -fiitigyre 
Events \ of Prodigies and Wonders ^K^qmiiiAT 
Dyings his Crucifixion and Death} of ooi Aii- 
gel defcending in Terrors, opening his ^epuU 
^hrCi and frightning away the Soldiers^ whqi 
were fet to guard it ; of his rifing from the 
Dead, afcending into Heaven, and pouring 
down, according to his Promi/e, tt^e various 
and miraculous Gifts of the HoJy Spirit upoa 
his Apoilles and Difciples. All thefe amazing 
Incidents do thefe infpired Hiftorians relate 
nakedly and plainly, without any of the Co- 
lourings and Heightnlngs of Rhetorickj or h 
much as a fingle Note of Admiration ; with* 
out making any Comment or Remark upon 
them, or drawing from them any Cor^clulioo 
jh Honour either of their Mafter or themlcivcs* 

B 557 1 
•t'to^ the Advantage df the^diglsri thcf 
|krtacfa«d in his Name i but contenting theiiir 
ftj^^sft v^ith relating the naked Trurhi whether 
ibfoni CO make forthemttt- ttgainft them^ 
trithoiic cicKer magnifying on the onie Hand^ 
«K:p*Hiti3Qg ori the other; tliejr leave theii^ 
Caufeto the unbiaifed Judgment of Mankind j 
ibSkix^^ lik^ genuine Apoflles tif the Lord ctf 
9l^t^(' to cohTince rather than to perfdadt ; 
MiitheMfdre eStfnng; as St. Pa^l fpeaks of hii 
Htm^PvencUng; m>t ^th Eiiceile>uy ofSpeich.,-^ 
m/'^B'mitingff^orlisof Man*smj^om, btii 
^iifi^'Dimi^atiM of the Spint; atfd offvwef% 
llft//,-:l<ids he,jrwirr Faith fitouU not ftdhd in the 
ihflim^ef Mmy hut in the Pi^eir af * (^ti, 
^iseA VSt it'be remethbered that be t^Ho fpeak^ 
^^mxiOtSi liot Learnirrgi Atti or Eloquence^ 
ItiJi'c^fdlintfrdm his Speeches rcootdtd in tfig* 
aBSEsffcaPtHe Apoftlcs,^ and from the Tfe'ftimoiijf 
8f that gMt tritick Lmgimis^^ho in feckoii- 
ittg ti^\Mi$^ttianOt&t6n; pl&te& ambitg thetn* 
TalS fi'tiirftis fi aitd furely had they beet} 
Idt folelj" to the Siiggefblohs artd Gtiidante o? 
hAiiiaa ^?^rd6m; they wotlld riot ha^e failed 
ttisjiibld on fiicK Tdpick^^ as the Woncleri 
A a 2 ot 

^ i €or: ii t: iv. 5. + Vide Long. Frag. Edit P«af«. 

of their Matter's Life, and the tranfceri'deht 
Purity and Perfeftion of the nbble, gehefous', 
benevolent Morality contained in his Prctepts, 
furnifhed them with. Thefe Topicks,'! fay, 
greater than ever Tully, or Demofthettes, otPkito 
were poflcffed of, mere human Wildom would 
doubtlefs have prompted them to make ufe of, 
in o dcr to recommend in the ftrongeft mariner 
the Religion of Chrijl Jejus to Mankind, by 
turning their Attention to the Divine Part 
of his Charafter, and hiding as it were in a 
Blaze of heavenly Light and Glory, his in- 
firmities, his Sufferings, and his Death;" And 
-had they upon fuch Topicks as thefe, and in 
fuch a Caufe, called in to their Afliftance all 
the Arts of Compofition, Rhetorick and Lo- 
gick, who would have blamed them for it ? 
Not thofe Perfons, I prefume, who dazzled 
and captivated with the glittering Ornaments 
of Human Wifdom, make a Mock at the 
Simplicity of the Gofpel, and think it Wit 'to 
ridicule the Style and Language of the Holy 
Scriptures. But the all-wife Spirit of God, 
by whom thefe Sacred Writers were guided 
into all Truth, thought fit to direft or permit 
them to proceed in a different Method j a Me- 

thod however very analogous to that, in which 
he liath been pleafed to reveal himfelf to us ii> 
the . great' Book of Nature, the ftupendous 
Trame of theUhiverfe j all whofe Wonders he 
liath judged it fufficient to lay before ffs in 
Silencej, and expefls from our Obfervations the 
proper Comments and Deductions, which, 
iifiving endued us with Reafon, he hath ena- 
.blfcd us to make. And tho' a carelefs and fu- 
jP^C^ficial Spedlator may fancy he perceives even 
Jn this fair Volume many Inconfiftencies, Dc- 
fofts and Superfluities j yet to a diligent, un- 
prigudiced, and rational Inquirer, who will 
fake the Pains to examine the Laws, confider 
t /and compare the feveral Parts, and regard their 
yfe, and Tendency, with reference to the 
. whole Defign of this amazing Strudure, as fir 
; a$ his; fhort Abilities can carry him, there will 
appear in thofe Inftances, which he is capable 
, of knowing, fuch evident Charafters of Wif- 
^ iota, Goodnefs and Power, as will leave hmi 
jio room to doubt of their Author, or to fuf^ 
:pe^ that in thofe Particulars- which he hatli 
not ejcamined, or to a thorough Knowledge 
of which he cannot perhaps attain, there is 
potHng but Folly, Weaknefs and Mi^Hgnity. 
; ■; Aa 3 The 

[ 36o 1 

The fame Thing made be /aid of tlve wnttin 
Bodky the fec^d Volume (if I may fo" fpeak) 
of the Herelat4on of GbtJi tKe Holy 5cri^:J 
tures. For as in the Firft, fo alfo;tn this arts' 
there many Paflages, that to a corfory unob^H 
fcrving Reader appear idle, unconncfted, urf^^ 
accountable, and inconfiftent with thofe MarkU 
pf Truth, Wifdom, Juftice, Mercy and Be3 
"nevolence, which in others are fo viiibJe, th 
the moft Carelefs and Inattentive cannot b 
difcern them. And even Tliefe, many of the 
at leaft, will t>ft€n be found, aJ>on a di 
and ftrifter Examination, ro accord and coi 
cide y?ith the other more plain, and more \\ 
'tclligible Paffages, and to be no heterog 
(Dus Parts of one and the fanie -wife and'ha?- 
nionious Compofition. In both mdeedi*in 
the Natural as well as the Mor^ Book of Gody 
there are, and ever will be many Difficulties 
which the Wit of Man may never be aWe to 
refolVe -, but will a wife Philorppher, becaufe 
he caniiot comprehend every thing he fces^ 
rejeft for that Reafon all the Truths that li 
within his Reach, and let a few inexplicable 
DifFicukies over-balance the many plain ai 
'ijfifallible Evidences of the Finger of God^ 


E $6i > 

^)#fib«#ppe^ "^ ^^ ^^^ ^h of. hls.^^a/tf4 
9f^^tffin JVorks ?. Or will he prefume fo faF 
ug^4us- own Wifdom, as to iky, God ought 
to iha?fpt evpre^ed^ I^icqfelf more cleaily ? I he 
P4M;^<^«?^(^ Degrqe of Cleacnefs, which 
li^U qqually iuic the diffesent Capacities of 
M«igt^T^ejE!eat Ages and Councrie^s, . vfill, J 
b«^eF<V ^ C<^und more dLQ^cult to fyi. than is 
|«ia§ioe4 1' i^cQ what is clear to oneMaotiq^ 
^Sisaai^ Situatifii of Mind, Tioie fuid Piaci^ 
m'^^ ioeyit4>ly be obfcure to another, who 
-irkm at lAjOjcher Potfitions, and under ,o^ 
■Ciij<ni>ratanceg^ How various .apd even cori- 
lH^ldi^^iOry. 4re tJieJieadings. ^nd. Co^^mentj, 
.vJttfib:l<:X!erjJ M«n, in the feyeral. Aj^i^sand 
.Cluiwtt».Qfithc Wotrjd, bavje .i)Q4^e,npqh Ng- 
rfH^tA^^ yet her Charafteirs a^is. jequftijy |egi- 
■'fete »^,i^X*ws equally ,jintclligj)?|e. .in all 
^^JTiWStWd i» 41 .P/lapes.; <ife^^,fV. no Speech «?r 
tSMt^tugjf ^hire her ^>^ u n^^ i»«<r/^. Her 
: ^immk. is gmwt ibr.o^gk aU the. Earthy and. her 
Wr^ i».,i^e Enii cf fife jfe?r/tf. . AU thef^ 
r,;MMii|terj)iretatioos therefore, ar>d ^lifcomftruc- 
ytttfifa^. her. Works, are. chargeable only upon 
I Mfiipwdy: who have fet themielves to iludy 
,rJ|l{9i?>rj»^'^ Various Degrees of Capacity, Ap- 
\ . . .; Aa 4 plication^ 


focfr vHr«*FiMTrftlcnt« ? rkhdriott'^yl^hti&i 
Gtki expreflH Bmfelf tt^fert-'d&rlyf <A^'the 

ftrifWer to 't^ii <>a^ idW ' ^ '^^ ' ifs ' »^' ^C"^* 
Mah to kflbf^i-is, that'-i^d will r^oire ttf 
Iwm acc^flfdinjg to wBiat"-1ie4i^br'and iK*"^ 
c<!>rcfir»gto'''i^hat'*H^h«tth'ik>ti ='!f what U^ftc^ 
tiefll^ry fop all to kii6w,--'ii- kri6^kbfe^ i^i 
i&ofd M<in, 4ipon whom God. Itadvbieii fdeafed 
to beftow Capacities and Faculties fuperio*vt& 
the Vulgar, have certainly no juft Reafon to 
:iM>nv]^atti (}f4ii«4iatri^g^te^l^^hem'-Mat»dal«for 
the ExUfGife. of thofc Talents, whichjif^^H 
'Things were equally plain tso all Men, ;itoutd 
be of no great Advantage to the Pofieffiri^i Jf 
therefore there are in the Sacred Writings, as 
well at in the Works of Natui^, tmny Pd- 
fages hard to be underftood, it were to he 
wifhed that the Wife and Learned, inftead of 
^ing.oflfcmicd at them, and teaching others 
to be fo tooj would be pcrfuaded that hath 
God and Man expeiSl: that they would -^t 
themfclves to xionfider and -examine them^aw- 
fuliy and. impartially, and with a finoere 'Define 
^f difcoveriftg and embracing the Ti^th,- w)t 

IIOlJHMr)awogant vflpJulofaphicririCoftCeit , of 
jblifif beiag^. already JiifHciendy wir^ftDd^cnow-p 
lfigr!;^^4'tibicnl. doubt noc but mc^ of thofb 
<^bj<^xons4K>;ReveJation, wi^ch are now urged 
^itii,^grea^Conficlem:e» . vould be cleared 
jpp «^;|»ni07edi 4ilij£ chofe foroaerlf made so 
i2ce3£tei^..and (he Being, and Providence, of 
^Pdi Ifjr.thafe mod. igA0Eant» xnofl: abfurd> 
fitid yet <Doft.icl£-rufiicient,Precenderft to ^sstr 
ibti '.and .Philoibphy, (heAthetfts «nd Seep* 
Jticfcs.i";t.:i; >■ '' • . . '■ 

ii ;■■ :.->:• ?.'•.• • . -■■ ■ ■ ■ . ■:.■■■ 

■v i §< n^; l^Oi thefe internal Evideacei of . tbe 
iKecacit^^CMod ,roay I mot add Inr^ratioix^) H 
jShffiApp&ibs and Evangeliftsy I Aiali begJea^e 
-lb fnbgikHlK two external Proofs-of great Weigla: 
in .«Et Inquiry into the Reafons we have:^ 
^i^ Credit' to their Teffiindayi: the bite 
^negasive^vthe other pofidve. 

•T i^TTB .'OcgatiTC Proof is contained in this 
..Fsopofitioo^ fix. Th^ out of the great Nuni- 
ibcr -ofJFaas related by the Sotted Writers, 
-ptd)Ii€k:ffiid extraordinary as they are faid to 
^^afveibeen, not one in the Courf<( -of now al- 
lUpft feveoteen hundred Years, hath ever been 


C 364 J 

tJifprorcd jorfalfifted. Denied indeed man?, 
of ihem have been, and Hill are.i but there 
& great deal of Difference between dorjing an( 
difproving. To prove a Fa6t to be falfe, it ls| 
necellary that the pofuive and probable Evij 
dcnce brought againft it fhould over-balanc 
liiat produced in Support of it. In Oppofitic 
CO the Teftimony of the Difciplcs of Jeft^ 
Ci^i/i, afleiting that he was lifen from 
J^esdf >the Chief Pncfts and Elders of tf 
Jews affirmed, that his Difciplcs ftole away 
Body, and then gave out that he was rifenf 
hi Maintenance of which Chaise they pr 
iluced, as St. Matthew tells us *, the Romi 
•Soldiers, who werefet to guard the Sepulcfarj 
who depofed that his Difeipks cane hy JNigi 
mdjiok him «WOy while iheyjlepii Not to il 
^ again upon the A43rin;dity of this Reporr, 
ds it ftands in the Evangelift» and taking it as 
^t was afterwards prudently amended by the 
Smbedrim^ and propagated by an exprefs Do- 
putdtion from them to all the Synagogues 
the t Jews throughout the World, in whit 
without making any . mention of the Rm^it 
Guard, they fay no more than, that the Did 
',' cip/« 

1* Chap, xxviii, 13, f Jullm. Martyr, Dial, cum Tryph. jud. 

C 365 1 

cifdoi came by Night, acid AoU awaythe Bo* 
df }^ taking it, I fay, in the .Manner, in whicli 
^ofe^ifeCovrnfellors were upon maturer De-'i 
Pieffadon pleafed to put it, ^t may he fuifici- 
eat Aof^kfVt, tkit thi» TMefc ^arged upon 
|litf'Di(ct$>lM, wa» fo far fr«ai being proved^ 
ik^ik^Hf^not fo nmch as ever inquired into, 
|^d.y<tt thetAcoirers were the Chief Prieft^ 
$hA Eld^s lofitieyews % Mea in high Reve- 
|^iice<4uftd Amhority With the P^ple, veftel 
^kh aM :^ Power of the State, and conicr 
quehidf 4c»«i(M with all the Mbans of fKxy- 
fiit%ig MbrnHKions^ a(0 of ^ainJAg or cxtore*- 
i%'tt'lC(M<feflHMii And K^iofc «erift the Aectff- 
cil'I'M^ c»f l(»w Birth, snoati Fortunes, -with- 
^ L««biti)|^ without Credk, widioqt Sap- 
fiut^ ^1^ wh^ bat of PufiUanioiky aiid ^«ar 
Jblfil^efMfl Vkeir Mafter^ upon ^e &t& Ck- 
cafiiofii i^lMit of (hewing ^eir fidelity and 
ja^tidbartncto him. And ca^ it be imagined 
^^t'the>£iurfPriefts •and Council would have 
imadejiO' inquiry into a Faft, the Belief of 
.which ehcyi took fo much Pans to propagate, 
^M they iEhemfelves been persuaded of the 
trtiilfh of it ? And had they inquired into it, 
*canU \)c fuppofed that out of fuch a Number 
;'. ' f; . ; :.' ^ . ■ . ■ of 

C z^ T 

:of mean Pferfoas as muft have bcea privy to it^ 
no one cither from • Honefty or Religion, iht 
Fcaf of Punilhment or Hope -of Reward^ 
irouid have betrayed the Secret, and >gi>ven 
theth foch Intdfigence, ^s might h^ve enabled 
them to put the Queftion of the -Refuf re&km 
out of all Difpute? For had it been once prov^ 
ed that the Difciples ftole away the^ B«kly •'Of 
J^ttS;, thttr Words would hardly have -been 
taken for his RefurreAion; But how did ^bele 
pooi^ Men aft? Confciou&of no''Ffaiid»-u{|d 
Im^ofture, chey remained' in Jamftlem \Z^^ 
or more, afosr (be Report of theur^ having 
-ftolen their Mafter's Body wa8>.rp«6ad<«Qyer 
tlie City^ and in about a Month returned 
thither again ; not long after whicK they af- 
ferted boldly to the Face of their powerful 
Enemies and Accufers, theChief Priefts and El- 
ders, that G^<//&<|<^ rai fed from the Dead that fame 
' Jcfus, whom they had crucified. And what was 
the Behaviour of thefe learned Rabbins^ thefe 
vratchful Guardians of the Jewifb Church and 
State ? Why, they fufFered the Difciples of 
-7<?/«j,charged by theirOrder with an Impofture 
'' -tending to difturb the Government, to con- 


r 3^^ I 

tlnuetlfiquefttoned'at Jerufahm^ and to depafs 

fltim> thehce'tinmalefted: And when upon their 

Recunv' thither diey had caafedthem to be 

ieiasedy^^and brought before them, for * preach- 

% tbnwgb'Jefus the Rtfurre&im */ /^* Z)a«/, 

'What did they fay to them ? Did they charge 

thetn wirii having ftolen away the Body of 

their Mkfter? Nothing like it. On the con- 

-tlaiy,>viot being able to gain£iy^the Teftioiony 

^i^tn'by'the ApofUes to the Refurredion of 

^3^I0», 'Vacfched by-a Miracle ju(b then perform- 

ifd by- them. in his Name, they ordered them 

Sto^withdraw, and -f* conferred among tbewfekei^ 

yjkjfing^ff^hatjballwe do to tbefe Men? far ibat 

Htdeeihs notabk Mrackbatb been Hone by. tbem^ is 

-mamfifiiifdli them that dwell in Jerufalem^ and 

! ' iioe ettn$ot: duty it. But that it fpread no fartber 

■dmng tbePe&ple^ let us JtrMtlytbreHtentbemttbat 

"thty fpeak henceforth to no Man in this Name : 

■-''AHdthtji>taVedtbem^ and commanded them not 

't« fpeak at aUy nor teach in the Name of Jefus. 

'-■ Peter tf»rf^ John anfwered^ and faid unto tbem^ 

'Whither it be right in the Sight of God to hearken 

^^Mt you more than unto God, judge ye: For we 

■'■'■■"■■ cannot 

•Aftsiv. "t-Ibid. ver 15—22. 

t 3^ J 
9t hu fpeak ths Ibtngs which we have fiilt 

and beard. So when they had farther (hreatened 
them, they let them go^ finding nothing how the^ 
might pun^h tbenti Who^ after h^riag this Ac- 
count, could ever imagine that the Difcipk* 
ftolc the Body of Jefus ? or that the ChitK, 
Priffts and Elders themfelres believed the 
did ? But it may perhaps be objeded, that this^ 
Account comes from Chriftian Writers : And 
could the Objedors expcft to mee*: with it iiii 
J^vtmjh Authors ? We might indeed expcft Ujf^ 
find in ihcir Writings fome Proofs of thii 
Charge upon the Difciples ; and had there becf 
any, the Chief Priefbs, and the other Adverfo^ 
ries oi'ChrJfty would doubtlefs not have failed tc^ 
produce them. But the ProgrefsthatChriftianit^ 
made at that Time in JerufaUmj is a ftrongef 
Argument than even their S^Acncct that nd 
Proof of this Charge either was or could bfti 
made. Could the Apoftles have had the Im-3 
prudence to preach, and could fo many thouij 
fand Jetvi have been Tireak enough to believi^ 
upon their Teftimony, that Chriji AVas riffrT 
from the Dead, had it been proved chat hii. 
Difciples ftole away his Body? Anlnftdclmay; 
i if 

if he pleafesj, believe this, but let lum account 
for it if he can. 

-ifi nM^Ti dwelt the longet upon the Exa- 
rtiination of this pretended Theft of the Dif- 
ciplesj becaufe it is the only Faii I know ofJJ 
that hath been fet up in Oppofition to the 
many Fafts upon which the Evidence of the 
Refurreftion is founded. How defeddve it is 
in point of Proof, whether probable or pofi- 
tive^ I need not point out to the Reader. But 
I cannot help obfcrving, that thofe, who deny- 
that any Guard was placed at the Sepulchre^* 
take from it the only pofitive Evidence that 
was ever brought to fupport it, "jiz. the Dc*» 
pofitions of the Ru/mn Soldiersi ] 

Among the many extraordinary Particu-* 
lars related by the Sacred Writers, the Mira^ 
cles performed by CMJi and his Apofties, as 
they were almoft without Number, and 
■wrought moft commonly in Publick, in the 
Prefcnce of unbelieving Jews and Gentiles ^ 
yielded the faireft Occafion to the Oppofers of 
the Gofpel of overturning the Credit of the 

< Evan- 


Bying^^-'^^l Hifto^wis. And y« ^^*^*i^ 



and y. 



hav . .,ced to make ufe ot, ia oi4lf^ 

to take off the Conclufion drawn from ihefe 
I^a^di^ [jf, {he ChEiitia^s^ for^j a very Axcshg 
ftrefmTjp^<^n, chat they \vere not to be dilr. 
pji^e4^.; §9(n€> as * (uiftu^ have impi^idlt 
thf>o-> ro M.rrick: Others, r-^ •^h^' Jc^Sf hav«| 
QJ(L ii to the ifjci. <aaicofGod^|| 

wijicii. ; I'ly tliey, 7(r/«j (lole.out of iheTem-)' 
I^., Bo|i^^Qf them have^adni|ctSKl thfc^Fji^^ 
I^^il lY* gP about to fliuw the Abluiidtty ollj 
c^jjiq- of th'.fc twp Ways^of accxninting: 
*W'\\^^lliH^oi^® Operations: But I mn 
h^jy:c|alDesOccarion to beg cb«. Reader to< 
^;^,'& Jittle upon the ftraage; R^Hrerfcm 
t^^ human Mind, the, VaDiry^<btR<:ia«n, knl^l 
il|aJ:orce of Prejudice, difiuibiikrtd Ma^l 
gj||||i-t ) had Faith-in Ani!i^Uv>and y-r 

both one aad the other difbelieved Chriftia- 
nicy ! 


^ §- z;. The pofitive Proof of the Veraciq^d^. 
the Sacred Writers is founded on the exMMbP^ 

• Ste Orlgen coiitra Cdfum. ' ' * ''•^'^ *•••* ^' *' ' * 
"4»S«c Univ. Hift. Vol. IV.-f 200. Note T, 

compllfhnieht of the PrediftfoB'r df our ita- 
viour and his Apoftles recorded in the New 

Hi That I may not draw out this Aracle 
into an exccffivc and unncceffary Length, I 
^i^l make no Remarks upon thofe Predi^- 
^fjns, whofe Accomplifhment rs to be found in 
^i» Scriptures themlelves j fome of which I 
BL ive already taken Notice of. The Scrip- 
cures, In&dels perhaps will fay, were writtefll 
after thcfe Events, and the Prediftions there- 
fore probably adapted to them. But chey who 
make this Objection, will gain little by itf. 
_£nce if they admit the Events, it will be no 
PHifiicuU Matter to demonftrate the Truth of 
Chriftianity* Befides, the Reader himfelf ma/'' 
with very little Pains, find out and compare 
thefc Prediftions with their fevcral CompI«* 

1 ■ 

The Prophecies I Aiall produce, relate to the 

different States of the Jews and Centiks ; diffe- 
rent not only from each othcfi but very diffe- 
rent from that* in which they both were at 
Time when thcfe Prophecies were written : 
B b Xa 

;>3^<> have AfcrfaSt Undetftihdlng of which, 
•^ilLJbaneceflarf- tor take a general View of th< 

Rtligibus State (for that is principally regai 
, in thcfc Prophecies) of the Nations diftinguif^ 

cd by the Names of Jea;s and GentiUs, ^lii o> 

yd Yn 
ifc.. F R o M the Time of the Covenant (or Co 
vpafl) which God was plcflftd to make will 
vjfbraham and his Defcendants, and to TcneW 
owith the whole Body of the JjfraeHtts iinder 
•}MofeSf th^Jews became the pecoliar People tf 

God ; A Pbrafc fufRciently juftlfied and d^J 

plained by the Terms or Conditions of the 
^XTovenant ; which on the Part of the IJretditi 
3!Hrerc the taking God only for their Lord, 
•ipaying Obedience to the Law, theCerctn* 
,faial as well as Moral Law, which he had gi 
sihem- On the Part of God were fHpuia 
Y^Temporal Bleflingf, and his Almighty- Fro 
.Jleftion to the J«pj, as Iqng as they Ihould ad- 
"t tare to the Conditions entered into by Them. J 
•By virtue of this Covenant, thc^feuar acknow- 
r ifdged God for their King, and God govern 
?€d them as his Subjects, by lits'i^udes and 
.Viceroys, the Prophets, Judge's, ^^d^^KiUgs i 
vofi/r^E -Mofis, the Wfediater of thfe^dy^'W 


./iaW» was the firft of theft Deputies 5 and tbc 
M^tky who Tras CQ be the Mediator of a new 

, Cov<?pant, was to be the laft. By Him the 
New Covenant was to be offered firft indeed 
to the Jews^ with whom the Covenant medi- 
ated by Mofts was till then to be in Force. 
But tbc other was not to be limited to that 
Pfopie only. The Gentilej, that is, all the 
Kattons of the Earth, who were no Parties to 
the iforiner Covenant, were to be invited to 
accede to this; and all thofe, of whatfoever 
Nation they were, who fhould acknowledge 
ckerMefljafa, as ^ King appointed by God to 
£Stgit over them, were to be admitted into thU 

. £jovtoaar, and be reputed thenceforward the 
^aafkcfGod. But as the Limits of this Di' 

. rine Emprt« were to be altered and wlarged, 

: ictocame neceflary to alter and erilarge tlic 
Tbrmt of Uovemment. The Cefcmdnial Law 
was National and Local : And though, with- 
cruti &n;te fuch ReHgious and Political Boftd of 
Union, the^wetj would not in all ProbabfiUy 
have long continued the feparare and peculiar 
J^eople of Ood, yet as moft of the Duties 
prefcribcd by that Law were confined to 
, .^ Holy ItABdi and even to the Holy City 
^bi^' Bb 3 of 


[ 374 ] 

effmtfalem ; the Gentiles:, who were now fc-lJi 
taken into the Covenant, could not pofliW]^' 
comply with it. This therefore was of Ne- 
cc(Ecy to be abolished. But the Moral Law,j 
the Bafis and End of the former Covenant*, 
was in Itkc yirnncr to b^ the End arid Bafii| 
of thrncw one. To this both thtGeniiles 
Jtws could pay Obedience, as well ts to 
other Terms fuper-added to it in the New Co*\ 
venant, t;z. the acknowledging the MeffiaH- 
for their King ♦, and as an outward Token of J 
their Allegiance and Acceflion to this Cove 
mint, receiving Baptifm, and commemorating 
from Time to Time, by the Celebration 
the Eiicharift, the fealing this Covenant on flu?! 
Part of God by the Death of Chtiji. "Whid« 
Two SacramfttSy properly fo called, may 
ftiled the Ceremonial Law of the Chri(liaBs;U 
as Circumcifion and other Ritual Duties vrtrt 
of the yews. 

Or the twelve Tribes of //r<<f/, who wef^j 
Parties of the Mofaical Covenant, ten fell aC^ 
once from their Allegiance to God under Jera^\ 
ham i and ceafing from that Time to be the 
People or-Subjcas of God, he ccafed to be 
^ ' ' <^> '. their 

fhelr King s and* withdrawing his Protev^hron, 

^4i«^ared diem to be carried inro a Captivity, 

from whicK thejr never afterwards returjied i 

Hiiit being loft and confounded with the Na.- 

tipns* among whom they were tratifp lanced, 

were thenceforward no more heard of as a dfc 

^nifl and feparatc People. The two reraain- 

i^ Tribes were then the only Peopkof God j 

and as fuch, though often punilhed by Him 

l|br thetr frequent Tranfgreffions of his Lawi^ 

' tod even carried Captive to Babylcn, were bj 

his Providence brought back again to thcLaofl 

|«^Ca»<w», and rcftorcd to a Capacity of com- 

'pjying with the Terms of their Covenant,^ b|| 

the rebuilding the City and Temple ofJfrufa% 

\lftn. From that Time they were very cxaft iq 

their Obfcrvance of the CeremotiiaJ Law, ■ bat 

had moft grofsly corrupted the Moral LaWj,. 

(and rendered it, as Cbftfi told them, of no Eft 

fcft, by the Comments and Traditions.of thei^ 

Scribes and Pharifees. This was the State of 

the 7tfyj. when 7efus the Meffiah, that .great 


Tl» B State of the Gentiles wayfef ffi ftr P t lfe i 
piortblc. They had for many Age$ transfer- 
red theif Obedience from the oni Supreme 
God, Creator of Heaven and Eartfc, to hil 
Gfeatlire«>i' 6r to Deities of their owo d( 
frrt^rundci* whofe imaginary ProtcAion the) 
l*d Ranged themfelves by Nv.tions and Com- 
iflitnkies j and had beconitf almoft in the feme^ 
Senft^ the Ifr^aelites wtre ftiled the People ofCJ 
Gbtf, ■ the People of the Mgyptian Jfis>, A^\ 
01 B^y^ Athenian PaUas, Epbefian DiAna^^sndiii 
Cdptf^ilanjovet ^c. But there ims. this fo''^J 
rTltr Dtflfetence between chem : The. God i>fii 
tht-J/raeh'/eSt hke a righteous and equitahWj 
Sovereign, had given his People alow, to bv 
^eP Rv\t of their Obedience, , oc .tktiuxj badi 
cbnfirmed and enforced the originaJ ijqu^ 
whith ffotn the very Begionioghehad'tviier; 
ten in the Hearts, • L e. the Renfon^ ill Moti^ 
Idnd, adding co.itfuchothcr 3ni\itutioi>S,iM 
their particular Situation then required^ While 
the Gentiles, having by their Idolatry felkn 
from their Obedience to that Original univer- 
fal Law, were left thenceforward, hke Owe- 
Laws and Rebels, to frame to themfelves fuch 
''*"'' '^^ Rulc^ 

Rules both Moral and Religious, as the fan- 
cied Caprice rof r their Drities, ' oc theit own 
perverted Reafon ihould fuggeft v whence ic -, 
came to pafs, that they were oveorun witb!> 
IqamoraUty and SuperHition. And though 
fomeofthe Wifeii among them, by following^ 
the.yet glimmering Light of Reafon, had be»«i 
come ienfible of many of their groffeft Errors^jj 
and had endeavoured to reform fome Abufes* . 
yet had Superfl:ition taken fo ftrong a Hold_ 
©n the Majority, that, till that was entirely 
rooted out, ic was impolTible to bring th^n;^^ 
back to what n called the Religion of Nature^; 
iiit. the Reilgion of Reafon i were we to allov^. 
thbfe ici/e Meti to have been as well acquainted. 
with it, ifl all its Branches, aa fince Chriftia- 
liky fome have pretended to be. But with the 
Sttperftition of their Countries, thofe wife Men 
thought k better to comply thafl to contend, 
AAdhid they attacked it with the Intrepidity 
lAd Indwftry of the Apoftles, it i» much cob« 
i^Ueftioned, whether with all their Eloquence 
and Logick, they would have gained the Vic- 
tory. Such was the dark^adJiPPfH^ Condi* 
tiott of the G«W/i/w» (;j fwl arn* ,T/t_. _, 
liv oi'tAi 01 ^miml of . ??9'f9H fciir. ? wx 


Bb 4 


Samur,.;ikfcfir. baT'«g;!r<sprercnu:d tD^ho' for' a 

wlf flmi^ A. ViM^ard^ .and ittdt out Jo. \ iiBf< jI 
haa4itieti*t flic righteous JDeaHngs of -God jtttc 
them,. and- the. ill Returns they had madota 
him, by not only retufing hitn the Fruits, buC'i^ 
murthering: the Servants he had fcnt CD: dse"- 
mand them j\and laftly hit Son ( and i£ai^^^ 
having extorted from them a COfifie(Bott«thac 
thofe wicked Hulbandmen ought to be mjtT9^ 
Iflj puni/hedt and the Fineyard taken from them, 
and given to cfhar Hufiwtdmeny wba IhouU 
rjetider him tbi Fruitt in tbar SeafoKj fpoke* to 
them the fpilowing Words : Did you ntwr, -^ 
read in the ScriptureSy the Sicne which ihe. Buik'^ 
dersr^cSedt the fame is becotm the H§§d ofihi^ 
Collar: This is the Lord* s doings and U is aaat'ki^ 
veUdiHS in wr Eyes fThtrefcrefayltmtoyous^iJit -o 
Kif^idom cfGpd Jhall he. John frm yeu^ «ri 
{ivtn to a Nation irivpng forth the kruits 
thereof c And whofoever fh<^ll fall PH this St^mt^ 
fhaUbe haken ; hut^ whamfoever.ttJbaUfaHi 
it will grind him to Powder. By thcfc Wordt 
are plainly fignified, ift, The transferring th? 
bnfi 911JL em It) Kingdbnt ' 

• ' -Mi»l»onf Matt. x;d. 43, 44. 

Kmgdom of Cod'ffoM the J^f^^^i^^l 
/ji/^ ^ 2dJy» the Obedience of the OentiUs i aod^^ 
^dhps^chc luiferablc Pimithment *)( ^Jtws'^ 
for their • having '.rejedled and diutthtfWd Uie ' 
Son of Gods \ -TJicrfc-'are many other Pro|Ae^^^ 
cierreiadng toeach of-thefe- Events fcattcipcdt ^■'^ 
up. arid down the;GcJfpchi which I think ipri 
necdlcfs to produce, this bdng fo very full and' i^n 
expiicit. : I /bail therefore fet about flicwin^m 
the cxait Aecomplifiiment of it in it*5 fevcxat^ 
Parts* , .; aiorfJ 

^Ht^Kittgdotit of God, AS may be coUcfteAnfi 
ffom what is faid above, denotes the ^Wn/irfAt 
or mord Dominion of God over moral Sub-^rti 
je(^8, i. t, Free Agents*, and by the Feopkof^^ 
God ZK Hgniiied liich Free Agents, iS frcclj^^V 
and voluntarily acknowledge the Sovcreignty«^^ 
of God, by worfhiping him, and rec«vi»igi*y^ 
and obeying all thofe Laws, whether natot^CH 
or revealed, which appear to have be<m'""* 
enafted by him. The Jfwr therefore by te-' 
jcding ye/us Cbriji, who proved himi^lf to \. 
have.bcen commiflioned and fent by God^ mt t» 
only from the Teftimony of Mofes and i^hn$ 
theirjdPropbers, the HoUnds of his Life and 
>^ «if :uf .iuK Doftrine, 

D^drue, antj -the- nu in beilds Miracles 
\?rpugh^ (unpng clitm, but ilill oiore pla 
if poflible, by his rifing frooi the Dead, and* 
empowering his Difciples |o work the . hmt 
mi^cy Signs and Wonders ia his Name : the^j 
^rt*!, I fay,, by rejecting this Mcflengci, this 
Son of Cod, and refufing to receive the Laws 
which he propofed to them in his Father's 
Name, evjdendy renounced . their AiJc^ifinc^ 
o^ Jjod^ .and ceaifd to be hi$ Fea^t or Sub* 
jcd^ . -And the Gentiles on the other hand, by j^ 
i^otu^cing their Vices and Idolatrous Super' 
fti^QSy re^rpiog to the Worlbip of God, 
AndrecfiTiag bit Mefliab, tdgecher with the 
VAyn pfopoiiKl to them by him in the Htm/t 
of God, as evidently put themfelves lender ^^ 
%iix)inioA of. God, acknowledged his Empini»} 
and I. became the Peopli or Svhjedf of Go40 
A^d hence Appears what; is meant by ^e King^ 
dom dj God being taken from tbt Jews, and £»vm 
to ^he Gentiles, God remoycd the Thrpn<y 
whereon Davi4 and his Poftericy had fet as hi^ 
Sqb^itutes and Viceroys, fropi arnong tho. 
7-<W?/» who renounced his Author^(yi apd^firom 
^|h tjo. Hpaven ^ and placing it at his Righk 
Hiin4.i ^d fettixJg «pQ§ Ji hi» Mefliai>, ,i 


[ 3SrO ? 

m for his Subjd^, ^'"6^-' 
Nation only, but all Nntims and Kindreds^ andf 
People, and all the Ertds of the Earth for his '' 
Domrnion. That the Kingdom of -Odd* w^'* 
ir^"«his Senfe, ahd in this Minner aftually ? 
trinsFerred from the Jevos to X.\vc Gentiles, is toot 
ndtdtidus to' need any Pfbof. The Jews as a' ' 
N^ttoft Tej?(5^ed the Gofiiel, and perfilVed in'' 
their Rffufal 6f the MeflSah, til! the final De- ' 
ftftifHon of their Holy City md Tennple j and'' 
w!rat !i "^inof^ flrange, ftill perfevere in thei<-N 
ObflSi^jf. ' "Whereas tht Gentiles embraced it' 
fiykriWerfeliyi •that within A ftw* Cehruries af- 
t^'<!'i^f; ^Imoftthc'Whole R&tMH Emffirfi-^ 
ttet-«',- iWibfl: the then known World, fbf*t 
fook Idoktry, and became Chriftian. And^ 
God'on hisT*^rt teftified that he entered into 
Covenant With t^em, and accepted their Alfc-- 
gi^nte, \^^ p«\Jr»ng -^pon them the Gifts of 
hfc'Holy Spitit; as he fignified on the othef'* 
hahd his Renuheiation of the Mofaical Cttrt- 
nant, by not only fufFering tht Scat of his Em- 
pire, the City and Temple of Jerufakm, to bo' 
-utterly dcftroyed, but permitting the Je^s 
alfo to be banifhcd from the Holy Land, and 
ftattered through all the Nations of the Earth. 


t sni 

And dim tvns this Prophecy inbfl:^za<fU^ ad 
complKbed in all ics Farts. 


?, .4* 2^ Besides the general Change in theState 
of the Jeassii\6. Gentiles expreffcd in this Pro- 
phecy, many Particuiars relating t» the Con- 
dition of the Jewijh Nation, were -moft pre- 
cifely foretold by our Saviour Cbriji. As fir^g 
the Dcftrudion of the City and Temple (»H 
ftrufakmi Secondly, the Signs and Wonders 
preceding that Dcftrudion : Thirdly, die Mife- 
lies ofthe ']ems before, at, and after the famous 
Skgeof that Cicyi Fourthly, the Difperfion 
cf. that reprobated People; FifthJy, thcD 
ration of iheir Calamity j and Sixthly, thi 

*' Our Saviour foretold the DeilTn<ftion df, 
^ the Temple, after it had ftood almoft 50b 
♦i»Y«ar% in- thcfe Words : Seeft tb9ii thtfe great 
*'^BidUings ? then fkall not h Uft one Siom 
tf upQ» auoiher^ which Jballnoi be thrown dofm* 
^- And this Predidion was compleated byt?^^- 

■f- See for this and moK of the WUowing Amdd Dr. 
ffbiihy^t^aetaX' Ptdac-e, >^ich» together with, hi» atJ»*f 
preface, 1 would recommend to the Ferufal of alfthofe 
who read for the tiakc of learning the Truth, and not for 


ith.^^yi^^^flfx, commanded hii 
" Soldiers to dig up the Fotmda/iens l/otb of the 
** temple and the City. And both the Jewijh 
V Talmud zxA Maimvmd(i add» that Terentius 
^ H»fuSt the Captain of his Army, did with a 
" Plough-fhare tear up the Foundation of the 
H Tcmpie. 

■ *VWiLTH like Exaftnefsand Particularity did 
tt^t Lord foretell the Ruin of the City ofje- 
^MUKfaiem ."TbeDitysiiaixh he, Jhailcomc upon theii 
^ tkgttbmeEnemiesjhall cafi a Trench about tbee^ 
%ind cuppa/s thee roundt and keep t Bee in on 
*\iA^ety'Side<» and Jhall lay thee even with the 
''^ Grotaid^ and fijall not have thee one Stone 
** upon another^ Now that the Event com, 
** pletcly anfwercd the Prediftion, is evident 
^^ from the Jeivi/h Hiftofian, who telk us cx- 
t*p:prelsly, that Tiiuf having <onnmnded bii 
^^ Soldiers to dig up the City^ this noasjqfuliy 
^ dene by levelling the -wbole Compafs of the City; 
^ except three towersy that they who came tofei 
'* it wereperfuaded it would never be built again, 
*' The fame Hiftorian informs us, that when 
*^ Vefpafian befieged Jerufalemy his Army com* 
** faffed the City round about^ and kept them ift 

— - ■ *• *ii 



t .5«4 3 

: 09 fVfy ^'^f ) ■ ^^ thoagh ic w^ jc^d^d • 

.grtat .aad-aimoil itnpradiq^k Wof k to 

c^jmp^^t h^ . wJ^ole City ytiti:^ a W^^ j)i«< , 

ll'u^s. ^>«,a//»^ his SoUitTS to 4<ff«^/ jii( I 

t^ in ihrttrDf^Mt a Wdl cf thifx^-nint ' 

JFwrltmgs^ having tiirtem. CtiJlUs 931 it^ ^|^ 

cut off Ml Hopcs^ that asy cf the ^^^yiSk V{it^^ 

;n the Cityjljould efcaps, ,^^ <^ 

*' Ik th€ 2iftChapoer ofSf. Uhfi^Q^n/l 
fp^aking of ihc Deftru£li90 oi/Jfertii{4lem, 
iays> (Ver, lu) And gr^tit Eitrtbquakcs^ 
be in divers FUctSy tmd Feminti mid iVjl 
Jeaces^ and fearful Sights^ a/tdgr^ai Siimjlbi 
there be from Heaven, 

' I 






** Now to omit the frequent Earth<ji|j 
that happened in other Piaces m the Times 
of Claudius axxd Nero, J^fe^us inform* us, 
that there happened in Jftdea^ and Jeruftient 
an imtni»fe TempeJ^, and vtbemmt Winds witb 
Rain, and frequent Lightnings end dreadfai 
^hunderit^, and extreme Roarings of the. qnak- 
ing Earthy vJ^ich manif^Ud to ail that tbii 
fVerid was the DefiruUias ^fl 
Mm-, and that thcfeJ*rodigies portended 

Mifchiefs. JcJtphUs hiOh S pirti- 

** cular Chapter of the manifcft Signs of the 

** approaching Defolation of the Jrtp/; which 

** Tacitus^ a Roman Wifionin of that Age, al- 

*^ rooft epitomizes in thefir Words : 'Armies 

*^ feemed to meet in the Clouds, and glittmng 

*• If^eapons were there feen ; the Temple [eemed 

** to he in a Flame, 'oith. Fire ifmng frotft the 

** Clouds y and a Voice more than human was 

*f beard, declaring that the Deities weir quit- 

'•■''/tti^ the Place ; which was attended ftoith 

'^ ihe Scufid of a great Motion, ai if they toere 

** departing. Jofiphns adds, Vfhat Tacitus alio 

^^ touches upon. That the great Gate of the 

' " Temple, which twenty Men tould Icarcely 

I •* (hut, and which was made faft by Bolts and 

^"' Bars, was feen to open of its own Accord: 

^* Tiiat a Swor-d' appeared hanging ever the City : 

** That a Comet <i'as feen pointing down upon 

I •• it for a whole Tear together : And that be- 

** fore the Sun went down, there w&e fien Ar^ 

bMf^ mles in Battle- Array, and Chariots compaf- 

^^ Jing the Country, and inveJHng the Cities : 

** jf Thing fo ftmnge, faith he, that it would 

** pafs for a Fahle, were there not Men living 

** to atieji it. So particular an Account have 


^^ of the fearftU Sights and . St^^fu fm0 

*^J^I^ven menuoQcd by our Lord. 

. ^' Ovu ble0i9d Lord is asexprels in (be 

',\ Predidtioas of the Miferies which ihould \itt* 
V* fall chat iinful Nation } Miferies fo grcaMH 
** as to admi^ no ParilkL ^IhertfitaUbey faitt^ 
*V he, great Trihulation, fucb as nrver hof^M^^ 
*■} from tb€ Begitming of the IVorU. iq (bis S|H^1 
•* Which Words Jofephus fceros lo havp ,tran-i 

V fcribcd, when he fays, Never v/as mjm 

V ticn mere mtked, nor ever 3iJi__a.Gt^ 

V tf J they did. Nay» ia another Place, he go 
«* fo far as to fay, M the Mijisriu wbich 
•« Mankind bad fuffertd from ibe 
•♦ of ibe H^erld, were mt tfi he 
•^ KDitb thafe ibt Jewilh NatUn did thmfu^ 
•« And indeed, the Account he gives oi \ 
" Number who perifhed in that Siege is al- 
•* moft Incredible \ and much more fo is wha 
•« the "Talmud and other 7«w^ Writers mei 
« tion of the Slaughter, which //tfiritf»'s A^ 
« my made of them fifty-two Years ^^ 
t* when they rebelled under Bmhochebai^ 

trei^efieged irr thr City flttfer. And ye'^ 





our Saviour having farther faid. That 
* where-ever the Carcafs was, {i. e. the Jewi\ 
*ibtri Jheuld life Eagles [i. e. the Roman At- 
mies] h gathered together : They were ac- 
cordingly harrafled and dcftroyed through*' 
our the Rotnan Empire. When, faith Jofe- 
pbusy the Romans had no Enemies left mju- 
dea^ the Danger reached to many of them living 
the remoteft from it : For many of them pe- 
iiAed at j1h)caiidria, at Cyrene, and in othff 
KJs of v^^/»/, to the Number of fixty 
t!»oufand, in all the Cities of Syria. In 
a ■ Word, EUazary in Jofephut, having 
fcckoned many Places where they wcrft 
cruelly flaughtered, concludes wit^ faying^ 
Jf would he too long to fpeak of all theft 
Places in particular, 

*5;/AGAirt, cur Saviour adds, That th^ 
Jhould he led Captives into nil Nations. Ac- 
cordingly, Jofephus informs us. That tbt 
Number of Jewifti Captives was ninety-Jeven 
fboufand t That of them Tttus fent many t9 
igypt, and mojl of them he difperfed into 
C c " f^^ 

*Matt. xxxr* 284 

[ 338 ] 

" the Roman Provinces v and fo cxaftly ful- 
** filled Prcdifflion,** 

The Duration of the Calamity of thfl 
jevos^ and their Reflorationi arc fignified ii 
thefe Words : • Jerufalem/xj// h trodden do^ 
of the GentilcSt till the Times of the Gentiles 
fulfilled. ** This fo exaftly came to pafs, tha 
*« Veffafian commanded the whole Land oi 
" fudea to be fold to thofe Gcntiks tha 
** would buy it •, and Hadrian^ about fixty*] 
•* three Years after, made a Law, thac- 
** Jew fhould come into the Re^n round ahei 
•• Jerufalcm, as Ariflo PelUuSf who washim^ 
** felf a Jew, and flourifhed in the very Timfl 
" of Hadrian relates. ThuSy faith Eufehin 
•* ;/ came to pafs, that the Jews ierng htmifi 
" thence, and there being a Conflux thither 
•* Aliens, it became a .City and Cokny of fl 
*' Romans, and was in Honour of the Emperor 
** [Hadrian] named ^lia. JerufeUem, 
•* Chrifl, fhall be thus trodden down, or 
" to the Gentiles, //// the Times of the Genlil 

be fulfilled ; that is, till by the Ctonvcffion ' 


•Lukexxi. 24. f The Greek Word is ir4T»/i»v(», . 
poflcllM »ud troilden by the fectof chc Gentiles. ' * ' 

[ 3^ 1 

■ the yews to the Ghriftian Faith, the Fal-^ 

nefs of the Gentika to be converted to it, 

fliould come in with them : For EUndnefe^ 

faith the * Apoftle, hath happened to ths\ 

Jews, till the Fulnefs of the Gentiles Jhalh 

come in, and then all Ifrael Jhall be faved ; 

and with them alfo the yet Heathen Ge»^^ 

tiles,. For if ^ faith he -f, the Cafiing away of 

the Jews was the keconciling of the JVorld^ 

what pall the Reieiving of them he to it, but 

even Life for the Dedd ? And again I), if the 

Fall of them were the Riches of the ^erlJ, 

' and the Dimimfbing of them the Riches of the 

Gentiles^ how much morefhall their Fulnefs be 

the Fulnefs of the Gentiles ? Now here it is 

efpecially obfcrVable, that Julian the A- 

poftate, defigning to defeat this Prophtcy 

of Chrifi^ refolved on the Rebuilding of the 

Gity and the Temple ofjerufalern in its old 

' Station^ which was till his Time left in 

Ruins, ,MUa being built without the Cir- 

. cuit of it. For in his Epillle to the Com- 

' jnunity of the Jews, he writes thua ; The 

'^ Holy City of Jerufalem, which you have fo 

G c 2 " long 

Rom. ii. 25, 26. f ■tbi<i. ver. 15. | Vgr. la. 


long defind to fee inhabited, rehuildin 

own Labours^ I mil dwell in. This 

gan with an Endeavour to build tha 

pie, in which alone the 7«*;j would < 

j»^* their Prayers and Sacrifices : But the injme 

**. diate Hand of Providence foon forced 

*>\Vorkmen to defift from that unhappy 

terprizc. Jmmanus MarcellinuSt an Hcs' 

then, who lived in thofc very Timcs» gives 

us the Story thus ; That Jtdian enddtmcured 

to rebuild the Temple at Jerufalem witb vajl 

Expence^ and gave it in Charge to Alypius of 

-^. Antioch to hajten the fTork, and to the Go- 

^vernof^ of the Province to ^jjijl him in it; in 

: ** which IVork when Alypius was earne/lly em- 

** ployedy and the Governor cf the Province was 

*' qMi^g* terrible Bails of Flame hurfting forth 

'* near the Foundations with frequent Inftdss^ and 

*' burning divers Times the JVorkmen, rendered 

,55 -the Place inacceffible j and thus the Fire cbJH- 

" pately repelling them, the fVork ceafid, tj 

, ; ^ *• The Story is very fjgnal, and remark? 

.,," ^bJe for, many Circumftanccs j as jft, The 

V,'" Peufons that relate, it, j Jmmianus j^anel- 

** Unus an Heathen, Zemuch David a Jew^ 

** who 





[ Z9^ ] 

who confefles that ^w^'''^ was Diviniius im- 
peditus^ hindered by God in this Attempt •, 
Nazianzen and Chryfojiom among the Greeks, 
•St. Anthrofe and Ruffinus anmong the Latins, 
who flourifhcd at the very Time when this 
was done : Theodoret and Sozomen^ onho- 
dox Hiftorians •, Phikft&rgius, an Ariatt ; So- 
cratesy a Favourer of the Novatians, who 
writ the Story within the Space of fifty 
Years after the Thing was done, and whilft 
tht Eye-witnefles of the Faft were yet fur- 

" 2d1y, T K E Time when it wis pcrforni- 

^**<ed-, not in the Reign of Chrifttan Empe- 

** rdrs, but of the moft bitter Enemies of 

'**^CHriftian3, when they werie forced to hide, 

'' **^knd had not Liberty of fpeaking for them- 

kj«* fdves. Obferve, 

»* 3dly, With what Confidence Chri- 
I •* ftians urge this Matter of Faifl againfV the 
•* Jews, as a convincing Demonftration of the 
*' Expiration of their legal Worlhip, and of 
*' the Certainty of Chriftian Faith againft the 
•* HeatJien Philofophers, inquiring fVbat the 
Cc 3 " wife 

[ 39^ 1 

•* wife Men of the World c*nf<ty to thtfc Things : 
M 'Ard againft the Empeior 1 hfodejii/s^ todc- 
" ter him from requiring th«n to rebuild a 
" Synagogue, which had been lately burnt by 

V J Chrin^Un Bilhpp. 

*' 4th!y and Uftly, The unqueftionable 
^ Evidence of the Thing : Ti^if, fay the 
v' jChriftians, aU Men freely do beUcvi and /peak 

V ^fi *'" <"* f^e Mouthi of aU JWiw, and is 
** not denied tven by the Atheifts tbemjiives \ 
** and if it feem yet incredible to any one^ ht 
** may repair for the Truth of it both to the 
" Witneffei of it yet livin^^ wtd to them tvh 
'* have beard it from their Mouths j yea^ tbtj 
f may view the Foundations lying fiill bare fnd 
** nakfd ; and if you afk the Reafon^ you vfiil 
" ptret with no other Jtcount befidtJ that tt/bui 
** J have given; and of this all we Cbrifiians an 

»*' IVitneffeSy tbefe Things being done not long 
Jf Jince in our own lime. So St. Chryf^om. 

iic-TH jj Reader, who is itvclined to fee many 

Particulars of the Pr€di<^ipns of our Savipup» 

which relate to this remarkable CatallFophe, 

and "Which I have omitted for Brevity 's.6ki«, 

f i ^ . and 

, I 39^ I' 
jUf44ri»W\hiey WQfe''i«n&e($4^ £>eflCk will 
d^:>i«il tOJDOnfult Dr. ^i»V^*B Pifefiuje, from 

^hMiiCi^l^e above Aftick& ^g eaken. 

yc :;-.;, .:■■:. ■■ o;.- . ••; ' 

The Oblervations I have to make on thcfe 
Prpphedes are as follow : 

-■^Bt, Tnt common Obje^on made to 
l^roj^Kedes In general^ that they are fo obfcuri: 
iod -figurative, as not (jo be expounded but hf 
^JeEroifei cannot be urged againft tbefet 
whicfc aflc conceived in Words as fimple and 
itlteUigible as thofe made ufe ef faff the Hifto» 
flan, ^Ii4ia relates the Events ^rrefpOnding 

- 'H&^f, It 'Iff very remarkable, thac of. thfc 
f&^MSmg/mi, 8t.ycbn alone^ ^ho J» faid 
'its- fti|W<)anrived the Deftru^^ioti of JmtfaUi^ 
iMe^ii6<Meadoii either of thefe Prophicios 
or i)ii^\A^otBipli&ment. Of the other three, 
.11) whole Qofpels they are to be fourid, St. 
W^thm'i^^xMaf}!: died confefibdly^'before 
4Sm^^S!^% thp Ti^ €t$ St^-i^f'a Death Is 
^ft^a^itf* ^ ^^^ ^<^ "OS (^ fronriienc^ veiy 
<(i^ccotielude^ that tlus remdrkabiie< Silence 
fcr^:, C c 4 of 

{ 394 ] 

of the belpvedDifcipIe, with regard to Pro- 
^JkfKs of lach ImpoPtJnce to the Credit of 
hi^ lljOf^Wfi his Rciigion, was wdered from 
above^. .left . Unbelievers fliould lay, '?rhat 
fome had faid of the Predidions of Darnel, 
Hhtf they were written after the Event ? 

sl.gdly, As. to the Predi(5bon celafij^ to the 
Jpuration of the Calamity of the yeraj^PcopJe 
and thdr Reftoration, though that ii the.onlj 
one of ail thofe above-cited, not yet per- 
fedly accompliihed, I : beg Leave however to^ 
obferve, that not only the miraculous (^fcat- 
ing of the Emperor Julianas Attempt to 
build the City and Temple of Jerufalem, bu( 
the prefcnt extraordinary Condition of die 
kjtwif is fuch a Warrant and Proof, that th^H 
'Prophecy alfo will have its Accompliihment 
-in due Time, as cannot fell of powerfully— 
i^riking thofe who will open their Eyes (W 
nview it. To induce the unobferving and un- 
thinking People of this Age to do this, and 
to aflift them in confidering this living Evi 
jidence of the Truth of Chriftianity, whi< 
lies within their Notice, and even at their ve 





[ 395 ] 
ire, I Ihall lay before th(*m ftymeObfcrv*. 
tions of an excellent * French Aut)ior upon this 
Subjeft, -whom I chtrfc ratkef to tfanflatc ^hatt 
to give his Arguments in my owri Words, jc* 

§. 29. '* t But neither the Difperfion of 
** the Jews into all Nations, nor the general 
*y Contempt into which they arc fallen,- arc 
1*:4b extraordinary, as their Prefervation for 
** fo many Ages, nocwithftanding this their 
«» Difperfion throughout the Earth, and the 
^' -tinivcrfal Contenapt which all Nations hav€ 
I ^1*^fbr them, 

d ■ 

^.** Without a fingular ProvideilcJ^'^a 

I 2*^ People difunited, and divided into an" ift- 

** ' finite Number of diftinft Families, banUfe^d 

••into Countries, whofe Language and Ciff- 

I ■(♦**^tonii were different from theirs, mtiflrhavc 

" been mingled and confounded whh otfifer 

"♦*' Nations, atid all Traces of them muft thefe 

-*■ initty Ages paft have etitiiely difj^ppeared. 

f Brlncipes de lay Foy Chreticnnr, torn. i. ch. 16. 
I See the preccduig Chapter. 


*Vf OR. thejr not only (ubfiftno loi^jerJn. 
** f Body Politick, but there is mtajfiqgler 
'* City,, wiiere they are allowed to. live accord- 
*^ ing to their own Laws, or to create. Ma- 

V giftratcs of their own ^ neither: are^ they 

V held together by any pubUck Eaoerciie.oS 
t* .Religion. Their Pnefts are withoutJSny* 
*> ployment,. their Sacrifices are fuppre^ed^ 
*> Their Feafts cannot be folenuuzed-but. in 
^y one only Piacc^ and to. that tbejc^^not 
^* permitted to repair. . . ;. , 

'""'By what Miracle then BaFc theyibeen 

V pr^ferved amid fo many Nations, without 
" any of thofe Means which keep other Peo« 
** pie uniced ? How comes it to pafs, that 
«« having been fcattered like fomany imperV 
'« ccptible Grains ofDuft, among all Nations, 
*.' they have notwithftanding been able to fub- 
*' iift longer than any, and even to furvive the 
" Extiniftion of them all ? 

''Who can at this Day pick out the an- 
" cient Romans from the numerous Crowds of 

V People, who have thrown themfelvsiiaco 

« Ifafy? 

C. 357 V 
*^ liafy ? Who can' point our one fingle Fa- 
'Vmiiy of oHGsuk from thofe of Enother 
*f "Qiiginftl ? Who can nwke thti like Sepa-' 
*' ration in tSp^zi/r, between the zn€vaat J^ani- 
•« <ir<£r and Gotbs^ who conquered it ? The 
*^ Ftce of thr Worlds changed, both ih the 
*f Enftimd Wefti and all Nations are mixed 
*h 'iu>db}<enM i» a hundred different Manners^ 
'!,i^ i9< lOaiy upon OoQJedures, and thoie of- 
% tendmesivecy frivolous* that a fingle F^ 
*f : iniljr a|n trace up its Original beyond the 
*< puhiick Hevolutions of the State. • 

: ,**^B»'T tht. Jtvos^ by a Tradkion wlach no 
^.-<4«iiKnUy» vhetber publick or private, hgtb 
^f.lMtqD>bioto interrupt, can go backas-£vai 
*i . rtic m^vsM. Stock of ^df&idww. They aa^ 
*' be miftakKA in allotting jjiemfdves- to this 
" or thlit Tribe,i becaufe fince their Difper- 
**. [(ion thcST h^e not any pubtick Regifttrs ; 
" .(which by the Way i$ a Proof that their 
•* I/aw 1$ aboli&ed, fincc neither the Pricfts 
** tnoi Levitts cah afcertain by any certain Mo- 
" numenfti that they are of the Family of Aa- 
%-r4u^ aad of the Txibc of»Z>w;> But every 
^^•^llatihcr hitlv^ taken C«re totelllus (Children, 
, ■- « that 


[ 398 ] 

** th*t he had an Original different from that 
"" of ihcCi <«///« v and that he defcended from 

" , the Patriarchs, who are celebrated in the 


** Scriptures, 


»*• tred 

_ " The general Contempt into which they 

V have fallen, fliould, one would think, have 

,•* induced them to confound themfelves with 

** thofe People, under whofe Dominion the 

** lived, and to fopprefs every Thing that 

*f tended to diftinguifh them. By feparating 

^•* themfelves from thofe who were in PoW( 

they only drew upon themfelves their 

and Derifion. In many Places thi 

'* expofed themfelves to Death, by bcarinj 

" the exterior Mark of Circumcifion. Eve 

-^*5 human Intcreft led them to efface the ign 

j" ?P'"^°*^ ^^^^^ of t'^'^ij" Originai. 

Jon S'joL vuii'Qi*! . ; ^.,^r. " , 

TnifY law every Day their Mcfuan ftill 

,*** farther removed from them i that the Pre 

** mifes of their Doflors about his fpeedj 

** Manifeftations were faife i that the Predici 

" tions pf the Prophets, whom they c.oul^ 

^^ ^f now no longer underftand, were coyt 

•ol^T',^ Obfcurity ; that ^11 the Supputatioii 


K t *359 i., 

' of Time, either terminated in Jefus CJbrift, 
or were without a Period j that fome a- 
"** mong them Ibff all Hope, and fell into In- 
** credulity with regard to the Scriptures. 

*' An D yet notwithftanding all this, they 

iftill fubfift, they multiply, they remain vi- 

fibly feparated from all other People ; apd 

in Spite of the general Averfion, in Spite 

of the Efforts of all thofe Nations who hate 

them, and who have them in their Power 


in Spite of every human Obftacle, they are 
prcferved by a fuper-natural Protection, 
which hath not in like Manner preferved 
any other Nation of the Earth. 

Y"^* One muft furely have very little Senfe 
•* of what ought to give one Aftonifhment 
•* and Admiration, if this Prodigy does not 
*' ftrike one j and one muft have a llrange 
*' Idea of the Providence of God, to think 
" he had no Hand in all this. 

'""'** But the Holy Spirit was not willing to 

'" leave us under any Uncertainty upoii thi* 

" Head -, and hath declared to us by his Pro- 

" phets. 

^' This Promife wafr matk^ to the old Pi- 
*•*' triarchs, to whom God hath rdcrved ChrN 
•' drcn, Heirs of their Faith, and to the 
.J*. Remnant of Ifrael, who tn the End of rfte 
■*' Ages (hall believe in Je/iu Cbrift. 

;" It is for their Sakes that the unworthy 
■^ Pofterity of tbc Unbelieving is fuflfered \* 
*■*" and it is to maintain the CommuaicstiOn 
f*i .between the firft Fathers and thcit lateft Sut- 
" cefibrs, that the Nation is prefcrvcd no»>- 
** withftanding their Iniquity, and in the 
** inidft of Puniihmcats, 5hac threatened to 
" overwhelm them. 

** Bu-r 

• Jcrcm. XXX. io» n. 

^Btrr lot it bfc obfervcd, that this Proiiii(3 
•* ^aaiiiade to the Natioa of the 7«wi only •," 
** Aitt'tM etchers fhali be either exterminated,' 
**• or fo trdnfounded^ith each other, las to be 
**. flirlonger dii^guiflied ; and that it is the 
<*.^i8ca^ of the Word of God, whick pre- 
••'fcnrcs the Jews amidft every Thing,, that 
*' in all Appearance would otherwife have 
^'ibi^tfaem entirely, and {waUowed* them 

.^f-: fimr/Mftb the Lord, if WfyrCavenatit itmt 
** with Day'4ni-Ni^tianiif Ihof^Mt Gp- 
" pointed the Ordinances of Heaven and Earth ; 
« ^k»^ldU f ■td^awarjt the S^d if Jacob and 
•* 'Q«M:mg^&erymit v-^far ImU C9uf^ their 
**• : CafHimtpta return, and bameMtrcy^cn tbem*, 
*< This I ixfM the Fromtfe, and the £hd 6f 
«« fkttimataSb, The Jews ihill one Doy^ be 
«' xecaUcd^hrough Nfetry; >tod:fbr the Sake 
«* of 31ilft Who IhaU- one Day i)e reeaiied, 
** the Patience of God fuffcrS4ill the itft* and 
•* his Power prefervcs them. 

« Thus 
* JereiD. xxadii. »5, 26. f 

[ 40i 1 

Thus faith the Lord, which giueth the Sun 
" for A Light hy Day^ and the Ordinanns of tl 
*' Moon and of the Stars for a Light by Night 
** nvhich dividith the Sea, ^vheit the l-V(we^ 
** thereof roar \ the Lord of Hcfis is his Nami 
*' If tbofe Ordinances depart from before 
•* faith the Lord, then the Seed of Ifracl ^1} 
** fhall ceaft from being a Nation before me for ^ 
•• ever. Thus faith the Lord, If Heaven nici 
V eon be meafured^ and the Foundations of /I 
'* Earth fearched out beneath, I wili alfo a 
»* off all the Seed of Ifraci, for ail that tii 
** have dene, faith the Lord"*, 



• ; 

*' That is to fay. Heaven and £art]]t^a 
pafs away Iboner than the Jews {hail « 
to be a diftind People. The Qitnc Powei 
which hath given Laws to Nature, watche 
over their Prefervation. And the unhearc 
of Crime, which they have committed i| 
crucifying the Saviour promifed to their Fi( 
thers, and which hath filled up the Meafuf 
of their former Iniquity, will not inoi 
God to rctrad his Promife, and to rej« 


• Jeron. xxxi. ^j, 36, 37. 

• entirely, and without Reiburce the ,Pofte- 

• .nty of Jufoff^ 

Vi . '^1 •-• .:'■..'-.'.■. . . ■ ■■;■ ■ 
• i ■ ■ '" t • ■ * < ^ ■. • ■■■■■■- * 

'*'\ Wfth What t^ijght were tl^e Prophets 
' mpitifnatecl, to presume to Tpeak info great 
•'tM'l^fty a Strain* of a Thing fc Httle '^ro- 
*^6feas tfie'D'uratfon of'a People," waiJc, 
*%ili«*ired, ^ uhivcrfally h^ted, ' and ' ^uiltj^ oJf 
**»hr^citelJ^ of all Crimes?" ^ " ;• 

*>'*^^Vfm irobld queftion the other I*r6phe- 
*?tie^' aftc* iceJftg; the AccompHflimcnr of 
'*>4hij^^'^ What more aftonifiiing Proof can 
'• any one defire'bf the Truth of the Chriftian 
'* Reli^oo, than thefe two Events joined to- 
**|filfl!','iftite'*Difperfion of the Jewsitito all 
**iNBiwte^, arid their Prefervation for Mben 
''•BffiiUred Years ? One of thcfe TThingi tatcen 
^'Cijparatcly and by itfelf was incredible *, and 
••"'flwy-becaine'ftill more fo by being united j 
^ buic bCwB "^ele Prodigies were neceflary to 
»*' j^fd^e that ye/us Chr0 was the Mcffiah^ 

^' It was neceflary that thofe who had re- 

*'' j^ed him, fliould be banifhed into all Re- 

'*' fjtm^, fliould into all Parts carry with them 

Dd "the 



I ml 

* > ^ •%4p^"'^^ ^4 Pi^JUJ^ every where ic- 
"y ,<»v^rt4 with. Igttominy. , .,- ^.. . 

:, *■ But tiiat the Proipifes made their FatJ^ri 
"., might B{: accompIi(hed, k was n^o^l^i 
that tftcir biiiihcd Family ihpuid b$ re^k 
ed, and that their Bliiidncfs Ixing dilfipat* 
'< ed* they fhould adore him* yrhom*ji^a- 
** £am Had defired to Tee. and whom he had 
'' adored with a holy Tranfport of Jpy.,and 

** The 7^WJf punilKed and' £^jperled,J^ 
**' Witriefs "to Jefus Chrifti The jews recalled 
^ and converted, will render him a Teftimq- 
ny ftill more awful and ftriking. Tl^ 3[«ft[ 
preferved by a continual Miraicle, thj^ t;h?X 
may prefer ve to jefus ^brifi tht Siocii,^<^ 
•* Succeffion of thofe who Ihall one Day be- 
** lieve in him, bear Witncfs to him conti- 
" nually. 

- ** Had they been only punilhed, they 
** would have proved his Juftice onlv : Had 




1 4«>rj' 

tHey only been prcferved, tKey could )iav« 
proved nothing but his Power. Had they 
not been referved to Worthip him one Day, 
they could not hdve proved his Mercy and 
Fidelity, nor have made him any Reparacior\ 
for their outrageous Crimes. 





Their Difperfion proves that he is 
come, but they have reje<5ted him : Thtif 
Prefervation demonftrates that he hath not 
rtjefted them for ever, and that they fiiiU 
one Day believe in him i and they declare 
by both that he is the Mefliab, and the pro- 
mifed Saviour. That theif Miferics proceed 
from their not having known him, and that 
the only Hope they have lef^ is that they 
Uiall one Day come lo the Knowledge of 

" We ought not to demand ^hy God fup- 
ports them fo long without enlightenino- 
them J and why he leaves fo great an Inter- 
val between the faithful Fathers, and the 
Children that will hereafter become fo too. 
To pretend to examine the impenetrable 
Judgments of God, and the AbylTes of his 
Bd 2 " Wifdom, 

[ 4o6 ] 
" Wifdom, is to pretend to mdfure^etTiAght 
" of Heaven^ and tofearch out the Fomiatim 
" ^f the Earth. • God hath fet Bouriiis to 
** the Incredulity of the Jews, ahd^to t6eln- 
" gratitude of the Gentiles: iTis Mefcy'Wd 
*' his Jufticc fuccccd each other ; and rid one 
" knows at what Time he will execute what 
«* he hath promifed to the lateff ^bfterity of 
" ^tftf/, although his Prpjpifcs Strt^lnfallibJe. 

«* t ^Hus faith the' Lord that created )bee, 
". O, Jax:qh^and he that formed tJ^e^ Oflfrael 
" rear not^ for t have redeemed thee j I Miv, 
*' called thee by thy Name; thou arrimine. 
'*• When thou pajfe/i through the Waters, I 
" will ^e with thee \ and through the Rivers , 
>* they fhdll not overflow jhee. When thou. 
*' walkeft through the tire,, thou fhalt not bg 
** hurrit, neither fhall tie 'f tame kindle ' upon 
" thee. Fear mt, for t arn with thee': Twill 
« bring thy Seed from the Eafiy anfgath'ef thee 
*« from the H^eft. Iwiltfarj'^fo the North; Give 
" up i and io the South, Keep not iiik^ :hring my 
" Sons from far, and my DaUghh)-} from the 

»' Ends 

.. . ._ _ ;-'f 

• Rom. xi. j2, 33. 
t Ifalah xliii. i — S. 

*f EmJs of the Earth : even eoery one that is 
**.eaJleJ h m Name, For Ibafue created bim 
^* (vr ng Glory, I have formed him, yea I 
\^.bave made him. Bring forth the blind Peo- 
.^•* fU that have Eyesy and the Deaf, that hofoe 
" Ears, 

-rri" ■ * . 

•'This Prophecy, truly admirable in all 

*' its Parts, is addrefled to Jacoh^ the Head 

*« of the Tribes otlfrael, and the Heir of the 

*^ Promifes of the Mefliah and Salvation, 

r , ■, . 

•* His Pofterity b difperfed into air the 

** Quatters'bf the World. This is thc"^ State 

, *• of the Jews fincc the Coming oiJefusCbrifi. 

••Their Difperfipn is the Puniihment pf 

their Spiritual Deafneis aqd Blin^nefs. And 

• with how great a Blindnefs, with Howgr^^t 

••a Deafneis may one not deicrvedly reproach 

•«. die ,Jews, for not haying known Jefys 

«« Cbrifi snd not, having heard iir^y thQugh 

..<^' he proved his divine Miffion by- an Infinity 

. *.* of piracies ! 

Pd 3 *< Their 



■yd .qniissH "T. " "ffj'yT 

«* Thiir C(Midition feema dcfperat*: The^ 
** Waters arc ready to over-whelm tHemj 
" the Flames furround them on all Sides : 
" But the ProteAion of God follows ihewj 
•• throughouc, and delivers them. .v; 

•* Twis Proteftion is ^ouchfafed to tht 
'* whole Body of the Nation, in favour ol 
" thofe, who fhall one Day call upoa iha 
** Name, which the reft have difljoiwuieij 
** with their Blafphcmies. 

v^ Gdo tjut of mere Meroy will giv« a d< 
-♦* cil© and feithful Heart to thofe^ v/ho 0iat 
•'renounce their former Incredulity. Thej 
^ will be the Creatares of his Graee, to wKtch 
" alone they will fland indcbtsd for thdr Re*-*j 
" pentance and Return. 

^LZj'-,i 'j'j.;j 

^ . .*. 

'r^'^lHuT Tvill not then begin to fee a ne^] 
M' Objeft jbut an Obje<5t which their Biindneff j 
♦». had concealed from them* They will no|i 
** then hear a Teacher* who began but a fe\» 
f Days before to make his Appearance, bu|| 
?J o»e whom their voluntary and obftinatci 
t*.7r/ji ^ 5 -i *' Deafnefs 

[ ^ J 1 

" Deafneis bad ke^t them from hearing be- 

^j^Elrtrr^Charge- *itt: be in. ti&eir- Perfons, - 
«*,rand iwt iiiT'hilriUli&ofl^ that.i^iU re > 
*« ^hat it is^'bute tltey:;^iathep-begiit td/fce- 
«* it. Jefus Cbrift will take away the Veil that 
*^'.\i vpoilrtlidc Eyes ^ but- he wiU be the fame. 
*!:Ho!trill cure their Deaftiefs-i 6iit iie will 
*<i^j5f»esdc the iame things. .' : r 

" Ir isr e^idfirtti, dicrw diat^c^j: arc> 
*• preiJarved for hinl j aiidthat the wKole Body 
*<odfedii!rjJfetkJn fol^ll^ birfy by .fc^^ 
«*fi«i (Uir Fit>m'^, whieii ia to^kidthe Ee-^- 
*« Ji4aihs.0F !ii/fi«!f t& Jifiu Chrifi : tking forth 
^ 4:imrHkltdr3ii>pf^fiXhaii J^Sf atdjit.ik4 

€X!«^ any otit; after reading thcfc ftfveral 
Bn^liadesr 'abo\re qUdfed, queftioit tHcVera- 
dtr^tirf^ftCffed^ Wtitfers •, who, l^y'pvblMh- 
ing tKifMltt^tHis lifafiikr, ^ put tlleir ilLSst^i. 
iTtikHt^d their dWnupedCbbtingencies vef^ 
le^wofi^and^^tthlHgly tinprobaWci ifljwi doth 
Ifif to^a^ ArCoiiijilinMheiat o^.thcfe>i*rtd 
^'xifir-^i, D d 4 feverai 

feveral ptiicr Prc4iclioi?5j^7jljfJh^fW|^iila^ 
been produced, fuSiqic^nt,)y:,.^^bU,(U^*eAikKiii 
thority of the. Scriptures, ,3»ci;;aic^»i»lRi^^ 
Truth of .aUthe KadJ;^ rej^te^ Vlu$t<li>i h'-'^^ ' 

§' 30., I COM I now f;p,<:oiifi^',tte ^ojand - 
Argument to. induce us t<>.,|?4iic*6tlMfcG^ij^i 
rofe fromthci Dead, t^iju. TJie,tExiftEhee •tof'- 
thje. Chriftian J^eligion. , .j.i*.' .y;..:!'!: -.J 

.From the .^ftencc, pf^tiq Chriftsafl RetV- 
gipn» in;iyvbe drawfl. tfiolfeiac kin<i of *EK- ' 
dsjpce of die J^^^jfcdien^ ci Jefus CbfiJ^i-iicA 
the, Wonders f^vtte»diijg it,'i as is fathibii^a W 
us of the Dclu^ by jhc manyPetrifaaiohs of- 
Shells andJBones of FifkiBs, «Ad other Ani-'- 
mals of dilUot Regioosi' fs'r.' found often n> 
the Bottoms of the detpeitMtnes, and tfiei" 
Bowels of the higheft Mountains H" for, as it 
is impoffible to account for th^ varitiu^'JPe- 
trifa(^ions being lodged in To niany Parts pj^ 
the Earth, feme maiiy Leases diftanc from 
the Sea, others very much at^ve the JLeSjel of 
it, "without admitting fudi ii Subverfipn ahi 
Confufipn of this Globed a^fcould not have 
been cccafioi^'d by a left violent Caufe tha^ 


iXkdiBxO'WiitBi^ifvmn^ ahove tbi'^fdp'^' cf tie: 
bi^ft Mills } fo will it, I apprehend, ' be ex«^ 
tretnel/ diflkuit to account for tli6 "Propaga- * 
tion and prefent Exiftcnce of Chriftianity in 
fa^manf Regions of the World,, withoyt fup- 
pdling tfaac Cifrn^ ro(e from the Dead, afcend-' ' 
ed:intoMt«ven, and enabled hisDifciples, by 
the miraculous Gifts of his Holy Spirit, tc*' 
furmounc fuch Obftacles as no mere human 
Abilijjep iCDuM poffibly overcome. In tne 
forijicr Cafe* a Caufe fuperior to the bf^inai-jr^ 
O^rations of Nature mud be aflS^n^'H for the; 
Pi^odg^tion of £ffe(fls plainly above, and con- 
tr^ to. thpfe Operations : And for a Solu-' 
tion of the latter, Recourie in like manner "^ 
n^ft: bcji^ to an. Agent of Power and Wif- 
donj tr^fccnding^ and controlling the natural 
Faculties. and Wifdom of Man; and this^ 
C;^|i^e, this Agent, an. be no other than ^c ' 
grea^.lAWrgiW^f Nature,- the All-tlt4fe,^knd ' 
Al|-n|ighty Creator . of , Heaven cdnd Earth. • 
lie aJoiie could hrmk up the Foumainsif this^ 
great Deep^ open the Windowi of Heaving \n^ 
cover tbi whole. Earth . mitb Heater ; that' is,^ 
bring on that univerfai Deluge, which alori^' 


[ 4t2 ] 

furnlfhes us with a Solution of many Phaeno- 
mcna, otheFwile unaccountable.) and He alone 
could break the Jaws of Death, and the Pri- 
fo0 of the Grave, open the KJngdom $f HeavtH^ ij 
and fhower down upon Mortals fuch mighijr; 
Gifts and Powers, as are the only adequate 
Caufes that can be afiign'd of the aftonifliing'; 
and praeter- natural Birth and Increafe of Chri- 
ftianity. This will not appear exaggerated^ W] 
we confider the Difficulties the Gofpd had tO- 
ftruggk with at its fijft Appearance, and the"^ 
Inabilities, the human Inabilities I mean, 
its firft Preachers, to oppofe and overcome 
thj^^ , Obftacles. 

VTh£ Difficulties they had to encountef'l 
were no lefs than the Supcrftition, the Preju-c 
dices, and the Vices of the whole World ^ 
DifBculties of fo much the harder Conqueft^^ 
as being derived, though by Corruption, from 
good Principles ; namely, the Religion, 
Nature, and the Rcafon of Mankind. Hoid 
powerful an Oppofition adl thefe formM a^ 
gainft the Gofpel, will beft appear from 
Ihort View of the State of the World undei 
the firft Ages df Chriftianity. 


B Jews^ though poflefsM of a Body oF^ 
Laws fram*d, as th^y acknowlcdg'd, by God^^ 
himfclf, had however, by Hfteni ng to tbe^^' 
Comments and Traditions of the Schohftick**^ 
and Cafuiftical Scribes and Rabbins, fo f:»r de*^ 
pirtcd lipom the Spirit and Intention of theit*-^ 
L.a\W'girer, as to place almolt the Whole oP^ 
their R^Kgion in the Obfervance of ritual Pii-J^ 
rities and: Ceremonies, to the Neglcft of thtf* 
*^grk:atsr and vxigbtier Matters of the Law^ 
fudg}wrtt^ Merey^and Faitb •, which, as our Sa- ■ 
vtourtold them, they ought to- have regarded,'' 
and not to have difregarded the others : That 
is, the Jevas were fallen from true Religion 
ioto a Superftition, which diflfer*d? from that 
of «hcG«ift7fx principally, in that the Gentiles 
worfhiped a Number of Deities, the Jews 
acknowlcdg'd and worfliiped One alone ; but 
fttU they worfhiped. liira Hjperftitiouftyv with 
exterior 3ervices only. Ablutions, Sacrifices, 
Obicrvation of Days, and other ceremoniar 
Datics.', not perceiving, or not rememberingiS 
the great and. wiic End of thofe ceremonial 
iaftiaitions ; which, by not allowing any 

I Forms 

^^^Bj 1 • Matt, xxiii. 23. 

I - ' 

[ 4|f 3 

Forw of Wori}iip, but tliofc pxcfcribed by 
th?; Law, ai>d not adrmtting to tlvit Worfhip 
any, but thofe, who b;, CijrcuAicilion /ipoqld 
become perfed IJr^ltt^s^ not.only tended to 
keep them from being mingled with the Gen- 
tsUsy and learning from them their idolatrous 
Polythejfm j by which Means that fundamen- 
ul Article of all true Religion, the Belief of^ 
one God, though loil in all other Nations, 
j^s for many Centuries prcferved among the 
ye!^s i but by the Fafts and Feftivals, the Pu-i 
xifications. Offerings, and propitiatory Sacri-j 
^ces appointed in the Ritual, put them per{ 
tually in ft4ind of the Duties of Prayer andj 
jXhankrgiving to God \ of the Importance qi 
moral Furity, the Obligation of Repentance, 
and the NccciGty of an Expiation for Sii>» Bh^M 
j^ffHolinefs of Life was of more di/Jicuk Prac- 
tice than the Obfervation of Ceremonies, qu-iih 
merous and burthenfome as they fecm tq have" 
been, they foon became willing to commutei 
and rcpofing their chief Hopes of obtaining 
^the Favour and Proteftioo of God in tjieir 
Compliance with the ceremonial Law, tl^ey 
^fyrned their Attention principally to that$ 
• ^tached themfeives to it fo ftrongly, that t^ft'j 


t 4-t5 1 

they did not Tcruple to commit a thoufand 
Immoralidcs, they would fooner die thar> 
cat any unclean Meats, or fufFer their Tcni- 
ple to be profaned. 

From this Atcachrtlent to what they e- 
fteemed tiie Law of Msfes, they prefumed 
upon the fpecial Favour and Protection of God, 
and looked upon themfelves as fole Heirs <]if 
the Promifes made to Abraham and David^ and 
repeated and confirmed by all their Prophets. 
But the fame Blind nefs that with-held them 
from feeing the fpiritual Intent and Meaning 
of the ceremonial Inftitutions, kept them like- 
wife from Underftanding the fpiritual Senfe of 
thofe Prophecies. The Blefling therefore pro- 
mifed through the Seed- of Abraham^ to all 
the Nations of the Earth, and the Kingdom fti- 
pulated to the Pofterity of David, they prepof- 
teroufly interpreted to belong to themfelves 
alone ; and expounding the Dehverance of If- 
raei intimated by the Prophets, and the Vic- 
tories and Dominion of the Son of David in a 
carnal Senfe, thty expefted, at the Time of 
Chrijl*s Coming, a Meffiah, v^fho fhould not 
only deliver them from their Subjeftion to the 
2 RomanSy 

[ 4t6 ] 

RomanSt but even conquer and fubdue tkfms 
and all the ochcr Powers of the Earth, to tbc 
Empire of the Jews^ the fole Favourites*^ 
Heaven, and dcftin'd Lords of the Univerfe, 
under tht-ir invincible glorious King. Thefc 
Expeif^aiions, fo flattering to the whole Ka- 
tion, had fo infefted the Minds of all Ordeh 
a<id Degrees, that even the Difciples of Jf/K^t 
who were (fome of them at leaft) ai the loweft 
of the People, were a long while tainted with 
them, notwithftanding the fpfritual Inlhuc- 
tions, and plain Declarations of their Maftcf 
to the contrary. And though, fo<m after his 
Afcenfion, they feem to have given up aH 
Thoughts of a temporal Kingdom, yet could 
they not for fame Time, nor withouc an ex* 
jwefs Miracle, be convinced that the Gentffes 
bid any Title to the Mercies of God^ op arrf 
Share ia the Kingdom of the Meffiah. Such 
was the Superftition, and fuch the Prejudiecs 
qf the whole Jewijh Nation, 

VTo thefc national Prejudices may bi 
sd(kd others arifing from the peculiar Te* 
nete of the different Sefts, that divideii 
among them almoft the whole People of 

> ' the 



[ 4^7 ] 

^ ms. The mofl: powerful of thefe were 

^the Pbarifees and Sadducecs t Of whofe chidf 

^fcoi^rines fome Notice is taken, by the Evan- 

^K^liA^^ as well as of , their rancorous Oppo- 

fition to the Gofpel of Cbrifi. The Reader, 

I 1^^ i^ dcfirous of feeing a more particular 

Account of the Opinions of ihefc, and the 

Other Seds, may confult the * llniverjal Bijlory^ 

' \s. may be fufiicient to obferve here, that they 

bad all of them many Followers, had greaf 

Authority with the People, and had, efpecir 

^ly the Pbarifcfs^ a large Share in the Governr 

L |nent of the Jewijh State- And though there 

r jivas a conftant Hatred and Rivalry betwpea 

I fhem, and confequently fo great a Zeal in 

l' each for the Advancement of their particular 

Opinions, that thty would compafs Heaven and 

Earib to gain one ProfelyiCy yet they all agreed 

with the fame Ardour to oppofq the Frogrefa 

of Chriftianity. 

The idolatrous Supcrftitions of the Hea- 
then World, and the zealous Attachment of 
every Nation and City to the Worfliip of their 
rcfpedivc tutelary Deities, are too well known 

^, ♦ Vol. IV. p. 169, y fcq. 


tohf^ rnlnrrrrrl nnon in this PI4CP. : But T mri(> 

€)[). ucs the rrejmliccs ol .^ 

Dorant and bigotted Multitude, . there Ipfigfl^ 
up from tbefe Superditions other Obftacl^s tq|| 
Chriftianity no kfs formidable, though of a,|| 
4".ffercnt Kind: For many Religious RitcS|l 
and Ceremonies having, either by Prefcrip-* 
lion, or the Policy of Legidators, been mixec 
and interwoven with th? Adminiftraiion of Ci-^ 
vU Affairs, the Worfhip of the Gods wa 
become not only an cflential Part of the C« 
ftitution, but the great Engine of Gt>vernmeaj 
In mod States and Kingdoms. Thus, among il 
Greeks and other Nations, Omens and Oracles j 
among the Romans^ Aufpices, Auguries, anc 
Sacrifices, cither of Thanfgiving, or Propij 
tiation, were often very fucccfsfuUy employ^ 
cd upon great and important OccaJjons ; Ot^ 
which Account, all the Roman Emperors, whc 
had appropriated to themfelves the Autho- 
rity of the whole Empire, formerly divide^ 
among feveral Officers, after the Examples 
Juliui Ctefar and Augujius^ either aftually tool 
upon them the Office, or at leaft the Title 
'Pontifcx MaximuSf Chief Prieft ; that is, ac 
cording to the Definition of Feftus, Judix a( 


t 4^> ] 

^i' UthUer rerum human arum divinaruinque •, th« 
Judge and Arbitrator of human and divine 
Affairs. And htnce rhofe wife, as well as 
humane Emperors Trajan, and the Two Anto- 
nimsy might poflibly think themfclves under 
a double Obligation, as Chief Magiftrates and 
Chief Pfiefts, of perfccuting the Chriftians,' 
whom they apparently confidtrM as Innovators 
with regard to theConfticution, as well as Reli- 
gion of the Empire. This, tho' no fufficicnt Ex- 
cufe for fuch barbarous and inhuman Proceed- 
ings, may fervc however to leiicn the Aftb-*^ 
nifhment we are apt to fall into, upon hearing 
that fo virtuous a Religion as that of the Chri-^^* 
ftians was pcrfecuted by fo virtuous a Prince 
as Antonitms the Pbilofo^ber j tho* it muft at 
the fame time be acknowledged, that there 
was in him a great Mixture of Superftidon, 
however incompatible that is thought to be 
with Philofophy. This may alfo ferve to Ihew 
us the diftrefsfut Situation of Chriftianity, a- 
gainft whofe Progrefs not only the Superfti- 
tious Zeal of the Multitude, the Laws and 
Policy of almofl: every State and Kingdom, 
but the feeming Duty of even good and juft 
Magiftratcs were fatidly combined. 

5e Ii* 



,-. If to' politick and pioui Prince^, Religion 
^nd the Laws of the Sute might ferve for 
lJ[ieafon or Pretence for oppoling Chriftta? 
^icyj, xo wicked Emperors sher« ¥^s yctj 
pother Motive diftind frpm any Confidqraj I 
^ion either of Duty or Policy, pr even of] 
^cir Vi^es i and (hat was, their own Divitl 
niiy. After all the Power and Dignity of tht 
B^nm^ People, and their feverai Mag^ftraie^ 
wa$ devolved upon the fingle Perfpn of th^j 
Emperor, the Senators, by a Tranfition natiKi i 
fal enough to Slaves, from Counfellors be^i 
coming Flatterers, had not only eilablifhed 
Law the abfolute Authority of their Tyrants i 
tjut fo far confecrated their Perfons, evca 
iheir Life-time, as to creft Altars to 
Names, to place their Statues among thofe of 
the Gods, and to offer to them Sacrifices 
Incenfe. Though thefe injpious Honour 
were conferred upon all alike witliout any 
ftindion of Good or Bad i yet tl\e latter, n< 
being able fronj their ow,n Merit to acqut 
to themfelves any RefpcCt or Veoeration, 
aothing to ft^i^ upon but the Powenand J 
rogatives of their Ofii^e \ of which there^oj 




L 421 1 

they became fo jealous, as to make it danger 
tcvti for any one to hegleft paying them thofe 
outward Honours, however eictravagant iini 
profane, which either the Laws, or their owh 
mad Pride required. And hence adoring 
ff\e Image of tht Emperors, fwearing by theit 
Karnes, Ofr. became a Mark and Teft of Fi- 
delity, with which all who fought their Fa- 
ir^ur, or fcai'ed their Power, mofl: religioilfly 
complied ; all thofe efpecially who held any 
Magiihacy under them, or governed thi Pro- 
vinccs. And thefe, by their Offices, were 
yet farther obliged to take care, that within 
the Limits of theif JurifditStion, thttt morf 
eflfential Part of the Duty of Subjects to bad 
Prince*, exterior Refpeit and Veneration, was 
mofl punctually paid. Now, as the Doc- 
trines of Chriji were entirely oppofite to 
aU kinds of Idolatry, Chriflians were by tflis 
Teft, with which they could by no means 
comply, rendered liable to the Guilt of that 
kind of Tfeafoa, which Tyrants artd th^Iir 
Miniftcrs never pardon, how apt foever they 
may be to overlook Crimes againft Religion 
or the State. And that this Teft was, among 
others, made life of againft the Profeflbn of 

^22 ] 

'(Chriftiahity, even in the bcft Reigns, is evi- 
dent from a Paflage in the famous Eplftle of 
Pliny to I'rajant in which he related his Man- 
ner of proceeding with thofe who offered to 
clear themfclvcs of the Charge or Sufpicion of 
being Chriftians, in the following Words . • 
** Profofttusejt libellusjine autore^multorum no- 
" mina continens^ qui negant fe eje Cbrijlianos^ 
** aut fuijfe: Cum praeunti me Deos afpellarent^ 
•* & imagini tua {quam propter bocjujjhram cum 
'^fimulacris numinum afferri) tbure ac vim fup' 
•* plicarent » pntterea makdicerent Cbrifto ; quo^ 
** rum nihil cogi pojfe dicuntury qui funt reverg 
** Cbrifiiani. Ergo dimittendos putavi. Jlii ai 
" indice nominatl, ej[e fe Chrijlianos dixerunty £j? 
*' mox negaverunt j fuijfe quideniy fed de/uffc \ 
'* qui dam ante trienniumy qui dam ante plures 
'** noi : non nemo etiam ante viginti quoque. Omnes 
^ l^imaginem tuam^ deorumquefimulacraveneratk 
" funt i it & Cbrifio maledixerunt. A Paper was 
" fet forth, without a Name, containing a L 
'* of many People, who denied that they eithei 
** were, or ever had been Chrifbians. Now tl; 
•* Perfons having.alter my Example.invocaced^ 
" the Gods,fl»i/ with PFine and lncenfepa\td /, 
** Devctions to your Image {which I had cattfed.t 

• Epift.icvii. 1. lo. 

.[ 423 ] 

be brought forih for that Purpofe, wiih the 
Images of the Gods) and having moreover 
blafphemcd Chrip {any one of which Things 
it is faid no real Chrijiian can he compelled to 
do) I thought proper to difmifs them. O- 
thers, who had been itiformed againft, con* 
fefled that they were once Chriflians, but de- 
nied their being fo now, faying they had quit- 
ted that Religion, fome three Years, others 
more, and Ibmc few even twenty Years ago. 
All thefe worjhiped both your Image ^ and thofe 
of the Godsy and did alfe blafpheme Chrift.''* 

To thefe powerful Patrons of Superftition, 
and Enemies of the Gofpel, may be added 
others, whofe Authority, tho' inferior and 
fubfervient to the former, at leaft within the 
Limits of the Roman Empire, was however 
of very great and extenfivc Influence •, I mean 
the Priefts, Diviners, Augurs, and Managers 
of Oracles, with all the fubordinate Atten- 
dants upon the Temples and Worlhip of al- 
moft an infinite Number of Deities ; and many 
Trades, if not intirely depending upon that 
Worlliip, yet very much encouraged and en- 
riched by it, fuch as Statuaries, Shrine- makers, 
Breeders of Vi^flims, Dealers in Frankin- 
E c 3 ccnfe, 

cenfe, yc. $i\\ ef whom were by Intercft, to 
(ay nothing oi Religion, ftrongly devoH^ to 

It tnjiy not be iniproper alfo, vndcr the 
Artkb; ot Reiigion» to mention the Lirct^/mn^ 
*nd other Spe<3:aclc5 exhibited among the Rjt' 
maaiy the Four Great Games of (?wa"#» the 
Olympian^ Pythiaii> JJkhman^ and Nemean ; 
with many otherK of ilic fame Kind, celebra- 
ted with great Magnificence in every Couniry, 
and aknoft in every City of Greece both in 
Europe ani /iJ:a\ all of which were fo many 
religious Fcflivals, which, by the AUuretncnts 
oi Pomp and Fleafure, not co mention the 
Glory and Advantages acquired by the Coa- 
qucrors in tho(e GaQie&» attached many Do ths 
Cauie of Superftition, 

.I'BifT Superftition, univerlal and powerful 
, as it was, by its Union with the Intereft&and 

Pleafures of a confiderable Pan of Mankind^ 
was not the only nor the greatelt Obftacle that 
Chriftianity had to contend with. Vice leagued 11 
^ againft it a l^ill a greater Number, The Am*- I 

w bitious and Luxurious^ the Debauched and I 

^ Lewd, " 

[ 425 ] 

Lewd^ the Mifcr and Extortioner, "the Unjuft% 
and Oppreffive, the Proud and the Revenge^l 
fu]» the Fraudulent andRapacious, were alJ Foc&! 
to a Religion, that taught Humility and Mo- 
deration, Temperance and Purity even of 
Thought, Liberality and Clemency, Juftice," 
Benevolence and Mecknefs, the Forgiving of 
Injuries, and the doing that only to others^ which* 
"lae tjooulet have them to do to us. Virtues agreed 
able indeed to Rearon,and difcovcrable in Pare 
by the clear Light of Nature j but tlie Diffi- 
culty lay in the bringing thofe to hear Reafon* 
Who had abandoned tliemfelvcs to Supcrftition; 
And how was the almoft extinguiflied Riy 
©f Nature to be perceived, among the many 
felfe and glaring Lights of Religiori, Opinion, 
and Philofophy, which recommended and 
fandlified many enormous Vices ? The Qods^ 
like dilTolute and defpotick Princes, who have 
trften been very properly compared to ihem, 
were tbemfelves the great Patrons and Exam- 
jilcs of Tyranny, Lewdnefs and Revenge, and 
alitK>ft all Kinds of Vice. And Opinion had 
magnified Alexander ^ artd deified Julius Cafctr 
for an Afnbttiorr, which ought to have rendei^ 

ed them- the Objis^ of . the Deteftation _ and 

^^ Neither was Philpfopby fo great a Friend 
tftj Virtue, or Enemy to Vice a& (he pretended 
to be. Some Philofophi^s^: on the contrary; 
djcnied th^,, at Icaft the. Providence of I 
(jQ(ii, and Juture Rewards and PunifhmentSf j 
and, as a jyft Cgnfequence of that Opinion^ 
placec) the Felicity of Mankind in the Enjoy-* 
l|^co£^ o^tbis World, that is, in fenfual Pleanj 
furcs. Others affefting to doubt and quef 
every thing, took away the Diftindion of Yiti 
^pe^nd Vice, and left their Difciples to follow 
^fl;Kr, as their Inclination diredked. Thefe 
wprc, at leaft:indire<5Hy, Preachers of Vice; 
And among thpfe who undertook to lead theti 
Difciples to the Temple of Virtue, there were 
fo loapy different, and even inconliftcnt Opi- 
nions, iofnc of them fo paradoxical and ab' 
furd, others fo fubtiiized and myfterioU3» and 
all of them fo erroneous in their Firft Princi- 
ples, and fo defeftive in many great Points of 
Religion and Morality, that it is no Wonder 
that PhUofophy, however venerable in her Ori* 
ginal, and noble in her Pretenfions» degcnc* 


f 4n T 

fated into Speculation, SophjftryV an3' a''Sd^ 
cnce of Difputation, and from a Guide of 
Life, became a pedantick Prcfident of the 
Schools, from wliericc arbfe another Kind of 
Adverfaries to the Gofpel : A Set of Men, who 
from feeing farther than the Vulgar, came to 
fancy they could fee every thing, and to think 
every thing fabjeft to the Difcuflion of Rca- 
fon ; and carrying their Inquiries into the Na- 
ture of God, the Produiftion of the Univerfe* 
and the Effence of the human Soul, either 
feuned. upon each of thefe, or adopted fome 
quaint or myfterious Syftem, by which they 
pretended to account for all the Operations of 
Nature, and meafure all the Aftions of God 
and Man. And as every Seft had a Syftem 
peculiar to itfclf, fo did each endeavour to ad^ 
vance their own upon the Ruins of all the reft-^^ 
and this engaged them in a perpetual War 
with one another *, in which, for want of real 
Strength and folid Arguments, they were re- 
duced to defend themfelves and attack theif 
Adverfaries with all thofe Arts, which are 
commonly made ufe of to cover or fupply th<^ 
Deficiency of Senfe and Reafon *, Sophiftryj' 
Declaration, and Ridicule, Obftinacy, Pridi^ 


[4t8 ] 

and Rancour. Men of this Turn, accuftom- 
ed to reafon upon Topicks, in which Realbn 
is bcwifldered -, Co proud of the Sufficiency of 
Reafon^ as to think they could account for- 
every thing -» fo fond of their own Syftefnv 
as to dread Convidion more than Error, 
lb habituated to difpute pertinacioufly, to affcrR^ 
boldly, and to. decide magiflerlally upon ever) 
QucflJon, tlut they were almoft incapable 
any Inftrudion, could not but be averfe to thOj 
feceiving for their Matter a crucified Jcw^ and; 
for Teachers a Parcel of low obfcure Pcrfons 
of the fame Nation, who profeflfed to glcfjji 
in the Croft «f Chrift, to know rtcthing hut Hin 
trt/cified, and to ntgledl and defpife the ic|] 
much admired Wifdom of this. World j anc 
who moreover taught Points never thought 
by the Philofophers, fuch as. the Redemptioiil 
of Mankind, and the Refurreftion of theDeadyj 
ind who, though far from forbidding the duo^^ 
Exercifc of Reafon, yet confined it within 
proper Bounds, and exhorted their Difciples t(S 
fubiiiit with all Humility, and to rely with 
Confidence upon the Wifdom of God, in( 
of pretending to arraign his Proceedingsi 
zihefe JudgmcBts. are jvtfearcbabky and wbojt^ 
PFays are pafi Jinding out. 




F a o M this View of the Jewijh and Geni«* 
tile World, it is evident that every Thing thati^ 
nioft ftrongly influences and tyrannizes ove^* 
the Mind of Man, Religion, Cullom, LaW^J* ■ 
Policy, Pride, Intereft, Vice, and even Phi-t- 
lolbphy, was united againft the Gofpel : Ene- 
mies in thefr own Nature very formidable antF 
difficult to be fubdued, had they even fufFcred" 
themfelves to be attacked upon equal Ground, 
and come to a fair Engagement. But not re- 
lying upon their own Strength only (for Pre- 
judice and Falfliood are always diffident and 
iearful) they intrenched themfelves behind 
that Power, which they were in Poffeflion of, 
and rendered thenifelves inacccflible, as they 
imagined, to Chriftianiry, by planting round 
them not only all Kinds of Civil Difcourage- 
xnents, but even Torments, Chains and Death : 
TttTors, which no one could defpife, who had 
any Views of Ambition or Intereft, and who 
was not even contented to refign, what he 
tnight otherwifc have enjoyed in Peace, and 
without a Crime, his Reputation, his Eaft", 
^s Fortune, and his Life. Thefe were the Dif- 
ficulties, which Chi'iftianity had to ftniggle 


[ 4^0 ] 

witii for many Ages, and over which fhc at 
length fo far prevailed, as to change the whole 
Eacc of Things, overturn the Temples ant 
Altars of the Gods, filence the Oracles, hum-^ 
blc the impious Pride of Ejnperors, thglq 
earthly and more powerful Deities, cot 
found the prcfumptuous Wifdom of Philofq 
phers, and introduce into the greateft Part 
the known World a new Principle of Rciigic 
^d Virtue. An Event apparently too ut 
uieldy and llupendous to have been brougb 
about by mere human Means, though all 
AccompUlhrocnts of Learning, all the infmi 
ating and perfuafive Powers of Eloquence^ 
ipined . to the profoundcll Knowledge of tJ 
^ature and Duty of Man, and a long Pra£ti(jo 
^d Experience in the Ways of' the Worl 
had all met in the Apoftles. But the Apo&k^ 
icxcepting Pauly were ignorant and, iiliteratcg 
bred up for the moft part in mean Occup^^ 
ons, Natives and Inhabitanis of a remote Prq« 
■vince of Judea, and fprung from a Natit 
Jiatcd and defpifed by the reft of Mankine 
So that allowing it poffible, that a Change fp 
total and univerfal might have been cfFtifle 
^y the natural Powers and Faculties of Man, 

[ 43» ] 

he Apoftles none of thofe Powers, Sf. 

le excepted, who was indeed eloquent 
and well verfed in all the Learning of the 
Jews, that is, in the Traditions and Doftrines 
of the Pharifees, (of which Seft he was j) a 
Learning, which, inftead of aflifting hitn la 
making Converts to the Gofpel, gave him 
the ftrongefl: Prejudices againft it, and rendered 
him a furious Perfecutor of the Chriflians. 
Ytt of this Eloquence, and of this Learning, 
he made no Ufe in preaching the Gofpel \ on 
the contrary, -f IfHien I came to you, ffays he to 
the Corintbiam) I came not iviih Excellency of 
Speech^ orofWifdom, declaring to you. theTef- 
timony of God •, for I determined not to know any 
thing among you, fave Jefus Chrift, and him 
trucifed : And 1 luas with you in fVeaknefs and 
in Fear^ dnd in much trembling \ and my Speech 
and my Preaching was not with enticing Words of 
Man*i fVifdom. And in the preceding Chap- 
ter, comparing the Infufficiency ofthe Preach- 
ers of the Gofpel with the Succefs of their 
Preaching, he attributes the latter to the true 
"Caufe, the Wifdom and Power^ of God, in 
thefe cxpreffive Words: — * For Qhu^fent me 

f I Cor, ii. I — 4. 

• I Cor. i. 17, 18, 

I 43*1 

ffprtceb the Gafptl^ tut with Ulfdom offf^ofis, 
Itji tbg Crefi of Cl\rift jhould be made of rum 
£,fea, F»r ibe Preacbing of tbt Crofs it t» tbtm 
tbat ftrip Feolipnefs j but unio us, vnho ail'e 
favtdi it is tbe Power of God. * For it is vrit*- 
tat, /; wili defiroy tbe Wifdori* of tbe Wife, and 
win bring to nothing the Uftder^andiMg of tbt 
Prudent. Wbere is the Wife ? fFbere is tbt 
Scribed Where is tbe Difputer sf this World f 
Hath 7UU God made foohfii tbe Wifdom of xVis 
Wprldi For after tbat in tbeWifiian of GwIj 
the World by Wifdrnt knew not Gady it pJeafedt 
Cpd by the Foelifhnefs of Preaebing to f^ve thenki 
tbat believe. For tbe Jews require « Sign, andf 
/i* Grefks feek after Wifdom. But we predchx 
Chiift crucified, utUo fAf Jews a fiumbliitg Blffck^s 
sad to ibe Greeks Fooli^jnefs ; bat taita tkeudi 
whkb are called, both Jews and Gitek^, Ghriffr' 
a5w Pe/soer of Gad^ and the Wifdom of God ; ^^» 
caufe tbe Fcolifbnefs. of God is wifer tban Mfn; 
(mi tbe Weeikftefs of God is fironger tban Men y'l 
For yott fee. your Calling, Bfetbre)i^ that not mi 
U^^ifd Men after th? llefb, wr ttumy A^gbty^ nor^l 



XXIX. 14. 

f 453 3 

Noble^ are called. But God'hath choftn tbi 
foolijh Things of the World ta confound ihs' JVifgi^ 
tmd God bath cboj^n the weak Things of tbi 
World to confound the Things thai are mighty ', 
snd baft Things of the World, and Things which 
are defpifedy hath God cbofen -, yea, and Things 
which are ncl^ td bring to nought Things that 
art, that no Flefb fhould glory in his Prefence. 

This is a true Reprefentation of the Con- 
dition of the firfl: Preachers of the Gofpel, and 
their Oppofers. The latter were pofiefled of 
ail the Wifdom, Authority, and Power of the 
"World i the foriper were ignoranti> contemp-iV 
t&le, and weak. Which of them, then, act^ 
cording to the natural Courfe of human Af--^ 
feirs, ought to have prevailed ? The latter, 
without all doubt. And yet not the Apoftte 
only, but all Hiftory and our own Expe*^ 
riencc affure us, that the Ignorant^ the ConV* 
temptiblc, and the Weak, gained the Viftory 
Ifon* the Wife, the Mighty, and the Noble. 
To what other Caufe, then, can we attribute a 
Succefs fo contrary to all the Laws, by which 
the Events of this World are governed, than 


( 434 I _ 

[^ fi»* lotetpoliiion of God, manifcftdd in" 
tdurrc^lion and Afccnfion ui Je/tu Chrii^^ a( 
aiiratuluus Powers confcrr'd upon 
Ucs aod Difciples ? A Cdufc adc 
^1 the Effefts, however great and 
For, with ihdc ample Credentuds from 
King of Heaven, even a poor Fiiherman 
Cahiee might appear with Dignity before 
High Prieft and Sanhedrim of the J<ws^ 
fert boldly that God bad made that fame Jefu 
v)hom they bad crucijied, both Lord and Chrij 
and make good his Aflcrtion by proving, ih 
He was rilen from the Dead, ftrange and 
pematural as it might feetn, not only by 
own Teftrmony, and that of his Brethren cl 
Apoftles and Difciples of JefiCy fey whom 
was feen for forty Days after his Poj^cn^ but 
innumerable Inltances of a Power, fuperior 
like manner to Nature, derived upon The 
from Mw, aad cxcrcifed by them in hu Nat 
From the Scriptures alfo might the fame 
norant and illiterate Galileans flicw againft 
1 raditions of the Elders, the Learning of i 
Scribes, and the Prejudices of the whole Jevuij 
Nation, that the humble fufftring Jefus wa 



t 435 1 
'fhe mighty'tnilmphant Mcfliahi'^fHolccVof by 
the Prophets j fince ifj with reference to chc 
Interpretation of thofe ProphecieSi ^^ny Doubt 
could have arifen among the People to ^Vhofc 
pofitions thcy;^ould fubmir, to thofe of 
*ha Scribes and Eiders^ or thofe of the Apo- 
ftles i the latter had to produce, ia Support 
of their Authority, the Atteftation c^ that 
Holy Spirit, by whom thofe Prophets were in- 
fpired, now fpcaking through theil Mouths 
in aJl die Languages of the Earth. And with 
regard to that other Pointj of ftiil harder Dt- 
geftion to the JewSy namely, the calling the 
uncircumcifed Gentiles to an equal Pariicipa.- 
cion of the Kingdom of God, and coniequenc- 
iy the aboliihing CircumciHoa, and the whole 
Ceremonial Law, the Apoftles were furnifbed 
with an Argument, to which all the Rabbins 
Were not able to reply i by the Holy Ghoft^ 
beftowing upon the Gentile Converts to Chri* 
ftaantty, the fame heavenly Gifts as he had 
JBonfcrrM, at the Beginning, upon the belicv* 



t 436] 

, Invested with fuch full Powers from on^ 
bigli, might thefe lame obfcure JenaSj notj 
withrtanding the Contempt and Hatred whic 
all other Nations had for that People, under^ 
take and accomplifh the arduous and amazir 
Talk of preaching the Gofpel to all %\ 
World. The Belief of One God is the fui 
damenul Article of all true Religion -, and th^ 
Unity oi tJie Godhead is certainly difcover^ 
able, and even to be dcmonllrated by Reafos 
But this Article of Belief (as I iuvc faid <b^ 
fore) was not to be found in the Religion 
any Nation, bcfides the Jews j and long Af 
guments and Dedufbions of Reafon, by wlucj 
it was to be demonftrated, were above the Ca 
pacity of the greateft Part of Mankind. Ti 
prove this important Truth, thetcfoTc, in 
Manner eafy to be comprehended by xh\ 
weakeft, and yet not to be refuted by 
ftrongeft Underftanding, the Apoftles 
Followers were for many Ages endqwM, 
fides all their other miraculous Gifts, with 
Power over Devils or Demons, (the only 
Deities of the Pagans that had any real Being) 

t 437 ] 

permitted perhaps to fhew themfelves at tHat 
-TiiiVe in ttctraordinary'Operations, forthe lake 
of' ilhiftrAtingaftd proving this gneat Truth. 
Bjr" this Power cheyi caft them out of man j^, 
vJ*o were pofleffeid fa/ them, drove them frdrft 
ttefr-Terhples, Gr6ves,-and Oi^cles, 6bl»g*?d 
thtm to -confefs their bwn In/eriority)* tb^c?- 
khoWiedge the Dothini6n c^Jefus Cbnjt, Ahi& 
ttidtbhK his Apbftle^ to be • thetervdftfs^f 
the' mfi- highOifdt fent to Jhem Mahkind the 
ia^'-ef^hjafim.' * TWs? Power 'tliey escercifed 
iflc%hfe^!4rame o^ JefksChr^^ In ordeif to 'pro^ 
hlyiMtiilatioi* and'Ifit^Geffioh feetwe<ffi ^God 
zt&t Man, the fec^tid Article ^t thfe ChriftiSti 
0*«fed. '''Aftd as.'fey -thiar PdViter/thOs exerdfeH 
itt-tb*f^amtof C(&r(^^ the Apoftles' and thcfp 
Followers' W(^e enabled to provej 'ev%h to thi 
Sefifes ^f all Manikmd'i that- there is bufCWfe 
©ed,' attd One MeffiaiAr ; {6 frorir-that aA§ 
other miraculous- Gfftsf of the "Holy -Spirit, 
lieiling all manner of Difeafes, fpeaking tirith 
varioiis Tongue*!, prdjAefying, ^ci "di^tlre^ 
I !• -y-- . .'. -.■ ■■■'■' Ff 2 ■'''■■■ "■■■>■-' '^ der' 

■' • *' A<is rvi. x'f. See, foi- ri^y oiihkr'liiRxiKxi-mifTy's 
(kafral Preface to the £plftles. 

derive to themfclves Authority to teach tiic 
great Dodrincs of Chriftianiry, Repentance, 
Rcmifllon of Sins, Holinefs of Life, future 
Rewards and Punifliments, and the Refur- 
rcdion of the Dead : Of which laft, the Rfe- 
iurredtion oiChrifi was both an Inllance and * 
Pledge ; as the Effufion of the Holy Ghoft 
upon Believers was a clear Evidence^ of the 
Efficacy of Repentance, and the Remiffion 
of their Sins. And of the Neceflity of a 
holy Life, and the Certainty of future Re- 
wards and FuniflimcntSj nothing could afford 
jL Xlronger and more convincing Argument^ 
{jthan the Lives and Deaths of thefe Anfbaf- 
fadors of God, who were apparently guide 
into all Truth by his Infpiration ; and wl 
;;Upon the AjQurance of a blefled ImtnortaJitj 
jaot only pradifed all the Virtues they preach 'id 
b^it chearfully underwent all kinds of Suffcr- 
*' ings and even Death itfelf. 

After this manner were the firft Preacl 

vCfs of the Gofpel, weak, ignorant, and cof 

, temptible as they were, furnilhcd wit 

Strength fufficient tp overthrow the Jin 


C 4J9 ] 

Holds of Satan, the Superftitions, Preju>lices, 
and Vices of Mankind \ and by the Demon- 
Jiration of the Power of God^ an Argument 
whofeConcIufivenefs was vifible to the dullcft 
Capacity, enabled to confound the Subtiltics 
of the moft difputatious, and furpafs the 
Wifdom of the wifeft Philofophers, in efta- 
blifhing Religion upon the Belief of One God, 
grounding the Obligation to Virtue upon 
it's true Principle* the Command of God ; 
and deriving the Encouragement to Holinefs 
cf life from the Promifes of God, to reward 
thofe who fiiould obey his Will with eternal 
H»ppinefs, obtained by the Sacrifice and Me- 
diation of Jefus Ckriji. Which lad Point, to-^ 
giether with the Dodrinc of Providence, the 
fr^ Agency of Man, and afllfting Grace, 
how much foever beypnd the Ken of Reafon, 
yet could not but be admitted by all reafon- 
able Men for certain Truths, as Handing 
upon the Authority of Perfons vjfibly com" 
miflioned and infpired by God. For what 
Conclufion of Reafon, what M^ixim in Phi- 
[pfophy is inore evident, than ,^h«rt: Mifi 
fptakin^ by the immediate Infpiration of God^ 
Ff ^ cannot 


[ 440 1 

{intfoi liet i And is not the Dlviiw Inl|>ira-^ 
tion of the /^poftics to be inferrM vwith a«,j| 
much Certainty, from the mighty Woniders -^j 
they performed, as the Divine Creation of.] 
the World from the ftupendous Beauty, Or- 
der, and Magnificence of the Univerfe ? Eve--? 
ry Efteft mult have a Caufe ; and a fuper-'lJ 
natural EETcft muft have a Caufe fuperior co>j 
Nature ; sand this Caufe can be nb other than 'I 
God; There may be, indeed, and we are' 
arithorifed by the Scriptures to fay there arcjlij 
many Brings both good and bad, endued' 
with Faculties and Powers exceeding thofe»j 
of Man*. But thefe Beings are, dobbriefsi 
limited is wdl as Man in the- Exercife oJIj 
ftbf^J Powers, and iiibjeftfed to Lawrf prei 
fCl^d »o . them by their great CreatOTTj 
whiob) J« trfpeft to them, may be likewifd 
lijtted'lihc Laws of Nature. From whence it 
^Howffi that .they cannot break in upon o* 
difturb the Laws of any other byftem ofj 
GVeitures, though inferior to them, withv'j 
out rbe jPermifTion of the Univerfal King ;< 
vho, nsverthelefs, may certainly make- Uf« 
of them as Inftruments to bring about his 
---..4 2 wife 


wiftf Parpofes, even beyond the Bounds of 
their proper Spheitas.- I Thus, in cftablifli-i; 
ing Chriftiamt/, he thought fit to employ 
the Miniftration not of Angeis on1y», bufi'v 
of Dasmons, though in iuch a manner as to , 
leave no Doubt of their Subje<5tJon to his! 
Sovereignty. The Angels were, upon m^njr 
Occafions, ailifting to CJbriJi and his Ape^T 
fUcaii-.-the Damons trembled, and fled jaitf 
their Cooimand ; and both of them, thofe 
by their. Subferviency, and thefe by the Ser- 
vility of their Obedience, manifeftly declared 
CbriJ^ and his Apoftles to be veiled with 
an Authority and Power derived from their 
Lord and King. So that Mankind, feeing 
the Apoftles poflefled of a Power plainly 
paramount to the Powers of all other known 
Beings, whether Angels or Daemons, could 
no more queftion their being coramiflioned 
and infpired by God, than doubt whether 
the magnificent Frame of the Univerfcj 
"with all the various Natures belonging to 
it, was the Workmanfhip of his > Almiglity 
liands. - t 







nfttonous ■ 

ailtt*lfibteEffea:s,toCauf<s the furcftMtthod 
of inwfttgating tnd proving fome Kinds of 
TVuths, I have endeavoured to dernonftrate' 
(if 1 may fpeak withouft Offence^ ihe Cfer-^ 
taihty of the Refurredion of Jgfu€ Chrift^ ilp-ij 
oA 'wltich the whole Syftem of Chriftianity de-''^ 
pends< For if ■Cbrrft is not rifen from the Dead^'l 
then as St. PW fays, vain is the Hope of' 
Chriftians, and the I^reaching of tfat Apoftlca: 
vain J nay, we may go ftill farther, and pro^ 
ncnihce vain the Prtlaching of Obr0 himlbihl 
Fol*^ad he not rii'en, and proved himfelf byl 
many infallible Tokens to have rifen from «he: 
Dead, tlie Apoftles and Difciples couid Layt 
had no rnducement to believe in liiin, thatdsg^ 
to acknowledge him for the Me^jah* (he ^jh; 
ansiflttd of God ; on the contrary, they mMHc" 
have caken him for an Impoftbr, wd unde^ij 
that Perfuafion could nevei* have become] 
Preachers of the Gofpei, without becoraing^j 
Enthuliaib or Impoilors; in eiUier of which. 
Charadltrs it is impoilible they ihould havc^ 
fucceeded, to the Degree which we are xUTured" 
^]LkaJ ¥ » '■ they 

[ 443-1 

they did, conHdc 

; their natural Infufficien- 
cy, the ftrong Oppofiriori of ail the World 
to the Dodrines of Chriftianity, and their ow»*p 
high Pretenfions to miraculous Powers, aboutlf, 
■which they could neither have been deceived- 
themfelves, nor have deceived others. Sup^fj 
pofing therefore that Qsrift did not rife froo^ 
the Dead, it is certain, according to all humarj,- 
Probability, there could never have been anjfq 
fuch Thing at ail as Chriftianity, or ic m)}fi^;j 
have been (lifled foon after its Birth. But wO 
know on the contrary, that Chriftianity hath 
already exifted above fevcn hundred Year»|»y| 
This is a Pad about which there is noDifpute,?f 
but Chriftians and Infidels difagree in account^^ 
ing for this Fadt. Chriftians affirm their Re<T 
ligion to be of divine Original, and to Iiave 
grown up and prevailed under the miraculous 
Afliftancc and Protedion of God i and .thiitu 
they not only affirna, and offer to prove by the.; 
fame kind of Evidence, by which all remote*: 
Fads are proved, but think it may very fairly'T 
be inferred from the wonderRil Circumftances. 
oF its Growth and Increafe,' and its prefent) 
Exiftence. Infidels^ on the other hand,, afiere: 


[ 4H 1 
ClirifHanlty to be an Impofture, invented ant 
carried -on by* Men. In the MainceiftftHce' ol 
which A flfcrtioh,' their great Argiimchtagaini 
the Credibifity of the Refiiffeaiidrr, and'th^ 
ochcr. miraculous Proofs of the divine Ol-igin^l 
of the Gofpel, founded in their being miracu- 
lous, that is, out of the ordinary Courfe ol 
Nature, will be of no Fervice to them, fince 
they will ftill find a Miracle in their Way,! 
namely, the amazing Birth, Growth, and In- 
creafe of Chriftianity. Which Fails, though 
they fhould not be aHetq Account for thenij 
they cannot however deny. In order therefor* 
to deftroy the Evidence drawn. from them bj 
Chriftians, jhey mufl prove them not to hav< 
been miraculous, by (hewing Apw they coulc 
have been efFedred in the natural Courfe of hu- 
man Affairs, by fuch weak Inftrumenrs 
Cbriji and his Apoftles (caking them to 
what they are pleafcd to call them, Enthufiafti 
or Impoftors) and by fuch Means as they were 
poiTcffed of and employed. But tliis 1 ima- 
gine to be as much above the Capacity of the 
greateft Philofophers to ihew, as it is to prove 
the loffibility of executing the proud Boaflc^d 



C 445 ] 
Archimedes (even granting his Fbftulatum) of 
moving aiid wielding the Globe ^Ofthii Earthy 
by Machines of human Inventiooy and com- 
pofed of fuch MateriaJs only, as Nature fiir- 
nilhe$ for the ordinary Ufe of Man^. 

.1 .It 


■ ■':•■ 

■ •; ■.'• -' •• •• i- 

'J' '.'^V *■<■' : 

... , < • •- 

t I ^ f 

- I ■ ) ; ■ • 

.}.■.■'•' ' -f 

. . N , '.' ■ ' ' . ' 

».■».-,■. r- 1- ■■ 

■ ^'- :■■■ •:■ ■;. 

.- :zy. I' .-' ■' '■ . • ■■ 

■ •...•■ ii. 



irtsdr*^* ♦'' fAu'S^'^i 

*»^»«-« f>m**r« 










r. TV/f ^i^^ MAGDALENE fhew> 
I. XVX ^'"O'T^ ^3rt of the 20th Chapter 1 

St. jfobn, J./^,^not to have fetnatiy Virtoh 1 
Angels before (he ran W P<?/«', and C( 
qucntly not X& have been of the Number 
■were there told by an Angel that Jeftt! vri 
rifen. zdfyy Not to have beea with them 
he'r Return to the Sepulchre with Petrr zM 
John. 3^^, Angels not always vifible. 
i.p. 5. Shewing from Part of the 14th Cha 
of St. Luke, i^.That the Report there men^ 
tioned was not made hyMary Magdiiltne\nQ\ 
zdl/i By the other Mary and Satome ; and tha 
therefore, gi.^. There were fcvcral Repot 
made at different Times to the Apollles,an^ 
by different Women. This Report probably 
made by Joanna and thote with her. Ptta 
went twice to the Sepulchre. 
3 p. 9. Obfervations on the 28 th Chapter of 
St. Matth. and the 1 6th Chap, of St. A&ri, 
under three Heads, i/,Of fuch Circumftances 
4s are related byoneof thefcEvangcUftSj-buc 


C 447 ]• 

omitted by the other. 2if/y, Offuch as they botli 
agree in. ^dly. Of iuch as fcem to cJafli and 
difagree with each otlicr. i/, Circumftances 
mentioned by St.Matthcio only : Earthquake, 
Defcentof iheAngel, his rolling away theStone, 
£ttijig upon ic,Tcrror of the Soldiers, Appear- 
ances of Chrifi to the Women, and to the E^le- 
ven in GalUlee. Flight of the Soldiers into the 
City; Tranfa<Sions between them and the High 
Priefts. Circumftances mentioned only by St. 
Mark: Of the Women's having brought Apices; 
Of. Salome's being one of thoie Women y Of 

1 their eqtering into the Sepulchre, and feeing 
there a young Man fitting on the right Side, 

. cloatiied in a long wliite Garment ; Of theAp- 

-pearance oiCbrJjl to Mary Magdalene ^ to the 
two Difeiplcs who were going into theCountry, 

. -and to the Eleven as they {at at Meat. 
§, 4. p.. 35. Circumftances in which the two E- 
vangclifts agree. \Ji, The Women*s going to 
she Sepuichre early in the Morning on the firft 
Day of the Week. 2. Their being told by an 
Angel tliat C&ri^ was rifen, i^c. 3. The Tcr- 

- ror and Flight of the Women. 
f»5.p.4i. Circumftances which feem to clafii and 
dUkgrec with each other. Different Accounts 

. of the Time, when the Women came to the Se- 
pulchre, adjuftcd. Date of the Refurreftion 
fettled. Remarks on the Word U^toi. Signi- 

■ fies not only early-, but over-early^ before the 
appointed Tune. Importance of tliie Words, 
weni to fee she Sepulchre in St. Matthew ^ and 
if^bo fhali roll aiDoy the Stone for us in St. 

jjjj, -X' Mark, 

[ 448 1 
M^k^ pointed out. Womerl -knew nothir 
ot the Guard at the SepulchpeJ 
§i 6. p. 49. Obfcrvations on the firfl? Part of tl 
24th Chapter ot St. Luke. Particulars in Saii 
Xttjfe^'s Account differing tromtliofcrotthe Oth< 
EvangclilU noted. St. Peter fhewn to hi\ 
gone twice to the -^epulchre ; the firll Time-u| 
on Mary Magdakne^s firft Report, the fecon^ 
Time upon the Report ot Joanna and thofe wij 
her. Peter preient when Joanna made her R< 
port. Realon tor St. L.uke*s n:iming Afary Ma^ 
dalene and the other Alary ^ with Joanna ant 
ihofe with her, who told thefe Things to tl' 
Apoftles. Reports of theWomen farther fhev 
to have been made feparately, and at differs 
Times. Women went to the Sepulchre atdij 
fcrcnt Times. Reafons for their going at di 
lerent Times. Conduft o{ Joanna^ &c. con! 
§. 7. p. 66. Obfervatlons on the latter Part of ti 

/24th Chapter jof St. Lake. Connexion of 
. Chapter pointed out. 

§. S. p. 74. Appearances o'i Cbrifi to the Wom< 

fhewn to be diftinft and ditFerent, and to refi 

_. to two different and diftind: Evertts, vH.aX 

friAfccnfion ofChrift, and his meeting his Difc 

.T?ples in Galiice. Recapitulation of the fevt 

iu Points proved, in the foregoing Section. 1/ 

♦o That the Women came at different Tinlcs,' ar 

indifferentCompaniestothe Sepulchre. 2.TI1S 

tliere were feveral diilinfi: Appearances ot Al 

gels. 3. That the Angelswere not always vil 


I 449 1 

ble, but appeared and dilappeared as diey 
ttiosjght proper. 4- I'hat tiiele leveral Fads 

- were reported tothe Apoftles atdiffcrentTimes, 
and by diff.Tent Women. 5. That there were 
two diftin^t Appearances oi Chriji to the Wo- 
luen. 6. X hat St. p£ier was twice at the Se- 
pulchre. Obftrvations ofa very emin-nt and 
judicious Perfon on Mary Magdalene's being 
named hy all the Ev.mgelifts, (sfc, 

^ 9. />. 84. The feveral Incidents in the Hiftory 
of the Rtfurredion, fct down in the Order iji 

■ which they appear to have arifcn. 

§* 10. p. 97. Two Reflexions upon the Order of 
the IcVcral Incidents. Three Points propofed 
to be confidered. iji. The Manner (L e. the 
Method and Order) in which the Proofs oft he 
Refurrt^lion arifing Irom the foregoing loci- 
fients were laid before the ApoIUes. 2. The 
Matter (i. e. the Fad:s) of which thofe Proofs 

-iKtMififti^ ^.Tlie Characters and Difpofirions of 

:,ifhe Apoftles ; and firft of the Charaftcrs and 

Dilpofitions of the Apoftles at the Time, of 

..f(;M/*s Death. , . ■ « ^ 

§. 1 1, p. 103. The Method and Order in which 

the feveral Proofs of the Refurredion were kid 

before the Apoftles. Mary Magdalene's firft 

Report. Report of 'Joanna and thofe with her. 

, J\/Lary Magd&letie''s fecond Report. Report of 

the oihtv Mary and Salome. Appearance of 

Chrijt to the iwo' Dilciples at Emmaus. Ap- 

; pcarance of Cbriji to the Eleven as they fat at 

• iMeatii^ Diff-'.ence in the Accounts oi Mark 

^rand Luke reconciled. Appearance of Ctriji to 


t 45<5 1 

* ■*??. ^ Fh i mti* Appearance of Cbrifi c» the T>lf- 
c. , xiin Galilte. C^r;/?' s ACccnfion. Deiceni 
ot the l^loty Ghoft « Ptmecofte. MiricJ 

. wrought by tbe Apoftlet, &c. t 

§i'i2. ^. 1^^$^ The Fafts which conftitun; tfc 
Evidervcc of the Reiurrcflioo conftdered 
ihree Heads, i/. The Appearances of tV 
gcis. ^dty^ 1 he Appcanrances of Chr^ to 
Women, q^i/f. The Appearances of Gfrr^ 
die Difciples and Apoftlcs, Four Appearaoc 
of Angds : i/?. To the Roman SoJdiers.i 
To the other MffTjr and iStf/^m^. 3. ToA/^ 
Magdalene. 4. To Joanna, Of tbe Apfea 
ancc to the Roman Soldiers. Propriety 
Neceility of this Appearance. Tbe MiracJ 
loufiids of It, no Obje&ion to its Ci 

§. 13. p. i44. The Appearance of the Ang;^ 
the Women ( \ji. To the other Mary and 
lomei 2, To Mary M^daiau\ And» g, 
Joanna and chofe with her) examined, 
Ihewn to have been real, and not the Effc^s 
a diftemper*d Imagination, or the Operatioi 
of Artifice and Fraud. 

§. 14.^- 1 62. Of the Appearances of C^ni^ to tl 
Women -, the Words of Chr^^ to Mary Ma 
dalene^ Touch me mty &c. explained. Dif 
rent Bthaviour of Cbriji to hLary Magialc 
and to the other Mary and Salome account 
for. Import of the other Words fpokco 
Ctrifi to Mary Magdakney via But go to 
Brethren, and fay to them, I afund to my 
//'•*-» ^c, Obfcrvations on th£ Word 

[ 451 ] 
15- p- 186. Of the Appearances of Cbrifi to 
the Apoftlcs and Dilciplcs. Appearance to the 
two Difciples at Emmatts conliacr'd. Two Ob- 
jeftions to this Appearance : ift, That thefe 
Difciples knew not J^fus during the whole 
Time of his walking, converfing, i^c. wiih 
them. 2. That after they arc laid to have 
known him, lie vanifhed fo fudd; nly out of 
their Sight, that they had not Time fu3jcienC 
to fatisiy their Doubts, i^c, anfwcred. Prov'd 
that theie Difciples liad fiiificient Reafoa to be 
aflured that it was Cbriji himfeif who appeared 
Co them, 
f . 16. p. 196. Of the Appearances of Chrijl to 

the Eleven and thofe with them, To Saint 

Thomas. The Proofs arifing from Uie Appear- 
I ances of Cbriji to the Women and Apoftlcs, or 
" referred to by Chrifi himfeif, propofed to be 
confidcr'd under four Heads, i. The Tefti- 
mony of thofe who had feen him after he was 
rifen. 2. The Evidence of their own Senfes. 

3. The Accomplilhment of the Words he had 
fpoken to them, while he was yet with them. 

4. The Fulfilling of all the Things which were 
written in the Law of Mofes, and in the Pro- 
phets, and in the Pfahm^ concerning him. For 
the firft, fee the two preceding Sections. The 
fccond, viz. the Evidences of their own Settles 
confidered. Two Objections : i. ThatC&rj^*s 
Body was a fpiritual Body, and confequcntly 
incapable of being handk-J, ^c. 2. That the 
Apoftks were impofed upon by Senfations mi- 
raculoufly imprinted on their Minds, examined 
and anfwcr'd. 

G g f 17. 

[ 452 ] 
17. />• 2.11. Of the AccorapUfhinent of the 
Prediftions of Cbrifi relating to his Sufferings, 
Death, and Refurreiflion. Several Particulars of 
the Paflion and Death, iSc. of Chriji^ and the 
Prophecies correfponding to tlicm produced. 
Proof of the Death of Cbrift from the i^th 
Chapter of John, 33d and g+th Verfes, wz. 
One of the Soldiers pierced his Side, aad'forth- 
with came thereout Blood and Water. Proofs 
of Cbriji*s rifing precilcly on the Tliird Day. 
Cavils on the Phrafes tbr(( Dajs and ibrec 
Nights, and after ibree Days^ SLnfwtrUl. 

. iS. p, 229. Of the Prophecies and Typcs^i^c. 
contained in the Law of Mofes. the Prophets, 
and the Pfalms, concerning the Sufferings, 
Death and Rcfurreftion of Cbrijiy and their 
j^ccomplifhinent. Propliccy from the thiad 
^Chapter of Genefis^ 15th Verfe. Quotation 
i"rom SbcrUck\i Difcourfes on Prophecy, £irr,^ 
Prophecy from the 53d Chapter .of j//!b»^?/ 

^Prophecies from the other i'rophets and tl 
Pfalms. Particular Accomplifhment oftl 
Prophecy from Ifaiab, relating to the Burial 

^^briji. Prophecy of David concerning th< 

'. . Refurreilion of Cbriji, cited by St. P«/cr, froi 
J£is n, 25, ^c. Of Types and Figurcsai. 

j. 1 9. p. 268. Refie6tions on the Evidence arifif 
fiom the exaft Accomplilhmcnt of the Pre 
phccies of Mofes, ^c, and the Predi<^Hoos 
^ Cbrifi himfeif relating to his Sufferings, DeatI 

... and Refurredjon. .1 

%o.p, 2S2. Of the Departure of the Dlfci|:ite 
XTitoGaUlee after the Refurreilion of Cbrift^ anc 

_ 9|;^|heir^I^^tW^ .^P- Jerufulm ac the teaft of 
^, ' ^ s Penticofi. 

t 453 ] 
PiHtecofi. Reafons for their going into Gali- 
iei, and for their returning to Jerufalem, af- 
figned. All the Appearances of Cbnji to his 
-. Difcipks, from that to St. 'Thomas related by 
I 'St. John^ to the Time of his Afcenfion, were 
' probably in Galilee. All the latter Part of the 
: 24tli Chapter of St. Luke^ from the 49th Verfe 
to the End, relates to what happened at Jeru- ' 
falem after the Return of the Apoftles from 
^. 21. p. 294. Short Recapitulation of the Proofs 
of the Rcfurredion. Reafons of Cbriji^s ap-\ 
pearing fo often to his Apoftles, ^c. Cavils 
about Cbriji's not appearing to the Jews^ and 
, forbidding Mary Magdalene to touch him, an- 

^. 22. p. 305. Reafons for our believing at this 
r Time that Chnjl rofe from the Dead. Thefe 
. are Two: i. The Teftimony of the Apo^lcs 
contained in the Scriptures : 2. The Exiftence 
of the Chriilian Religion. Proofs of the Ge- 
nuincnefs of the Scriptures: 1. The concur- 
rent Attcftation of all the earlicft Writers of 
tiaeChurch : 2. The Probability of the Apoftles 
n (-.having left in Writing the Evidences and Doc- 
trines of Chriftianity : 3. The Improbability of 
. any Books forged in the Names of the Apoftles 
tfcaping Detection, Probability of the Apoftles 
having left in Writing the Evidences andDoc- 
,.|ii£rines of Chriftianity, moved thereto either by 
the Holy Spirit, or by theirCare for the Church, 
?M'Pt by theSollicitation of their Children. in Cif'r/)?, 
who not having in themfelves the Words of 
, et-enial Life, muft natur-ally have endeavoured 
;^ G g 2 to 

tdt)bta*n tVr" f^rtJ thcApoftlestfiemfclTlfsIn" 
Wjriting, brhaVe"6?rote Aefrr down fVorhtliei 
Mouths^" or'linder their Infptrflioh -, or laftlyi- 
h^ve tranlcribcd frdni their o\^n Memories whil 
they could recolkft of the Preaching of til 
Apoftles. Many-Writings of this Kind extw 
wjfien ^t. Luke/^rote his GofpcP: All loft, fu' 
p^itded by thic Writings of tht- Apdfl:lcs,'WhiG^ 
rrfuH have been preferred to all the oth 
\\^ritings , and prefervcd, £s?r. with the xw 
mbft Care irid'Fidclity. ^ -'^'- - 

23. p. iigy Improbability of any Boo^s'fbrgi 
in thelNaffles of t!>e Apoftl'es' efcaping Detec- 
tion., Irnportaace of diflirrguirtiing • becweef 
^he ti'ue Writings" of the Apoftles and otheirt* 
fbxged in tlitif Names. Means of knowing t 
genuine from forged Writiilgs. No Mdu 
can be afllghed for any Chriflinn'"s being gwilt 
^fuchi f drgcry. Books acknowledged 'b; 
tihe earlieft Chriftians to have beenWilteft'fc^ 
the Apo6:les, ought to be admitwd for fkich, 
5f;ppturci come down to uS pure' rind uhc' 
jrjjipted, in all Matters of Conlequence. ' 'iq 

f .''z^r- p. 3$$' Arguments for giving Credit % 
the Teftimony of the Apoftles and Evangelifts. 
XwoQualities requifiteto eftablifh the Credit o 
a Witnefs, viz. a perfeft Khowlcdge of th 
Fa^ iie gives Teftimony to, and a fair and 
vinblemifhcd Charafter : Both foond in the A 
pqlllcs. t^haradters of the Apoftles collcdfed 
from thtirLlvefUndDo^^trines; ■ 

§. £5. p^ ^41. Internal Marks of the Vcracit/of 
the ficrcd Writers, obfervablein the Scriptures. 
DilVgrccmcnt, a. Proof that they did not write 



[ 455 1 
irhCoHcert. Agreenienc, an Eyid«>ce tliat tliey 
wrote afttrtlie Truth. Their aairiing the Timc^V 
the Scene of Adtion, the Aftors, and the Wit-- 
nclles of moll oftheFafts related by thenriL* 
andiher Mark of their Veracity j Inftance, the " 
Story of guarding the Sepulchre. Their At-*^ 
tachment to the Truth manifcfted by their t^" 
lating Things of themfelvcs and their Brcthreit 
tending to their own Diftionour. What they^ 
fay of the low Condition, Infirmities, Suffer*. 
ings, and Death of Cbrijl^ a mod unexcejj^ 
tionable Evidenceof their Veracity. Their Ift- 
tegrity farther itluftrated by fomc RededtiQas 
on tlie Stile of the Scriptures. ,'/" 

Z^.p ^6^. External Proofs of the Veracity ajfiitf 
I^fpiration of the facrcd WriterSi two j One 
Negative, the other Pofitive. Negative Procif^ 
That no one Faft related by them hath evei» 
been difproved or falfified. That thcDifciplcs 
ftole the Body of jfefuSy the only Fa6t fet lip 
in Oppofition to the many Fadts, which coti- 
ftitute the Evidence of the Refurreftion, nevc^ 
proved, nor fo much as inquired into. Mi- 
rflcles performed by ChriJ^ and his Apoftldt . 
never difproved : Admitted by Cei/its and the ^ 

.If. p. 370. Politivc Proof of the Veracity 
of the (acred Writers, founded in the exaft 
Accompiifliiment of the Prophecies recorded 

: by them. Prophecy of the different (Reli- 
gious) State of the Jsws and Gentiles, and its 

• Accompliibment, 

"■ r.':i i-iw 

li^iz iiSil i. 






I 45(' ] 

y iB. p. 2^2. Prophecies ccxiccfning the JDe« 

■ 'ftruftion of the City and Temple o( 'Jeru/a- 
Im^ the Wifery anid Difperfipa of the J^ws, 
and the Duration of tl)eir|Calamity, wit 
their Accomplifiiments., Obfervatiops on thi 
foregoing Prophecies. 

§. 19. p. 395. Obfervations on the Prophecies re- 
lating to the prefent State of the JewSy tran- 
dated from the French. 

§• 3P'P' 4^0* Argument from the prefent Exift 
cnce of Chriftianity confidered. Nature 
this Argument. Difficulties Chriftianity had 6 
ftruggle with at its firft Appearance and for 
long time after, the Supcrftition, Prejudice 
and Vices of the whole World. Short View 
the State of the World under the firft Ages 
Chriftianity. Supcrftition and Prejudices of t 
j€W5. Religion, Cuftom, Law, Pohcy, Pridi 
Intcrcft, Vice, and Philofophy, united 
whole Heathen World againft Chriftiani 
Reprefentanon of the different and uncqualC 
dition of tlie firft Preachers of the Gofpel, a 
their Oppofefs. The latter peffciTed of all l 
'Wifdom,;Power and Authority of the W^orld 
the termer ignorant, contemptiblr, and weak 
yet triunriphed f>vcr thtir Oppofers, by the I 
terpofitioh an.d Afllftance of God, nianifefted 
the Refurredion of Cbriji, and the miraculo 
Powers conferred on mt firft Chriftians. Apo 
ftles enabled by thole miraculous Powers to 
prove that Cbriji was rifen from the Dead 
that he was the MeJftah——'-t\\2X. the Gentiles 
were to be admitted into the Kingdom of 



'•Cod-— that there was but pne (5od^-^md 
' one JVfediatof j toother with tic feveral ix:- 
; t^Jliarpoftrines of Chriftianity. ,' God incfta- 
' blifhihg Chriftianity, thought fit t9 eippioy 

theMiniftfation of Daemons as TSfell as Angels, 

and why. Conclufioh. ' 


d? tirtfc 



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